Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Episode 254 (2-23-15): "Sparrow," by Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand, Introduces a Big Group of Small Songsters

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:55)

Transcript, photo, and additional notes follow below.


TRANSCRIPT

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 23, 2015.

This week, we start with a tune named for a widespread kind of bird whose small size makes it a familiar symbol in human culture.

MUSIC – ~ 17 SEC

You’ve been listening to part of “Sparrow,” by Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand, from their 2004 album, “Driftage,” on Great Bear Records.  This lively music fits its namesake: songs among the many species of sparrow are lively and diverse.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to a sample from three species.
 

SOUNDS

Those were songs of the Savannah Sparrow, Seaside Sparrow, and Swamp Sparrow.  These three are among approximately 50 North American species in a family of birds that includes sparrows, juncos, longspurs, snow buntings, and towhees—collectively called the “New World sparrows.”  All have short, cone-shaped bills for feeding mostly on seeds, although insects or other animals can be a big part of their diet during breeding.  About 30 members of this group are known to occur in Virginia, either as summer breeders, winter residents, year-round residents, or seasonal migrants.  The birds actually named sparrows are typically small and brown with streaks on their back and sometimes on their breast.  As shown by the names of the three species you heard, different sparrows occupy a range of habitats, including various water-related habitats.  Identifying a particular sparrow often requires knowing its habitat, along with distinguishing among the different sparrow songs, because individual sparrows can be hard to spot, and if you do get a look, different species can look very similar.

But one kind of sparrow—one that’s not classified by scientists with the “New World” sparrows—is quite commonly seen and heard.  That’s the House Sparrow, or English Sparrow, a native of Europe and Asia that—since its introduction to North America in the 1800s—has become one of this continent’s most widespread birds.

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  And thanks also to Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Sparrow.”

MUSIC

For other water sounds and music, and for more Virginia water information, visit our Web site at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  From the Virginia Water Resources Research Center in Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

SHOW NOTES
[All Internet addresses mentioned were functional as of 2/23/15]
Sparrows at a backyard feeder in Blacksburg, Va., Feb. 27, 2015.
Savannah Sparrow near Gainesville, Fla., Jan. 29, 2015.  Photo by Robert Abraham, used with permission.

Acknowledgments

“Sparrow” and “Driftage” are copyright by Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand and Great Bear Records, used with permission.  More information about Andrew and Noah and their bands is available online at
http://andrewandnoah.com/.

The sounds of the Savannah Sparrow, Seaside Sparrow, and Swamp Sparrow were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at http://www.langelliott.com/ and the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Sources for this Episode
A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America
, by Chandler S. Robbins et al., St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001.

A Guide to the Identification and Natural History of the Sparrows of the United States and Canada
, by James D. Rising with illustrations by David D. Beadle, Academic  Press, San Diego, Calif., 1996.

“All About Birds,” Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, online at
http://www.allaboutbirds.org; and “Birds of North America Online” Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Sparrow
, by Kim Todd, Reakton Books, London, England, 2012.  (This book focuses on the House Sparrow, but it includes information on many other sparrow species, as well.  It discusses many examples of sparrows in art, literature, history, and legend.)

Virginia Department of Game and Inland “Fish and Wildlife Information Service” Web page at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  (Users can search for individual species or groups by common name or scientific name.)

Other Sources of Information about Birds in Virginia

Life in the Chesapeake Bay
, by Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006.

The Virginia Society of Ornithology is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.  The Society’s Web site is www.virginiabirds.net.

E-bird Web site at
http://ebird.org/content/ebird/, maintained by the Cornell Lab and the Audubon Society.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

SOLs Information for Virginia Teachers
This episode may help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):
Earth Resources: 4.9;
Living Systems: 4.4, 5.5;
Life Science: LS.4;
Biology: BIO.6, BIO.8.

Related Virginia Water Radio Episodes

For other episodes on birds, please see the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html), and scroll down to “Birds.”

