Monday, April 30, 2018

Episode 418 (4-30-18): Virginia Students Call Out Their Concerns about Water


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:04).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-27-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 30, 2018.

MUSIC - ~22 sec – Start of “On a Ship” by Kat Mills

This week, we hear from some of Virginia’s stars of tomorrow who one day may be helping to navigate the ship, metaphorically speaking, of the Commonwealth and its water resources.  We drop in on a group of Virginia middle-school and high school students to see what water questions, concerns, or issues are on their mind.  At Virginia Tech on April 21, 2018, 17 students attending Kids Tech University Graduate School, conducted by Tech’s Biocomplexity Institute, participated in a conversation about water’s many connections to living and non-living things, landscapes, human activities, and even worlds beyond earth.  Then they were asked to state what water-related things interest or concern them.  Have a listen for about 45 seconds to some of their responses, with a musical undercurrent of “Driving Rain” by Chamomile and Whiskey of Nelson County, Va.

STUDENT VOICES - ~44 sec – Questions asked and issues raised
What is the most common disease from water?
How are animals affected by poor water quality?
How will natural gas pipelines affect our water?
How can we give developing countries access to clean water?
Can we change the percentage of fresh surface water, and should we?
How can we help the water crisis in Cape Town [South Africa]?
How can Salem [Va.] make their water softer?
Trash in the ocean.
Water pollution and runoff.
Predicting tropical storms.
Effect of melting ice caps.
Rising water levels.
Who has future rights to water resources?

Thanks to these students for lending their voices to this episode, and for using those voices to say what about water is on their minds, from the quality of local water systems to global water issues.  Most importantly, thanks to those students for preparing to navigate our water-based ship of a planet.  We close with af few more seconds of “On a Ship,” by Blacksburg, Va. musician Kat Mills, with Rachel Handman on violin.

MUSIC - ~29 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The voices heard in this episode were recorded on April 21, 2018, in Blacksburg, Va., at a session of Kids Tech University—Graduate School, conducted by Virginia Tech’s Biocomplexity Institute.  Virginia Water Center thanks the Biocomplexity Insitute and the students attending that day for making this episode possible.  More information about Kids Tech Univesity is available online at http://kidstechuniversity.vbi.vt.edu/; or contact Dr. Shenita Lee at educationoutreach-bi-g@vt.edu.

“On a Ship,” from the 2015 album “Silver,” is copyright by Kat Mills, used with permission. Accompanists on the song are Ida Polys, vocals; Rachel Handman, violin; and Nicholas Polys, banjo. This song was previously featured in Episode 296, 12-28-15.  More information about Kat Mills is available online at http://www.katmills.com/ at https://www.facebook.com/katmillsmusic.

“Driving Rain,” from the 2012 album “The Barn Sessions,” is copyright by Chamomile and Whiskey and by County Wide Records, used with permission of Chamomile and Whiskey.  More information about Chamomile and Whiskey is available online at http://www.chamomileandwhiskey.com/, and information about Charlottesville-based County Wide records is available online at http://countywidemusic.worldsecuresystems.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS

Scenes from the Virginia Tech Biocomplexity Institute’s Kids Tech University—Graduate School, held on April 21, 2018, in Blacksburg. Photos courtesy of Shernita Lee, used with permission.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

John Gregory Brown, “Literature and Water,” on the Web Site “H2O – The Mystery, Art, and Science of Water,” by Chris Witcombe and Sang Hwang, Sweet Briar College (Sweet Briar, Va.), online at http://witcombe.sbc.edu/water/literature.html.

Sasha Rindesbacher, “The Haunting Sounds of Water-Based Musical Instruments,” 3/26/16, online at https://www.azula.com/the-haunting-sounds-of-water-based-musical-instruments-2476358335.html.

Union of Concerned Scientists, “How it Works: Water for Electricity,” 11/9/17, online at http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/energy-water-use/water-energy-electricity-overview#.WgsEYDtrzcs.

