Saturday, October 31, 2015

Exploring Virginia’s Mountain Gaps, Starting with "Fridley's Gap" by The Steel Wheels

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:29)
 
Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-29-15.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 2, 2015.

MUSIC – ~9 sec

This week, we feature a Harrisonburg, Va.-based band’s tune named for a kind of landscape feature that helps define Virginia’s high-elevation areas.  Have a listen for about 30 sec.

MUSIC  - ~30 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “Fridley’s Gap,” by The Steel Wheels, from a live recording of a performance in Colorado in November 2013.  Fridley’s, or Fridley, Gap is a notch in Fourth Mountain, one of a several ridges forming Massanutten Mountain in Rockingham County, Virginia.  Fridley Gap is the channel for headwaters of Mountain Run, one of many small streams that drain water from the west side of the Massanutten down to the North Fork Shenandoah River, while streams on the other side of the Massanutten carry water to the South Fork Shenandoah River.  Virginia has dozens of mountain gaps formed over millions of years by geologic forces and water erosion.  They range from the relatively small—like Fridley—to the very large—like Cumberland Gap and the James River Gorge.  Some gaps get their names from an area’s human history—like Fridley, Brock’s, and Buford’s gaps—while other gaps were named for local land, water, or biological features, such as Flat Ridge Gap, Dry Run Gap, or Bearwallow Gap.

Providing openings for water, wildlife, and humans, gaps and their varied names help us explore, describe, and understand Virginia’s mountainous regions.

Thanks to The Steel Wheels for permission to use this week’s music, and let close with a few more seconds of Fridley’s Gap.

MUSIC - ~ 10 sec

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Fridley’s Gap,” by The Steel Wheels, was from the band’s show at 4th & Main Grille in Wray, Colorado, recorded Nov. 9, 2013; copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission.  More information on The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Harrisonburg-Rockingham County Historical Society/Heritage Museum, “Rockingham County Virginia Tombstones by Cemetery/Arrey-Fridley Family Cemetery,” online at http://www.heritagecenter.com/cemeteries/cem/cem12.html.

Hiking Upward, “Fridley Gap-Shenandoah, Virginia,” online at http://www.hikingupward.com/GWNF/FridleyGap/.

James Madison University Special Collections, “Oral history interview [sound recording] / Mutt Fox ; interviewed by John Coleman and Melvin Armentrout,” accessed online at http://www.worldcat.org/title/oral-history-interview/oclc/45659617.

TopoQuest, “Elkin West, Virginia, Topographic Map, online at https://www.topoquest.com/map-detail.php?usgs_cell_id=69994.
           
Virginia Foundation for the Humanities/African American Historic Sites Database, “Zenda Community,” online at http://www.aahistoricsitesva.org/items/show/495#.VjI3HysXfBE.

Virginia Trail Guide, “Fridley Gap Loop, 4/28/13,” online at http://virginiatrailguide.com/2013/04/28/fridley-gap-loop/.

Wikipedia, “List of Gaps in Virginia,” online at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gaps_of_Virginia.

For More Information about Virginia Watersheds and Rivers

“Rivers and Watersheds: The Geology of Virginia,” College of William and Mary, online at http://web.wm.edu/geology/virginia/rivers/rivers.html.  This site has maps of the major river basins in Virginia and provides detailed information on the geology of Virginia’s physiographic provinces and of the James and the Potomac-Shenandoah river basins.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “USGS Water Science School,” online at http://water.usgs.gov/edu/.
“Virginia’s Major Watersheds,” Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml.

“Water Resources of Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey, online at http://va.water.usgs.gov/.  This is the home page for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Virginia Water Science Center. 

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).   For episodes on water-related geographic features in Virginia, please see the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” category.

The following episodes also have geographic connections (including, in some cases, the role of water-related geographic features in Virginia’s history).
Walk across Virginia | EP110 – 5/14/12
Cumberland Gap | EP126 – 9/3/12
Exploration of the Chesapeake Bay | EP140 – 12/10/12
Water and settlement of Roanoke | EP181 – 9/30/13
Water and the Revolutionary War | EP103 – 3/19/12; EP168 – 7/1/13
Water origins of Virginia Declaration signers | EP220 – 6/30/14
Geography | EP265 - 5/11/15
Forks in Waterways | EP284 – 10/2/15

SOLS INFORMATION FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.2 – physical geography of Virginia past and present.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – water features important to the early history of the United States.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface.
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.6 - past and present trends in human migration and cultural interaction as influenced by social, economic, political, and environmental factors.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Friday, October 23, 2015

Episode 287 (10-26-15): Water and the Human Skeleton

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:02)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-28-16.



TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 26, 2015.

MUSIC – 13 sec

This Halloween week, the opening organ from the song “Halloween,” by John McCutcheon on his 1998 album “Autumnsongs,” sets a spooky stage for connecting water to a vital human organ system that’s also one of Halloween’s most familiar spectres.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds to a mystery sound, and see if you can guess that organ system.  And here’s a hint: we couldn’t move at all, much less rattle around, without this remarkable framework.

SOUNDS - 13 sec

If you guessed the skeleton, you’re right!  The rattling you heard was from a plastic Halloween skeleton, accompanied by some creepy laughter from a talking skull decoration.  Since ancient times, human skeletons have been used in art, literature, and culture as symbols of danger, death, and dryness. In fact, the word “skeleton” comes from a Greek word meaning “dried up.”  But there’s nothing dead nor dry about a functioning human skeleton.  Our 206 bones contain active cells and tissues that continually take in and release calcium and phosphorus while producing new bone, blood, and fat cells.  Bone is about 25 to 30 percent water by weight, with the rest consisting of minerals plus connective protein fibers called collagen.  Water is the main component of cartilage, the flexible tissue between bones, in our nose and ears, and in the disks between the vertebrae in our spine.  In those spinal disks, cartilage fibers enclose a watery core, and this water’s resistance to being compressed helps vertebrae move while not being pushed together.

Ligaments, tendons, and other structures join bones and cartilage in the complex, multi-purpose skeletal system.  Aided by water, the skeleton supports the body; protects internal organs; produces cells; and provides levers, pivot points, and cushions to the forces acting on and within the body.  All that, and it’s a classic Halloween image!

Thanks to John McCutcheon and Appalseed Productions for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “Halloween.”

MUSIC – 11 sec

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

"Halloween” and “Four Seasons: Autumn Songs” (1998, Rounder Records, Cambridge, Mass.), are copyright by John McCutcheon/Appalsongs and Si Kahn/Joe Hill Music, used with permission of Appalseed Productions. More information about John McCutcheon is available from his Web site, http://www.folkmusic.com/.

Thanks to Gabe Minnich of Virginia Tech University Relations and to Jane Hellman for their assistance with this week’s sounds.


PHOTO


A skeleton theme was popular for Halloween items at this Blacksburg, Va., store in October 2015.

SOURCES

Used in Audio and For More Information about the Human Skeleton

Joseph Hammill and Kathleen M. Knutzen, Biomechanical Basis of Human Movement—Third Edition, Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., and Philadelphia, Penn., 2009.

Harry N. Herkowitz et al., The Spine—Fourth Edition (Vol. I), W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1999 [at VT: RD 533 S68 1999]

W. Henry Hollinshead and Cornelius Rosse, Textbook of Anatomy—Fourth Edition, Harper and Row Publishers, Inc., 1985 [at VT: QM 23.2 H57 1985].

Evelyn Kelly, The Skeletal System, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 2004. [At VT: QM 101 K44 2004.]

On Examples of Use of the Human Skeleton in Popular Culture
“The Skeleton Dance,” 1929, by Walt Disney; see “The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts,” online at http://www.disneyshorts.org/shorts.aspx?shortID=102.

Lakeland Community College, “The Skull and Skeleton in Art: Folk Art to Pop Culture,” https://www.facebook.com/events/1633218576961435/.

Katherine McIntire, “Skeleton Stories and Myths through History,” 10/23/14, Top Ten Reviews Web site, online at http://human-skeleton-model-review.toptenreviews.com/skeleton-stories-and-myths-through-history.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

The following episodes also cover water in biological processes:
EP93 – 12/19/11: “Pack of Neurons,” by Bob Gramann.
EP210 – 4/21/14: In “Woman Named Whiskey” by the Floorboards, What’s the Solution?”
EP236 – 10/20/14: Water’s at the Heart of Blood.

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).

SOLS INFORMATION FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 - behavioral and physical adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.

Life Science Course
LS.3 – cellular organization, including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

Biology Course
BIO.4 – life functions in different organism groups, including human health, anatomy, and body systems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

 

Friday, October 16, 2015

Episode 286 (10-19-15): Meet Loudoun County's Goose Creek, Accompanied by The Steel Wheels


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:23)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-16-15.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 19, 2015.