Monday, February 16, 2015

Episode 253 (2-16-15): “Cold World,” by Kat Mills, for Winter Preparedness and Safety

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:46)

Transcript, photos, and additional notes follow below.


TRANSCRIPT

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 16, 2015.

With a major snowstorm entering the Commonwealth on February 16, we repeat our December 1, 2014, episode on winter preparedness and safety.
|
This week, a song by a Blacksburg, Va., musician helps remind us that winter’s challenges are inevitably approaching.  Have a listen for about 25 seconds.

MUSIC


You’ve been listening to part of “Cold World,” by Kat Mills, on the 2003 CD “Long Time,” from Sweetcut Music.  The song describes a cold time emotionally, and it’s hard to know when that’s coming.  But there’s no question that by early December in Virginia, cold weather’s coming, so November 30 to December 6 is Virginia’s Winter Preparedness Week.  Here are some tips from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management for staying safe from winter’s hazardous roads, low temperatures, power outages, and fire hazards.

*Try to get to travel destinations before the weather gets bad.  You can get road conditions by phoning 511.

*Have a battery-powered or hand-cranked radio, especially one with a NOAA Weather Radio band.


*Get fireplaces, wood stoves, and chimneys inspected and cleaned.


*Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on every floor level, and check the batteries regularly.


*If you use space heaters, plug them into wall outlets, not into extension cords; keep heaters at least three feet from other objects; and don’t leave heaters unattended.


*Generators, camp stoves, and charcoal-burning devices should be used outdoors only.


*Use flashlights, not candles, during power outages.


*And make a family emergency plan that includes a meeting place if your family can’t return home; an out-of-town emergency contact; and at least a three-day emergency supply of food, water, and medications.


More information on preparing for severe weather and other emergencies is available online at ReadyVirginia.gov.


Thanks to Kat Mills for permission to use this week’s music, and good luck keeping warm and safe during every winter’s “cold world.”


MUSIC - ~18 sec


For other water sounds and music, and for more Virginia water information, visit our Web site at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  From the Virginia Water Resources Research Center in Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

SHOW NOTES
[All Internet addresses mentioned were functional as of 2/16/15]


Under a winter-storm warning: Virginia Tech campus around noon on February 16, 2015, during the early part of a major Virginia snowstorm.

The makings of a white Thanksgiving and an early-season winter weather advisory: snow falling in Blacksburg, Va., in the early morning of November 26, 2014.
Acknowledgments
This episode repeats Episode 242 (12-1-14).


“Cold World” and “Long Time” are copyright by Kat Mills and Sweetcut Music, used with permission.  More information about Kat Mills is available online at http://www.sweetcut.com/kat/ and at https://www.facebook.com/katmillsmusic.


Sources for this Episode

“Governor McAuliffe urges Virginians to get ready for winter weather; November 30-December 6 is Winter Preparedness Week in Virginia,” Virginia Governor’s Office News Release, 11/25/14, online at https://governor.virginia.gov/newsroom/newsarticle?articleId=7339. (Please see the bottom of this post for details from that message.)

Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Winter Preparedness Week,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/winter/winter-preparedness-week.  The VDEM’’s “Ready Virginia” program, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/ReadyVirginia, is the Commonwealth’s central source of information on preparedness for all types of emergencies and disasters.

Virginia Department of Transportation information on traffic and road conditions, online at www.511Virginia.org.

Sources for More Information on Winter Weather Preparedness

American Red Cross, “Winter Storm Preparedness, at http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/winter-storm; or contact your local Red Cross chapter.


Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Winter Storms and Extreme Cold,” online at http://www.ready.gov/winter-weather.


NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) “Weather Radio All Hazards” network, online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/.

U.S. Department of Energy, “Portable Heaters,” online at http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/portable-heaters.


Selected Virginia News and Events Relevant to Weather


Virginia Water Central News Grouper posts on weather are available online at http://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/category/weather/.  The posts—mostly about Virginia, but in some cases about other areas—cover primarily severe-weather events, precipitation and drought, and tropical storms during the June-November Atlantic tropical storm season.