U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/edu/.

Chris Witcombe, “Water in Art,” on the Web Site “H2O – The Mystery, Art, and Science of Water,” by Chris Witcombe and Sang Hwang, Sweet Briar College (Sweet Briar, Va.), online at http://witcombe.sbc.edu/water/art.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes featuring Virginia students:
Episode 325, 7/18/16 – on submerged aquatic plants, with Newport News Achievable Dream High School students;
Episode 363, 4/10/17 – on aquatic macroinvertebrates, with Patrick County High School students;
Episode 367, 5/8/17 – on mayflies, with Patrick County High School students;
Episode 365, 4/24/17 – on stormwater, with Christiansburg (Montgomery County) Middle School students.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels:
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade;
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade;
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school;
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, April 23, 2018

Episode 417 (4-23-18): Disposing of Medications Properly for Human and Aquatic Health


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:42).


Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-20-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 23, 2018.

This week we feature a waste-disposal mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds, and see if you can guess what’s going on in this series of sounds.   And here’s a hint: If nearby fish heard this coming from your household, they would thank you, if they could.

SOUNDS - ~15 sec

That’s the sound of unused and expired medications being disposed of without flushing them down a drain or toilet.  Proper disposal of medications helps prevent unintended drug use and keeps pharmaceuticals from reaching waterways.  If medications are flushed into the wastewater system, at least some of the chemicals in the medications may remain after wastewater treatment and be discharged to waterways, where they can potentially harm aquatic life.  So instead of flushing unused medications, look for options to return them at your community’s pharmacies or other establishments.  If return centers aren’t available and you must dispose of medications, here are the disposal steps recommended for most medications:

Put the medication in a sealable plastic bag; add cat litter, coffee grounds, or other material that make the medications less recognizable and that would deter pets and children from eating the contents; then seal the bag and put it in the trash.  And be sure to remove all identifying personal information from prescription containers.

You should also check to see whether any local ordinances prohibit disposal of medications in household trash in your area.  Note that the federal Food and Drug Administration currently recommends flushing for certain medicines that pose a particular risk from improper use, and a list of those medications is available at that agency’s “Flushing of Certain Medicines” Web site.  But that recommendation is challenged by some people, including some staff at the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, because of the potential impacts on aquatic systems.

Now here’s another option: April 28, 2018, is the next National Prescription Drug Take-back Day.  The event is coordinated by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Drug Enforcement Administration, and conducted by law-enforcement agencies nationwide, whose officers are available at designated locations to accept medications for proper disposal.  To see if a take-back event is happening near you, call your local police or sheriff’s department or visit the Justice Department’s “Prescription Drug Take-back Day” Web site, where you can search for the take-back location nearest you.

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode updates and replaces Episode 107 (4-16-12).

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGE
From the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Where and How to Dispose of Unused Medicines,” online at https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm101653.htm.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT THE WATER IMPACTS OF DRUGS AND OTHER MICROCONSTITUENTS

Following is more information about medications and other “microconstituents” in water systems, from the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Microconstiuents in the Environment,” online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/PermittingCompliance/PollutionDischargeElimination/Microconstituents.aspx.

“Studies have shown that our nation's waters contain a broad range of chemicals and compounds that can cause ecological harm.  As analytical test procedures continue to measure compounds in smaller and smaller concentrations, additional compounds are being identified in our waters.  These products include both human and veterinary drugs, antibiotics, fragrances and cosmetics, soaps, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers (compounds which are used in a wide array of plastic products ranging from plastic bottles and eye glasses to sport safety equipment).

“Most of the products and compounds that have been developed and used by people will break down into their basic constituents (parts) and end up in the air, water or soil at some point.  The term microconstituent is now being used to describe natural or man-made compounds that are detected in the environment with a potential effect on organism development and human health.