SOUND – 4 sec

This week, the sounds of Canada Geese set the stage for an introduction to Goose Creek, a Potomac River tributary that’s long been a defining geographic feature for Loudoun County, Virginia. We start with about 40 seconds of music performed in Goose Creek territory, by the Harrisonburg, Va.-based band The Steel Wheels.

MUSIC - 42 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “Riverside,” performed by The Steel Wheels during their October 14, 2010, “Live at Goose Creek” concert, produced by Goose Creek Music and held near the Loudoun County town of Purcellville. The concert spot is close to North Fork Goose Creek, a few miles from that stream’s confluence with mainstem Goose Creek. Also nearby is the village of Lincoln, originally called “Goose Creek” and the site of a Quaker settlement that was believed to be involved in the Underground Railroad passage of escaping slaves seeking to cross the Potomac River on their way to Pennsylvania. That history offered “Live at Goose Creek” listeners an interesting local meaning for “Riverside’s” lyrics about “shackles on my feet.”

Beyond Civil War connections, Goose Creek’s had many roles: it was the site of a canal in the mid-1800s that ultimately failed in competition with railroads; it’s provided the location for two water-supply reservoirs in operation since the 1960s; it’s an important wildlife and recreational resource, having become part of Virginia’s Scenic Rivers Program in 1976; and—east of Leesburg, Loudoun’s county seat—the creek has served since the earliest European settlements as something of a dividing line between different land use patterns in the county’s eastern and western sections. Like many other waterways in many other counties, Goose Creek has helped shape Loudoun County’s environment, history, economy, and culture.

Thanks to The Steel Wheels for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with part of another tune from the “Live at Goose Creek” concert: “Walk This Way For Awhile,” to recognize Goose Creek’s many roles in movement and change by water, wildlife, and people.

MUSIC - 26 sec

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Riverside” and “Walk This Way For Awhile” are both from the album “Live at Goose Creek,” recorded October 10, 2014, at Franklin Park Performing Arts Center, Purcellville, Va., and produced by Goose Creek Productions; used with permission of The Steel Wheels. The Steel Wheels have a number of songs with Virginia themes and water imagery, and a water-based bird—the Red-winged Blackbird—ends its name to the band’s annual Red Wing Roots Music Festival in Natural Chimneys State Park in Augusta County, Va. More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. More information about Goose Creek Productions is available online at http://www.goosecreekmusic.com/. More information about the Franklin Park Arts Center is available online at http://www.franklinparkartscenter.org/.

The sounds of Canada Geese were taken from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Digital Library, http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/ (for sound clips specifically, see http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/search/searchterm/%28mp3%29).


IMAGES

Goose Creek at Markham, Va., (Fauquier County), July 22, 2012. The creek’s headwaters begin along the Blue Ridge in Fauquier and Loudoun counties.

Goose Creek at Evergreen Mill Road south of Leesburg, Va. (Loudoun County), March 21, 2010. The Goose Creek Canal of the 1850s ended at the mill near this location at that time (known then as Ball’s Mill).


 
Flooding Goose Creek along U.S. Route 15 south of Leesburg, Va., (Loudoun County), May 12, 2008. Note the State Scenic River sign.


Major watersheds of Loudoun County, Virginia, showing the lower Goose Creek watershed to the creek’s confluence with the Potomac River. Map by the County of Loudoun, accessed online at http://www.loudoun.gov/index.aspx?NID=1512.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT GOOSE CREEK

On Goose Creek’s name: The Algonquin Indians called Goose Creek “Cokongoloto,” meaning “creek or stream of geese or swan.” European settlers gave the stream its current name. Other streams in Loudoun County retaining the original names include Scyolin Creek, Tuscarora Creek, and Wankopin Branch. Source: Eugene Scheel, “Indians Left the Mark in Naming Landmarks in Loudoun County,” on the History of Loudoun County Web site, online at http://www.loudounhistory.org/index.html.)

On Scenic River status: Forty-eight miles of Goose Creek—from the confluence of its north and south prongs near Linden (in Fauquier County) to its confluence with the Potomac River—are designated as a State Scenic River, first designated in 1976 and last extended in 2007. It was Virginia’s fourth designated Scenic River, preceded by the Falls of the James in 1972 and sections of the Rivanna and Staunton rivers in 1975. As of May 2015, 27 Virginia rivers or streams had one or more sections designated. Source: From the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Scenic Rivers Program,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/recreational_planning/srmain.shtml.