Related Virginia Water Radio Episodes


For other episodes on weather and emergency preparedness, please see the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html), and scroll down to “Weather/Natural Disasters.”

SOLs Information for Virginia Teachers


This episode may help with Science Standards of Learning (SOLs) for Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Earth Resources in grade 4, for Matter in grade 6, and in Earth Science (particularly ES.13).


Detailed Winter Preparedness and Safety Information from Commonwealth of Virginia


The suggestions below are from Va. Gov. Terry McAuliffe’s Nov. 25, 2014, news release, “Governor McAuliffe urges Virginians to get ready for winter weather; November 30-December 6 is Winter Preparedness Week in Virginia,” 11/25/14).

Preparedness before Winter Storms
 

Get a kit.
Basic emergency supplies include the following:
*Three days’ food that doesn’t need refrigeration or electricity to prepare it;
*Three days’ water (a gallon per person per day);
*A battery-powered and/or hand-crank radio with extra batteries;
*A first-aid kit, supply of prescription medications, blankets and warm clothing, and supplies for special members of your household and pet items;
*For businesses and offices, some bottles of water and food bars and a radio to hear local information about whether or not it is safe to travel (officials may advise staying in place until it is safe to travel);
*A power pack for recharging cell phones and other mobile devices.


Make a plan.

*Decide who your out-of-town emergency contact will be;
*Plan where to meet up with family members if you can’t return home;
*Get an emergency plan worksheet at www.ReadyVirginia.gov or on the new Ready Virginia app (see below).

Stay informed
before, during, and after a winter storm.
*Listen to local media for information and instructions from emergency officials;
*Be aware of winter storm watches and warnings and road conditions;
*Get where you need to go before the weather gets bad;
*Get road condition information 24/7 by calling 511 or checking www.511Virginia.org.

Download the Ready Virginia app.

This emergency planning tool for mobile devices features the following:
*Location-specific weather watches and warnings issued by the National Weather Service;
*Disaster news from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management;
*A customizable family emergency plan that can be easily shared;
*A checklist for gathering emergency supplies;
*Contact information for local emergency managers;
*Links to register for local emergency alerts.

Safety during Winter Storms

At Home

*Keep space heaters at least three feet from other objects and never leave space heaters unattended;
*Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on each level of your home, check the batteries monthly, and replace batteries a year at the same time every year;
*In case of power outages, use flashlights instead of candles for light;
*Use generators only outdoors and only in well-ventilated areas;
*Make sure outdoor pets have adequate shelter, unfrozen water, and food;
*If your household includes someone with special needs (has a disability, requires electricity to operate home medical equipment, needs to go to dialysis, etc.), call your local emergency manager to let them know where you live and what you will need during an emergency.

Driving

*Driving is most dangerous when the temperature is at or under 32° F;
*If the road is wet, patches of ice are possible, especially on bridges and curves;
*Avoid using cruise control in winter weather conditions;
*Keep a safe distance of at least five seconds behind other vehicles and trucks that are plowing the road, don't pass a snowplow or spreader unless it is absolutely necessary, and treat these as you would emergency response vehicles;
*Keep an emergency kit in your car.

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Episode 252 (2-9-15): Voting on Water in the 2015 Virginia General Assembly

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:48)

Transcript, photo, and additional notes follow below.


TRANSCRIPT


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 9, 2015.

SOUND – TICKING CLOCK – 4 SEC

|
As of February 10, the clock was ticking down on the time left for the Virginia General Assembly to consider over 2700 bills in the 2015 session.  Over 100 of those bills concern water resources directly, or may affect water indirectly through energy, transportation, or other land uses.  Now here’s YOUR chance to imagine being a member of the General Assembly and consider how you’d vote on some water-related bills, recognizing, of course, that you’d have much more information if you actually were a member.  I’ll give you brief descriptions of four water-related bills, then a couple of seconds to decide if you would vote for the idea or against it.  Then I’ll sound a bell [BELL SOUND] if the bill was still alive as of February 10; or a buzzer [BUZZER SOUND] if it had essentially failed.  Ready?