Recently pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been highlighted as contributors of microconstituents in the environment.  PPCPs are ubiquitous in our lives; millions of pharmaceuticals become wastes each year as products pass their expiration date, become unwanted, or unneeded.  Ongoing studies reveal that pharmaceuticals are escaping into the environment and that some classes can act as endocrine disruptors, which have been linked to abnormalities and impaired reproductive performance in some species.  Pharmaceutical wastes present both wastewater and solid waste management issues.

“Many microconstituents enter the water from agriculture runoff and from people through bathing, hand washing, excretion (elimination of body waste), and by intentionally disposing of medications and personal care products down the drain (sink or toilet).  Some of these products will break down and degrade, but others persist and travel through the sewer system to the waste treatment plant.  Wastewater treatment plants are typically designed to handle domestic waste, and are often not able to effectively treat all of the compounds that are in the wastewater they receive (influent).  The wastewater discharged from a treatment plant (effluent) may contain small amounts of the microconstituents, which then end up in the groundwater, rivers, lakes, and ocean.  All of these water bodies are sources we use for drinking water.

“All of us can work to reduce the amount of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other microconstituents that end up in the water.  Wastewater treatment plants are improving their technology to remove microconstituents.   We can eliminate a source of microconstituents by not disposing of unused or expired medications down the toilet or drains.

“At this time, the optimal way for individuals to get rid of unused or expired medications is to take them to a pharmaceutical collection event in the community.  Check your city or county website for announcement of these events. …Pharmaceuticals that are collected at these events will be incinerated.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

American Pharmacists Association, “Here’s How You Can Properly Dispose Of Your RX Medications,” 4/11/17, online at http://www.smarxtdisposal.net/heres-how-you-can-properly-dispose-of-your-rx-medications/.

Deborah DeBiasi, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, personal communication on federal recommendations for disposal of certain medications by flushing, 4/19/18.

U. Kahn et al., “Risks associated with the environmental release of pharmaceuticals on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ‘flush list,’” Sci. Total Environment, 12/31/17, online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28787777.

U.S. Department of Justice/Drug Enforcement Administration, “National Prescription Drug Take Back Day, online at https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_disposal/takeback/index.html; and “Controlled Substance Public Disposal Locations - Search Utility,” online at https://apps.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/pubdispsearch/spring/main?execution=e1s1.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Flusing of Certain Medicines,” online at https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/EnsuringSafeUseofMedicine/SafeDisposalofMedicines/ucm576167.htm#flush_list; and “Where and How to Dispose of Unused Medicines,” online at https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm101653.htm.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Contaminants of Emerging Concern including Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products, online at https://www.epa.gov/wqc/contaminants-emerging-concern-including-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Microconstiuents in the Environment,” online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/PermittingCompliance/PollutionDischargeElimination/Microconstituents.aspx.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Waste Management” subject category.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.6 - ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.4 – life functions (including metabolism and homeostasis) in different organism groups, including human health, anatomy, and body systems.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical anlaysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels:
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade;
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school;
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, April 16, 2018

Episode 416 (4-16-18): The Flycatching Eastern Phoebe’s Song Helps Listeners Catch Spring Fever


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:49).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-13-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 16, 2018.

This week, we feature a springtime mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds to an April 2017 recording, and see if you can guess what bird is making the two-note, buzzing song, which you’ll hear along with a repeating song from another bird.  And here’s a hint: if you have birding FE-ver, your answer may BE correct.

SOUNDS - ~17 sec

If you guessed an Eastern Phoebe, you’re right!  And if you also recognized the repeating song of a Carolina Wren, you may indeed have birding fever.  The Eastern Phoebe is one of two phoebe species known in Virginia, and it’s one of over 30 North American species in the bird family of flycatchers, known for their habit of hawking, that is, flying out from a perch to catch passing insects.