On settlements: Loudoun County’s first Quaker settlement was established in 1742 by Jacob Janney and was called The Quaker Settlement at Goose Creek; it was later named Lincoln in honor of the president. During its earliest European settlement, Loudoun had two basic settlement trends: one from the east by “sons of plantation owners who established large tobacco plantations in the County similar to those established by their fathers in Tidewater Virginia”; and one from the west of Quakers, Germans, Irish from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland, “...famers, merchants, tradesmen, and millers owning smaller tracts of land varying from 40 to a few hundred acres.” In the 1970s, as eastern Loudoun began to experience dense residential and commercial development, western Loudoun continued to consist primarily of small towns, rural housing, and agricultural areas. During that period, Goose Creek east of Loudoun was somewhat of a symbolic border between eastern and western Loudoun. Eventually denser development come to many of the parts of Loudoun west of Goose Creek, too. Sources: Virginia Commission on Outdoor Recreation, “Goose Creek: A Report to the Governor and General Assembly/An Element of the Virginia Outdoors Plan,” December 1975, p. 7; and personal observations by Virginia Water Radio host Alan Raflo, a Leesburg, Va., native.

On water supply: In 1961, the City of Fairfax completed construction of a water-supply reservoir on Goose Creek. A Virginia Superme Court ruling prevented Loudoun County from blocking construction. In 1972, Fairfax City completed construction of the Beaverdam Creek Reservoir, on a tributary to Goose Creek. After construction of the Goose Creek system, the Fairfax provided drinking water to customers in Loudon County and the Town of Leesburg, as well as to customers adjacent to the city boundaries. In 2014, Loudoun Water purchased the Goose Creek Reservoir, Beaverdam Creek Reservoir, and other infrastructure from Fairfax City. Source: VirginiaPlaces.org, “Drinking Water for the City of Fairfax,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/fairfaxwater.html.

SOURCES

Used in Audio

Goose Creek Music and Entertainment LLC, “Goose Creek Music announces The Steel Wheels live at the Franklin Park Performing and Visual Arts Center in Purcellville, VA, on Thursday, October 14, 2010 at 8 p.m.” (Oct. 1, 2010, news release), online at http://www.newswire.com/the-steel-wheels-at-goose-creek/63624; and main Web site at http://www.goosecreekmusic.com/.

History of Loudoun County Web site, online at http://www.loudounhistory.org/index.html; particularly “Goose Creek Canal—An Ill-fated Project,” “Indians Left the Mark in Naming Landmarks in Loudoun County;” and “Underground Railroad—Journey to Freedom was Risky for Slaves and Guides,” all by Eugene Scheel, Waterford, Va.

Leesburg Today, Loudoun Water Purchases Beaverdam, Goose Creek Reservoirs, 2/3/14.

Leesburg Today, Welcome To Loudoun: County's Growth Rate Leads State, Second In Nation, 3/27/14.

Loudoun County Government, “About Loudoun,” online at http://www.loudoun.gov/index.aspx?NID=8; and “Water and Hydrology,” online at http://www.loudoun.gov/index.aspx?NID=1363.

National Park Service, “Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail/Underground Railroad,” online (as PDF) at http://www.nps.gov/pohe/learn/historyculture/upload/PHT-Underground-Railroad-pp-1-2-2004.pdf.

Virginia Commission on Outdoor Recreation, “Goose Creek: A Report to the Governor and General Assembly/An Element of the Virginia Outdoors Plan,” December 1975.
|
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Scenic Rivers Program,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/recreational_planning/srmain.shtml. A list of the rivers is available in the PDF document at this link: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/recreational-planning/document/srlist.pdf.

VirginiaPlaces.org, “Drinking Water for the City of Fairfax,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/fairfaxwater.html.

For More Information about Goose Creek or Other Virginia Waterways or Watersheds

William E. Trout, III, Goose Creek Scenic River Atlas, Virginia Canals and Navigation Society, http://www.vacanals.org/.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Surf Your Watershed,” online at http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/locate/index.cfm. This site allows users to locate watersheds and watershed information across the United States.

U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Resources of Virginia,” online at http://va.water.usgs.gov/. This is the home page for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Virginia Water Science Center.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia’s Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

For other episodes on water-related geographic features in Virginia, please see the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” category” category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).