Senate Bill 1317 would establish the Virginia Shoreline Resiliency Fund as a low-interest loan program to help residents and businesses that are subject to repeated flooding.  [SOUND - CLOCK THEN BELL] The bill passed the Senate and moved to the House.


House Bill 2205 also would establish a fund to help with repeated flooding, but, in addition, it would also require Virginia to participate in the carbon dioxide emissions cap-and-trade program known as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. [SOUND – CLOCK THEN BUZZER]  The bill failed in the House Commerce and Labor Committee.


Senate Bill 1338 would repeal Virginia’s current law that allows natural gas companies to do surveying work on private property without landowner permission.  [SOUND – CLOCK THEN BUZZER]  The bill failed in the Senate Commerce and Labor Committee.


Senate Bill 1103 would allow localities to ban disposable plastic shopping bags, with certain exceptions, in order to reduce litter and waterway pollution.  [SOUND - CLOCK THEN BELL]  The bill passed the Senate and moved to the House.


Obviously, this short game can’t capture the scope of the General Assembly’s potential impact on a subject as complicated, connected, and vital as water.  But the online Virginia Legislative Information System provides details on these and all General Assembly bills, and part of every Assembly member’s job is to help their constituents be informed and express opinions about legislation.  The 2015 General Assembly is scheduled to adjourn on February 28, so the clock’s also ticking down on Virginia citizens chances to influence this year’s bills.


Thanks to Soundbible.com for making the ticking clock sound available for public use.


For other water sounds and music, and for more Virginia water information, visit our Web site at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  From the Virginia Water Resources Research Center in Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.


SHOW NOTES 
[All Internet addresses mentioned were functional as of 2/10/15]


Screen-shot from live-streaming video of the Virginia House of Delegates floor session on February 10, 2015, accessed online at http://virginia-house.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3.  Live-streaming video of Virginia Senate floor sessions is available online at http://virginia-senate.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3.

Acknowledgments
The ticking clock sound was recorded by Kevin GC and made available (10/25/10 upload) online at the Soundbible.com Web site, http://soundbible.com/1580-Ticking-Clock.html, for public use under the Creative Commons “Public Domain” dedication.  For more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see http://creativecommons.org/.


Thanks to Eli Archer, a Virginia Tech junior in Geography, for his assistance in choosing bills to highlight in this episode.


Sources
Legislative Information System (LIS) Web site, http://leg1.state.va.us/; for session statistics (number of bills introduced, passed, failed, etc.): http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?151+oth+STA.



General Assembly notebook: Natural gas pipeline bills die in committee, Lynchburg News & Advance, as published by Roanoke Times, 2/9/15.No cap and trade for Virginia; Dominion gets way on energy, [Newport News] Daily Press, 2/4/15.



For More Information on the Virginia General Assembly
General Assembly Web site
, http://virginiageneralassembly.gov/: this site offers several useful features, including member lists, session calendars, links to the live video of floor sessions, and information on legislative processes.


Virginia Legislative Information System, at http://leg1.state.va.us/: online location for following the legislation of General Assembly sessions.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper
posts on the Virginia General Assembly: online at http://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=General+Assembly.  For 2015, see particularly this post: Water in the 2015 Virginia General Assembly – Compilation of News Articles on Bills Related to Water Resources.


Virginia Water Resources Research Center’s “Virginia Water Legislation” page, online at http://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/virginia-water-legislation/: inventories of water-related bills in the current and previous sessions of the General Assembly.

To express an opinion on legislation: Citizens can contact their members of the House or Senate.  You can find your representatives and their contact information by using the online “Who’s My Legislator” service, available at http://whosmy.virginiageneralassembly.gov/, or you can find members’ contact information at these links:

House: http://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/members/members.php;

Senate: http://apps.lis.virginia.gov/sfb1/Senate/TelephoneList.aspx.

