Tuesday, October 19, 2021

Episode 599 (10-18-21): A Day to Weigh Water's Worth

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:00).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-15-21.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 18, 2021.

SOUND – ~8 sec 

This week, those abrupt stops to the sounds of the Roanoke River, Gray Tree Frogs, and a household water faucet set the stage for an episode marking the observance of “Imagine a Day without Water,” to be held this year on October 21.  We start with some music designed to help you do such imagining.  Have a listen for about 40 seconds.

MUSIC  - ~42 sec – instrumental 

You’ve been listening to “Flow Stopper,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  Besides flowing rivers, calling frogs, and household faucets, almost any aspect of life could be affected by a lack of water, including the biological structures and functions that make life possible.  Increasing the awareness of water uses and needs is a goal of the “Imagine a Day Without Water” campaign.  According to the event’s Web site, the effort is, quote, “a national education campaign that brings together diverse stakeholders to highlight how water is essential, invaluable, and in need of investment,” unquote.  The event is part of the “Value of Water Campaign,” focused on water infrastructure needs.  These campaigns are coordinated by the US Water Alliance, a non-profit organization made up of people from water utilities, government, business, other non-profits, communities, and research establishments.

Worldwide, billions of people don’t have to imagine lacking good water.  According to the United Nations, as of 2019 over 2 billion people lacked access to safely managed drinking water, and over 4 billion people lacked access to safely managed sanitation.

In the United States, the American Society of Civil Engineers’ water infrastructure “Report Card” for 2021 estimated over $1 trillion needed through 2029 for drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater, with $434 billion of that not yet funded. 

And in Virginia, the Department of Environmental Quality’s 2020 “Water Resources Report” identified several water challenges, including maintaining groundwater availability over the next 50 years; coordinating water planning among localities; gauging the impact of unpermitted water withdrawals; understanding stream water quality and ecology; and investing in water-resources personnel, science, and education.

Water is fundamental for energy, commerce, industry, agriculture, aquatic and terrestrial life, and human biology.  Imagining a day without water—and learning about where water’s lacking—can help us envision and work toward well-watered future days.

Thanks to Torrin Hallett for composing this week’s music for Virginia Water Radio, and we close with another listen to the last 10 seconds of “Flow Stopper.”

MUSIC  - 10 sec – instrumental

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The sounds at the beginning of this episode, all recorded by Virginia Water Radio, are as follows:
Roanoke River on from the Roanoke River Greenway between Franklin Road and Smith Park in Roanoke, Va., December 6, 2020;
Gray Tree Frogs at Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., July 8, 2016;
Household water faucet in a Blacksburg, Va., residence, November 17, 2013.

“Flow Stopper” is copyright 2021 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.
“A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween.
“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.
“Chesapeake Bay Ballad” – used in Episode 537, 8-10-20, on conditions in the Chesapeake Bay.
“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic.
“Geese Piece” – used most recently in Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird.
“Ice Dance” – used in Episode 556, 12-21-20, on how organisms survive freezing temperatures.
“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards.
“New Year’s Water” – used in Episode 349, 1-2-17, on the New Year.
“Rain Refrain” – used most recently Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.
“Runoff” – in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle-school students calling out stormwater-related water words.
“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.
“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.
“Tundra Swan Song
– used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.
“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey. 

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

“Imagine a Day Without Water” campaign logo, accessed online at  https://imagineadaywithoutwater.org/resources.

 
Roanoke River, looking upstream from the Roanoke River Greenway between Franklin Road and Smith Park in Roanoke, Va., December 6, 2020.  This is the location where the river sound heard in this Virginia Water Radio episode was recorded.

SOURCES

Used For Audio

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), “2021 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” online at https://infrastructurereportcard.org/. 

United Nations, “Global Issues/Water,” online at https://www.un.org/en/global-issues/water.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “Water Use Data for Virginia,” online at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/va/nwis/water_use/.

US Water Alliance, online at http://uswateralliance.org/.

Value of Water Campaign, online at http://thevalueofwater.org/. 

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Status of Virginia’s Water Resources: A Report on Virginia’s Water Resources Management Activities,” October 2020, online (as a PDF) at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/home/showpublisheddocument/2119/637432838113030000.  The section on”Water Resource Challenges and Priorities” starts of page 27.

Value of Water Campaign, “Imagine a Day Without Water,” online at https://imagineadaywithoutwater.org/; this site is the source of the quote used in this episode’s audio. 

World Health Organization (WHO), “Drinking Water,” June 14, 2019, online at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water.