SOLS INFORMATION FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.2 – physical geography of Virginia past and present.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – water features important to the early history of the United States.
USI.5 – factors that shaped colonial America.World Geography Course
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.6 - past and present trends in human migration and cultural interaction as influenced by social, economic, political, and environmental factors.
WG.7 - types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.
WG.10 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes [Note to teachers: the history of the Goose Creek reservoirs provide an interesting case study in relationships among the City of Fairfax, Fairfax County, Loudoun County, and the Town of Leesburg.]

Virginia and United States History Course
VU.7 - knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era.

Government Course
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels [Note to teachers: Goose Creek as a Virginia Scenic River may be of interest here for this SOL and for GOVT. 16.]
GOVT.16 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Friday, October 9, 2015

Episode 285 (10-12-15): "Colors" by John McCutcheon Taps into an Autumn Turning Point for Trees and Water

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:29)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-9-15.
 


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 12, 2015.

MUSIC – 4 sec

This week, we repeat an episode from October 2014, featuring music about an annual turning point that inspires humans but shuts down trees.  Have a listen for about 40 seconds.

MUSIC – 40 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “Colors” by John McCutcheon on his 1998 album “Four Seasons: Autumn Songs,” from Rounder Records.  Prior to moving to Atlanta in 2006, Wisconsin native John McCutcheon was a long-time resident of Charlottesville, Virginia.  The song’s full lyrics portray a person’s growing appreciation of the variety of fall leaf colors and their power to inspire and invigorate people.  But for the trees, autumn colors and falling leaves are signs of internal changes leading to the relative inactivity of winter dormancy.  Stopped water movement is one of the key changes.  Leaf drop follows the sealing off of a leaf’s veins from the stem vessels that carried water and dissolved materials to and from the leaf during the growing season.  Left behind on winter twigs are characteristic marks called leaf scars and bundle scars marking these fluid-transfer points.  Above or beside these leaf scars are cold-resistant buds, harboring the tissues that will become next year’s leaves and colors.  Thanks to John McCutcheon and Appalseed Productions for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “Colors.”

MUSIC – 15 sec

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Colors” and “Four Seasons: Autumn Songs” are copyright by John McCutcheon/Appalsongs and Si Kahn/Joe Hill Music, used with permission of Appalseed Productions.  More information about John McCutcheon is available from his Web site, http://www.folkmusic.com/.

This week’s episode replaces Episode 234, 10-6-14.

PHOTOS
Black Gum twig showing bud above a crescent-shaped leaf scar; the leaf scar contains three white bundle scars.  Photo by John Seiler, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation; used with permission.
Sugar Maple in early stages of changing colors in Blacksburg, Va., October 5, 2014.
Twin Red Maples in full autumn color at Bissett Park in Radford, Va., October 18, 2011.
Sugar Maple in Blacksburg, Va., October 21, 2014.

SOURCES

Used in Audio

J.R. Seiler, J.W. Groninger, and J.A. Peterson, Forest Biology Textbook (compact disk), Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, Blacksburg, 2008, online at http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/forestbiology/syllabus3.htm.

“Why Leaves Change Color,” U.S. Forest Service/Northeastern Area, online at http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/pubs/leaves/leaves.shtm.

Other Sources of Information about Trees and Water

“Virginia Tech Dendrology Tools,” online at http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/tools.htm.  This Web site, part of the dendrology course by Dr. John Seiler in Virginia Tech's Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, offers identification keys and fact sheets to trees and other woody plants throughout North America.

Jacob Demmitt, “Professor's leaf peeping is down to a science,” Roanoke Times, 10/18/14.  This article discusses details of fall colors in tree leaves with John Seiler, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation.  The article is available online at http://www.roanoke.com/news/local/blacksburg/virginia-tech-professor-has-leaf-peeping-down-to-a-science/article_b3c9127b-6594-50cc-9e4c-856b007bd755.html.

Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “An Introduction to Trees in Virginia and Their Connections to Water,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, December 2011; available online from from the Virginia Water Central News Grouper, at http://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/2011/12/07/an-introduction-to-trees-in-virginia-and-their-connections-to-water/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

Other Virginia Water Radio episodes on trees include the following:
Ecological and human benefits of trees: Episode 153, 3/18/13, featuring “Grandad Planted Trees” by Bob Gramann;
Forests and forestry in the southeast: Episode 160, 5/6/13, featuring “Piney Mountains” by Bruce Molsky;
Maple trees: Episode 84, 10/17/11, featuring “Wind in the Maples/Sugartree Branch” by Timothy Seaman;
Sycamores: Episode 176, 8/26/13, featuring “Sycamore Rapids” by Timothy Seaman.