SOLs Information for Virginia Teachers

This episode may help with the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) listed below.  Information about Virginia SOLs is available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/index.shtml.


2010 Science SOLs
Grade 6 (particularly 6.7, 6.9)
Life Science (particularly LS.4)
Earth Science (particularly ES.6 and ES.10)

2008 Social Studies
SOLs
Civics and Economics (particularly CE.1, CE.7, and CE.9)
World Geography (particularly WG.7)
Virginia and United States Government (particularly GOV.1, GOV.8, GOV.9, and GOV.16)

Other Virginia Water Radio Episodes on the Virginia General Assembly
Episode 143, 1/7/13
– Music for the Past and Present of the Virginia General Assembly.


Episode 147, 2/4/13
– Committees Guide the Flow of Bills in the Virginia General Assembly.

Episode 196, 1/13/14
– The Virginia General Assembly on its 396th Opening Day, January 8, 2014.


Episode 247, 1/5/15 – January Means State Budget Time in the Virginia General Assembly.


For a subject index to all previous Virginia Water Radio episodes, please see this link: http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html.

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Episode 251 (2-2-15): A Musical Tour of Rivers and Watersheds

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:48)

Transcript, photos, and additional notes follow below.


TRANSCRIPT

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 2, 2015.This week, we feature a musical mystery.  Have a listen for about 50 seconds to short excerpts of music about five rivers, and see if you know what all five have in common, but how two of them differ from the others.

MUSIC

If you guessed that all of the rivers are connected to Virginia, you’re right!  You heard parts of “Sandy Boys,” by Sara Grey; “On the Banks of New River,” by the Whitetop Mountain Band; “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” by Bobby Horton; “Rappahannock Running Free,” by Bob Gramann; and “James River Blues,” by Old Crow Medicine Show.  The Big Sandy, New, Potomac, Rappahannock, and James are all part of Virginia’s rich, complex, and historic system of waterways.  But in two cases—the Big Sandy and the Potomac—the river itself isn’t actually in Virginia; instead, part of Virginia’s land is in each river’s watershed.  Every river and stream has its own watershed, or drainage area—that is, the area of land that drains to that river or stream.  The watersheds of larger rivers, covering hundreds or thousands of square miles, are sometimes called river basins.  River basins, in turn, are in the watersheds of even bigger rivers, coastal bays or other estuaries, or the oceans.

Now here’s a Virginia geography challenge for you to answer: what three large watersheds collectively contain all of Virginia’s land? [SEE BELOW IN SHOW NOTES FOR ANSWER]

Thanks to all of the artists mentioned for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with another short musical segment, this time by Timothy Seaman, for one of Virginia’s most famous rivers, whose basin we usually call the Shenandoah Valley.

 

MUSIC (~20 SEC)

For other water sounds and music, and for more Virginia water information, visit our Web site at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  From the Virginia Water Resources Research Center in Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

SHOW NOTES

[All Internet addresses mentioned were functional as of 2/3/15]


Virginia’s major river basins or river watersheds, as used by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.  Map accessed online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml, 2/3/15.

Acknowledgments
“Sandy Boys,” by Sara Grey, is from the 2009 album “Sandy Boys,” copyright by Sara Grey and Fellside Records, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 177 (9/12/13).  More information about Sara Grey is available online at http://www.saragrey.net/.


“On the Banks of New River,” by Whitetop Mountain Band, is from the 2008 album, “Bull Plus 10%,” copyright Whitetop Mountain Band and Arhoolie Records, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 109 (5/7/12).  More information about Whitetop Mountain Band is available online at http://whitetopmountainband.tripod.com/index.html.

“All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” by Bobby Horton, is from the 1985 album “Homespun Songs of the C.S.A., Vol. 1,” copyright by Bobby Horton, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 101 (3/5/12).  More information about Bobby Horton is available online at http://bobbyhorton.com/.