For More Information on Current Water Infrastructure Needs and Funds

PBS NewsHour, “How the infrastructure bill delivers on clean water—and how it falls short,” August 4, 2021 (7 min./2 sec. video, with online transcript).

U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Biden-Harris Administration Invests $272 Million to Improve Rural Water Infrastructure for 270,000 People Living in Rural Communities Across the Country,” October 14, 2021, News Release.

Virginia Governor’s Office, “Governor Northam Announces Virginia to Reduce Water Pollution, Increase Access to Clean Water,” July 27, 2021, News Release.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” and “Water Quality, Waste Management, and Water/Wastewater Treatment” subject categories.

Following are links to some previous episodes with information on water uses or needs.

Episode 122, 8-6-12 – on worldwide water needs.
Episode 372, 6-12-17
– on water infrastructure needs, including information from the American Society of Civil Engineers’ “Report Card for America’s Infrastructure” for 2017.
Episode 592, 6-15-20
– on Virginia’s biennial water-quality assessment in 2020. 

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.

2020 Music SOLs 

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2018 Science SOLs

Grades K-3 plus 5: Matter
K.4 – Water is important in our daily lives and has properties,

Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems
3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.
4.7 – The ocean environment.

Grades K-5: Earth Resources
K.11 – Humans use resources.
1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; and that human actions can affect the availability of natural resources.
3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.
4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.
5.9 – Conservation of energy resources is important.

Grade 6
6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.
6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.
6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment.

Life Science
LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science
ES.6 – Resource use is complex.
ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.

Biology
BIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life, including that water chemistry has an influence on life processes.
BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems, including that natural events and human activities influence local and global ecosystems and may affect the flora and fauna of Virginia. 

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-3 Economics Theme
2.8 – Natural, human, and capital resources.
3.8 – Understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – Government at the national level.
CE.7 – Government at the state level.
CE.8 – Government at the local level.
CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.4 – Types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.
WG.18 – Cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – Role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15
– on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15
– on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16
– on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16
– on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18
– on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18
– on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18
– on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18
– on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19
– on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.
Episode 524, 5-11-20
– on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school.
Episode 531, 6-29-20
– on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade.
Episode 539, 8-24-20
– on basic numbers and facts about Virginia’s water resources, for 4th and 6th grade.

Tuesday, October 12, 2021

Episode 598 (10-11-21): The Flu and Water

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:02).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-8-21.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 25, 2021.  This revised episode from November 2017 is part of a series this fall of episodes on water connections to the human body and human biology.

We start with a public health mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds, and see if you can guess what seasonal, precautionary procedure is taking place.  And here’s a hint: thinking feverishly could influence your answer.

SOUNDS and VOICES - ~36 sec

“Any problems with any vaccines before?”
“No.”
“Feeling OK today?  No fever or anything like that?”

“No.”
“And no allergies to foods or medications that you’re aware of?”

“No.” 
“So, you know, a little bit of arm soreness; that’s probably the most of it.  Redness, irritation.   Might be kind of tired for a day or so, or even a low-grade fever or a headache is possible and normal.  If that were to happen, whatever you take for a headache is fine.  Any questions about anything?”

“No.”

“All right.” …

“All right, leave that bandage on for about 10 minutes or so, and take it off anytime you remember after that.  And here’s your copy for your records.  Thanks.”
“Thank you.”

“Have a good day.”


If you guessed, a flu shot, you’re right!  You heard an influenza vaccination being given in October 2017 at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.  Flu season arrives every year with colder weather, bringing the potential to cause fever, body aches, and other symptoms, some quite serious or even fatal.  The flu affects millions of people in the United States each year, and health agencies like U.S. Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention and the Virginia Department of Health encourage vaccination for everyone older than six months, with some exceptions.

But what does the flu have to do with water?  Consider these three connections.

First, drinking plenty of fluids is a commonly prescribed treatment for flu sufferers in order to help prevent dehydration resulting from increased body temperature and other responses to the viral infection.  Infants, children, and the elderly are particularly at risk for dehydration.

Second, the flu virus is transmitted between humans by respiratory droplets, and researchers have found that transmission is affected by air temperature and humidity. Specifically, transmission occurs more easily in cold, dry air, such as is typically found during fall and winter in temperate areas like Virginia.