Please also see the “Plants” category at the Virginia Water Radio Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).

SOLS INFORMATION FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
K.10 – Changes in natural and human-made things over time.
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basis needs and processes of plants and animals.
2.4 - life cycles.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
4.4 – basic plant anatomy and processes.
5.5 - organism features and classification.

Life Science Course
LS.6 - ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors.
LS. 10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Friday, October 2, 2015

Episode 284 (10-5-15): Taking the Forks in Waterways "Roads," with Appreciation to Yogi Berra

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:51)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-2-15.



TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 5, 2015.

SOUND – ~ 5 seconds – Yogi Berra voice - Audio re-recording from video produced by St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame in 2009.


Yogi Berra, the great New York Yankees catcher who died on September 22, 2015, is legendary for his baseball accomplishments, his honesty and integrity, and—not least—his odd but insightful sayings known as Yogi-isms.   He’s not known for any water connections, but, nevertheless, the Yogi-ism you heard—“When you come the fork in the road, take it.”—says something about waterways.  Sound far-fetched?  Even, shall we say, out in left field?  Well, just have a listen for about 20 seconds to this line-up of forks in Virginia’s water geography.

SOUNDS  - 21 sec – Voices saying names of Virginia waterways with “fork” or “forks” in the name


Waterway forks, or the tributaries of larger waterways, are part of the system of branches that collect and channel water moving across a landscape and within a watershed.  The smallest forks—like Left Fork Coal Creek—are headwater streams that, despite their size, have important physical, chemical, and biological roles within a watershed.  The largest forks—like the North and South forks of the Shenandoah River—can be well-known, defining features of a watershed and its region.  While many land settlements have “fork” in their name because roads meet there, sometimes those roads and the settlements they serve originated with forking waterways.  For example, English explorers of the James River in the 1600s came upon the Rivanna River confluence and named the location Point of Forks; today the area is the Fluvanna County town of Columbia.  On a larger scale, during the 1700s much of the Ohio River Valley was Virginia territory, and the location known as the Forks of the Ohio was a focal point for Ohio Valley travel and industry; today that location is Pittsburgh.

Thanks to several friends in Blacksburg for lending their voices to this episode, and a special thanks to the St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame for permission to use the recording of Yogi Berra, from their 2009 video tribute upon Mr. Berra’s induction.  We close with another short excerpt from that video, in honor of Mr. Berra and the remarkable influence he had on American sports, culture, and language, relevant even to the history of waterways.

SOUND ~5 sec


For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.


AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The recording of Yogi Berra was from a video produced by the St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame on the occasion of Mr. Berra’s induction in 2009.  Thanks to
Ron Jacober, historical consultant; and Greg Maracek, president, for granting permission to use an excerpt of the video, which is available online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cDabcSfIZA.  For more information about the St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame, please see their Web site at https://www.stlouissportshalloffame.com/.

The names of Virginia waterways or locations containing the words “fork” of “forks” were recorded by Virginia Water Radio on October 1, 2015.  Thanks for colleagues at Virginia Tech for participating in these recordings.  The waterways and locations mentioned were as follows:
Clear Fork
–tributary of the Bluestone River, in Tazewell and Bland counties.
Dry Fork –
tributary of the Clinch River in Tazewell County; tributary of Banister River in Pittsylvania County (there are probably other Virginia streams named Dry Fork, too).
Forks of Buffalo – Amherst County community at the c
onfluence of North Fork and South Fork of Buffalo River.
Forks of Water –
at confluence of South Branch Potomac River and Strait Creek in Highland County.
Bassett Forks – Henry County c
ommunity where Little Reed Creek, Reed Creek, and Smith River join.

Levisa Fork – Big Sandy River tributary in southwestern Virginia.
Russell Fork – Big Sandy River tributary in southwestern Virginia.
Tug Fork – Big Sandy River tributary with headwaters in southwestern Virginia.
North Fork Shenandoah River – western Shenandoah Valley.
South Fork Roanoke River – eastern Shenandoah Valley.
Middle Fork Holston River – Washington County.
Left Fork Coal Creek –Tazewell County.