“Rappahannock Running Free,” by Bob Gramann, is from the 2008 album, “Mostly Live,” copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 71 (7/11/11).  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at http://www.bobgramann.com/.

“James River Blues,” by Old Crow Medicine Show, is from the 2006 album “Big Iron World,” copyright Nettwork Records, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 166 (6/17/13).  More information about Old Crow Medicine Show is available online at http://www.crowmedicine.com/.


The “Shenandoah” excerpt, performed by Timothy Seaman and Paulette Murphy, was from the start of “Hazel River,” on the 1997 album “Here on this Ridge,” copyright Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 130 (10/1/12).  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://www.timothyseaman.com/.
 

Answer to Audio Challenge and Additional Information
The three large watersheds containing, collectively, all of Virginia’s lands are the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico.

Virginia’s major river basins, as identified by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/hu.shtml#rivbas) are as follows (please also see map above):


In the Chesapeake Bay watershed
– Chesapeake Bay Coastal, James River, Potomac River, Rappahannock River, and York River.

In the Atlantic Ocean watershed
– All of the river basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, plus Albemarle Sound Coastal, Atlantic Ocean Coastal, Chowan River, Roanoke River, and Yadkin River.

In the Gulf of Mexico watershed - Big Sandy River, Clinch-Powell Rivers, Holston River, and New River.

Sources of Information about Virginia Watersheds and Major Rivers

“Divide and Confluence,” Virginia Water Central, February 2000, pp. 8-11, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49316.  This is a basic introduction to watersheds and to Virginia’s main river basins.

“Hydrologic Unit Geography,” Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/hu.shtml.  This site provides detailed information on how watersheds are designated, plus access to interactive maps of Virginia’s watersheds.


“Rivers and Watersheds: The Geology of Virginia,” College of William and Mary, online at http://web.wm.edu/geology/virginia/rivers/rivers.html.  This site has maps of the major river basins in Virginia and provides detailed information on the geology of Virginia’s physiographic provinces and of the James and the Potomac-Shenandoah river basins.


“Surf Your Watershed,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), online at http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/locate/index.cfm.  This site allows users to locate watersheds and watershed information across the United States.

“Virginia’s Major Watersheds,” Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_and_water/wsheds.shtml.


“Water Resources of Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey, online at http://va.water.usgs.gov/.  This is the home page for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Virginia Water Science Center.

“Watershed Roundtables,” Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterQualityInformationTMDLs/WatershedRoundtables.aspx.  This site provides access to online information about watershed groups in Virginia’s major river basins.


SOLs Information for Virginia's Teachers
This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):
K-5 Earth Resources (4.9);

K-5 Living Systems (6.7);

Life Science (LS.9);

Earth Science (ES.8).


The episode may help with following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

K-5 Geography (2.5)
;
Virginia Studies (VS.2)
;
United States History to 1865 (USI.2, USI.8)
;
United States History 1865 to the Present (USII.2)
;
World Geography (WG.2, WG.7).


Some Related Virginia Water Radio Episodes on Virginia Watersheds and Major Rivers
(Please click on the hyperlinked episode number/date to access individual episodes)

Big Sandy River | EP177 – 9/2/13

Blue Ridge creating watersheds | EP209 – 4/14/14

Exploration of the Chesapeake Bay and tributary rivers | EP140 – 12/10/12

Chesapeake Bay Restoration | EP115 – 6/18/12

James River and the Batteau Festival | EP166 – 6/17/13

New River | EP109 – 5/7/12

Ohio River Basin rivers | EP108 – 4/30/12

Rappahannock River | EP89 – 11/21/11, EP245-12/22/14
Rappahannock River Dam Removal | EP71 – 7/11/11

River bluffs | EP173 – 8/5/13

Shenandoah River | EP130 – 10/1/12
Three forks of the Big Sandy River | EP162 – 5/20/13

Watersheds | EP156 – 4/8/13


For a subject index to all previous Virginia Water Radio episodes, please see this link: http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html.