Third, waterfowl and shorebirds are among the various kinds of birds that harbor avian flu viruses, and water contaminated with aquatic birds’ waste can potentially harbor avian flu for some time.  Understanding the factors related to the occurrence and transmission of avian viruses—including the role of contaminated water—is important in monitoring avian flu and its potential to spread to other birds, mammals, or humans.

Flu season is upon us, and the CDC recommends getting a flu vaccine by the end of October.  So if you hear this…

VOICE - ~3 sec – “Are you here for a flu shot?”

…now you’ll have not only a health connection for the flu, but some hydrological ones, too.

Thanks to staff of Kroger Pharmacy and Hokie Wellness for lending their voices to this episode.

We close with some music for, or rather, against the flu.  Here’s about 30 seconds of “Shots,” written by Wilson Stern and performed in a 2014, flu-shot-promoting video by the University of Florida’s Student Health Care Center.

MUSIC - ~28 sec

Lyrics:
“Last year less than half the population got their flu shot.  Why you wanna be stuck at home with a fever when you could be making this party hot?”
“I heard that shot made you ill.”
“Naw, son, that news ain’t for real.  It tells your body what the virus looks like, so it knows how to deal”
“Why you tellin’ me this?  I got my flu shot last year.”
“This virus mutates constantly, we got new strains here.”

“Shots, shots, shots, shots….

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 393, 11-6-17, which has been archived.

The influenza vaccination heard in this episode was performed October 24, 2017, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, by staff of Kroger Pharmacies, assisted by staff from Virginia Tech’s Hokie Wellness program.  Virginia Water Radio thanks those staff people for their willingness to be recorded.

The audio excerpt of “Shots,” copyright by Wilson Stern, was taken from the 2014 University of Florida Student Health Care Center video “Flu Shots,” copyright by the University of Florida; used with permission of Wilson Stern and the University of Florida’s Division of Media Properties.  The 2 min./4 sec. video is available online at http://shcc.ufl.edu/services/primary-care/flu/flu-shots-music-video-lyrics/.   More information about Wilson Stern and the group Hail! Cassius Neptune is available online at https://www.reverbnation.com/hailcassiusneptune.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Colorized, negative-stained transmission electron microscopic image of influenza virus particles, known as virions.   Public domain photo taken in 1973 by Dr. F. A. Murphy, accessed from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Image Library, online at https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=10072.

Illustration of influenza infection, from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Images of Influenza Viruses,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/freeresources/graphics/images.htm.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection weekly map of flu activity, as of 10/2/21.  Map accessed online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/usmap.htm, 10/11/21.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention chart of work to develop the annual flu virus vaccine, with data for 2020-21.   Image accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/freeresources/graphics/infographics.htm.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT TYPES AND NAMES OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES

The following information is quoted from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), “Types of Influenza Viruses,” November 18, 2019, online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/types.htm.

“There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D.   Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease (known as the flu season) almost every winter in the United States.  Influenza A viruses are the only influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., global epidemics of flu disease.  A pandemic can occur when a new and very different influenza A virus emerges that both infects people and has the ability to spread efficiently between people.  Influenza type C infections generally cause mild illness and are not thought to cause human flu epidemics.  Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.

”Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N).  There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes (H1 through H18 and N1 through N11 respectively).  …Current sub-types of influenza A viruses that routinely circulate in people include: A (H1N1) and A (H3N2).  In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged to cause illness in people. …

“Currently circulating influenza A(H1N1) viruses are related to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus that emerged in the spring of 2009 and caused a flu pandemic ( see CDC 2009 H1N1 Flu website for more information).  This virus, scientifically called the ‘A(H1N1)pdm09 virus,’ and more generally called ‘2009 H1N1,’ has continued to circulate seasonally since then.  These H1N1 viruses have undergone relatively small genetic changes and changes to their antigenic properties (i.e., the properties of the virus that affect immunity) over time.

“Of all the influenza viruses that routinely circulate and cause illness in people, influenza A(H3N2) viruses tend to change more rapidly, both genetically and antigenically. …

“Influenza B viruses are not divided into subtypes, but instead are further classified into two lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. …Influenza B viruses generally change more slowly in terms of their genetic and antigenic properties than influenza A viruses, especially influenza A(H3N2) viruses.  Influenza surveillance data from recent years shows co-circulation of influenza B viruses from both lineages in the United States and around the world.  However, the proportion of influenza B viruses from each lineage that circulate can vary by geographic location.