PHOTOS


Rivanna River (middle, background) confluence with the James River at Columbia (Fluvanna County), Va., June 17, 2007.

Meems Bottom covered bridge over the North Fork Shenandoah River in Shenandoah County, Va., Oct. 13, 2012.

Middle Fork Holston River in Washington County, Va., Oct. 3, 2010.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT WATER FORKS, OR TRIBUTARY WATERWAYS, IN VIRGINIA

All of Virginia’s water “forks” are tributaries of some larger stream and are part of that larger waterway’s watershed, or basin.

Three large watersheds contain, collectively, all of Virginia’s lands and waterways: the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico.  Within those large watershed, Virginia’s major river basins are as follows, according to the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/hu.shtml#rivbas).

In the Chesapeake Bay watershed
– Chesapeake Bay Coastal, James River, Potomac River, Rappahannock River, and York River.

In the Atlantic Ocean watershed
– All of the river basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, plus Albemarle Sound Coastal, Atlantic Ocean Coastal, Chowan River, Roanoke River, and Yadkin River.

In the Gulf of Mexico watershed
- Big Sandy River, Clinch-Powell Rivers, Holston River, and New River.

A DCR map showing Virginia's river basins is at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml.


SOURCES


Used in Audio
 
DeLorme Company (Yarmouth, Me.), Virginia Atlas and Gazetteer, 2000.National Baseball Hall of Fame, Yogi Berra, online at http://baseballhall.org/hof/berra-yogi.

Garson O’Toole, “Quote Investigator - When You Come to a Fork in the Road, Take It,” online at http://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/07/25/fork-road/.

St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame, “Yogi Berra,” online at https://www.stlouissportshalloffame.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7&Itemid=14.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)/National Water Information System, “Current Conditions for Virginia: Streamflow,” online at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/va/nwis/current/?type=flow.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fishing/Virginia Rivers & Streams” online at http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/fishing/waterbodies/?type=2.

Virginiaplaces.org, “River Names in Virginia,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/watersheds/3names.html.

Yogi Berra Museum and Learning Center, Little Falls, N.J., “Yogi-isms,” online at http://yogiberramuseum.org/just-for-fun/yogisms/.

For More Information about Virginia Waterways


“Divide and Confluence,” Virginia Water Central, February 2000, pp. 8-11, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316.  This is a basic introduction to watersheds and to Virginia’s main river basins.

|
“Hydrologic Unit Geography,” Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/hu.shtml.  This site provides detailed information on how watersheds are designated, plus access to interactive maps of Virginia’s watersheds.

“Rivers and Watersheds: The Geology of Virginia,” College of William and Mary, online at http://web.wm.edu/geology/virginia/rivers/rivers.html.  This site has maps of the major river basins in Virginia and provides detailed information on the geology of Virginia’s physiographic provinces and of the James and the Potomac-Shenandoah river basins.

“Surf Your Watershed,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), online at http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/locate/index.cfm.  This site allows users to locate watersheds and watershed information across the United States.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “USGS Water Science School,” online at http://water.usgs.gov/edu/.

“Virginia’s Major Watersheds,” Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml.

“Water Resources of Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey, online at http://va.water.usgs.gov/.  This is the home page for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Virginia Water Science Center.

“Watershed Roundtables,” Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterQualityInformationTMDLs/WatershedRoundtables.aspx.  This site provides access to online information about watershed groups in Virginia’s major river basins.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES
Episode 162 (5-20-13): Three Forks of Sandy, by Bobby Taylor, focuses on the three forks of the Big Sandy River, all mentioned in this week’s episode (Levisa, Russell, and Tug).

Episode 198 (1-27-14): Hydrologists Study and Sing, “Where Does the Water Go?”
focuses on the science of hydrology, the study of water locations and movements.

Another episode with a baseball player connection is Episode 149 (2-18-13): George Washington, Walter Johnson, and the Rappahannock River.

For other previous episodes on water-related geographic features in Virginia, please see the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” category” category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).


SOLS INFORMATION FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS


This episode may help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme

4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme

6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course

ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:


Virginia Studies Course
VS.2 – physical geography of Virginia past and present.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – water features important to the early history of the United States.
USI.5 – factors that shaped colonial America.
World Geography Course
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.6 - past and present trends in human migration and cultural interaction as influenced by social, economic, political, and environmental factors.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.