“CDC follows an internationally accepted naming convention for influenza viruses.  This convention was accepted by WHO [World Health Organization] in 1979 and published in February 1980 in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58(4):585-591 (1980) (see A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO Memorandum[854 KB, 7 pages]).  The approach uses the following components:
*the antigenic type (e.g., A, B, C);
*the host of origin (e.g., swine, equine, chicken, etc.; for human-origin viruses, no host of origin designation is given);
*geographical origin (e.g., Denver, Taiwan, etc.);
*strain number (e.g., 15, 7, etc.);
*year of isolation (e.g., 57, 2009, etc.);
*for influenza A viruses, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigen description in parentheses (e.g., (H1N1).

“One influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and one or two influenza B viruses (depending on the vaccine) are included in each year’s influenza vaccines.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Antonia E. Dalziel et al., “Persistence of Low Pathogenic Influenza A Virus in Water: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis,” PLOS One, 10/13/16, online at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161929. 

Anice C. Lowen and John Steel, “Roles of Humidity and Temperature in Shaping Influenza Seasonality,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 88/No. 14, July 2014, pages 7692-7695; online at http://jvi.asm.org/content/88/14/7692.full (subscription may be required for access).

Anice C. Lowen et al., “Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature,” PLOS, 10/19/07, online at http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151.

Public Library of Science, “Higher indoor humidity inactivates flu virus particles,” posted by Science Daily, 2/27/13, online at https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227183456.htm.

David Robson, The Real Reason Germs Spread in Winter, BBC Future, 10/19/15.

Jeffery K. Taugenberger and David M. Morens, “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics,” Emerging Infectious Diseases (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), Vol. 12/No. 1, January 2006, online at https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/05-0979_article.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
“Chemical Disinfectants,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/disinfection-methods/chemical.html;
“Flu Activity and Surveillance,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivitysurv.htm (includes a weekly nationwide map of flu activity);
“The Flu: Caring for Someone Sick at Home,” online (as PDF) at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/general/influenza_flu_homecare_guide.pdf;
“Flu Season,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season.htm;
“How Flu Spreads,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/spread.htm;
“Influenza (Flu),” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/index.html;
“Influenza in Animals,” online at
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/other_flu.htm (information on flu in bats, birds, dogs, swine, and other animals);
“Information on Avian Influenza,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/;
“National Influeza Vaccination Week,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/nivw/index.htm;
“Prevent Seasonal Flu,” online at
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/index.html;
“Who Should and Who Should NOT Get a Flu Vaccination,” online at
https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/whoshouldvax.htm.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Pandemic Influenza Fact Sheet for the Water Sector, 2009.

Virginia Department of Health, “Epidemiology Fact Sheets/Influenza,” September 2018, online at http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/epidemiology-fact-sheets/influenza/.

World Health Organization (WHO), “Influenza (Avian and other zoonotic),” November 13, 2018, online at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(avian-and-other-zoonotic).

For More Information about Water and the Human Body

Isabel Lorenzo et al., “The Role of Water Homeostasis in Muscle Function and Frailty: A Review,” Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 8 (August 2019, accessed online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723611/ (subscription may be required for access).

Mayo Clinic Health System, “Water: Essential to your body,” online at https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/water-essential-to-your-body.

U.S. Geological Survey, “The Water in You: Water and the Human Body,” https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/water-you-water-and-human-body?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Science” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes on connections of water to human biology.  Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in fall 2021; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. 

Overview of water’s roles in the body – Episode 592, 8-30-21.
Disease: COVID-19 – Episode 517, 3-23-20 and Episode 519, 4-6-20.
Circulatory system connections to water – Episode 593, 9-6-21.
Muscular system connections to water – Episode 596, 9-27-21,
Neurological system connections to water –
Episode 594, 9-13-21.
Skeleton system connections to water – Episode 595, 9-20-21.
Water intake and exercise – Episode 466, 4-1-19.
Water thermodynamics –
Episode 195, 1-6-14.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode’s audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.

2020 Music SOLs 

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2018 Science SOLs 

Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes
4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem.

Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems
2.7 – Weather patterns and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings.

Grade 6
6.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment, including that water is important for agriculture, power generation, and public health.

Life Science
LS.2 – All living things are composed of one or more cells that support life processes, as described by the cell theory, including that cell structure and organelles support life processes.
LS.3     – There are levels of structural organization in living things, including that similar characteristics determine the classification of organisms.

Biology
BIO.4 – Bacteria and viruses have an effect on living systems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs 

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – Government at the national level.
CE.7 – Government at the state level. 

Government Course
GOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers. 

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.
Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school.
Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade.
Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia’s water resources, for 4th and 6th grade.