The Eastern Phoebe is a summer breeding resident in most of Virginia and a year-round resident in the southeastern corner and Eastern Shore.  It’s found in woodlands, often near water sources.  Its nest of mud, moss, grass, and leaves typically is found on rock outcrops or on various human structures, like building eaves, bridges, and culverts, specifically in places somewhat protected from predators.  Those nest predators include raccoons, black rat snakes, chipmunks, mice, coyotes, and various birds. Eastern Phoebes, meanwhile, feed on a variety of flying insects along with other invertebrates, some fruit and seeds, and occasionally fish.  It’s known to respond to occurrences of high insect populations, including aquatic insect hatches and swarms of midges.

We close with a few seconds of music that celebrates springtime’s more active life by birds and by many other creatures, including two-legged ones. Here’s part of “Spring Fever,” by John McCutcheon, from the 1999 album “Springsongs.”

MUSIC - ~ 30 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.   In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Eastern Phoebe sound was recorded by Virginia Water Radio on April 16, 2017, in Blacksburg, Va.

“Spring Fever,” from the 1999 album “Four Seasons: Springsongs,” is copyright by John McCutcheon and Rounder Records, used with permission.  More information about John McCutcheon is available online at https://www.folkmusic.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS
Eastern Phoebe in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, April 4, 2017.   Photo by N. Lewis, National Park Service, public domain. Accessed online at https://www.flickr.com/photos/snpphotos/33741643103/.
 
John James Audubon painting of the Pewee Flycatcher—also called Pewit Flycatcher, both of which are older names for Eastern Phoebe—originally published between 1827 and 1838 in Birds of America (plate CXX [120]), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York.   Photo taken April 16, 2018, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance.  Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america; the Pewit Flycatcher entry is online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/pewit-flycatcher.   Information linking the Pewit Flycatcher plate to the Eastern Phoebe is available from Zebra Publishing, “Audubon Centennial Edition,” online at http://auduboneditions.com/index.php?go=.images.image&image_id=233&showOrnithologicalDetils=1.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT THE EASTERN PHOEBE

The scientific name of the Eastern Phoebe is Sayornis phoebe.

Here are some points about the Eastern Phoebe, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Eastern Phoebe,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040236&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17631.

Physical Description
“Males are 144-168 millimeters (mm) and females are 142-165 mm.  Males are generally larger than females. However, determining sex by size or plumage is not reliable.  Top of head clove-brown; back grayish olive-brown; bill blackish above and below; wings without conspicuous bars; underparts yellowish white or pale yellow; sides washed with grayish olive.  Most distinguishing behavioral characteristic is the tail wag.”

Nesting Habitat and Behavior
“Nest is generally built on a ledge, usually sheltered above by an overhang, often under eaves or on window ledges, barn beams, or bridge girders.  Nest is generally found in woodland or edge habitats near water, and are constructed of mud, green moss and leaves, and lined with fine grass stems and hair.  Three to eight eggs are laid in spring or summer.  They hatch in 15 to 17 days and nestlings leave nest 15 to 17 days later. Usually phoebes raise 2 broods a year.   Both parents will feed the young, although females feed young more often.  The nesting season ranges from late March to mid-July. …After breeding is completed, the birds disperse to a variety of woodland habitats… The song, ‘fee-bee,’ is sung to attract a female and to announce and defend a territory.  The territory centers on the nest site.  Territory size is from 3 to 7 acres usually, can be much larger is areas where food is not as available.”

Diet
“Hawking is used to forage for flying insects.  The birds appear to forage most actively during the morning hours…. Feed on coleoptera [beetles], orthoptera [grasshoppers and allies], hemiptera [true bugs], lepidoptera [butterflies and moths], diptera [flies], spiders, ticks, millipedes, [and] small fruits and seeds during fall and winter. …Have been seen catching and eating fish.”

Predators
“Racoons are frequent nest predators.  Other confirmed predators include the black rat snake, coyote, blue jay, American crow, eastern chipmunk, white-footed mouse and house wren.  Nest success is often hampered because of brown-headed cowbird parasitization.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org; the Eastern Phoebe entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Eastern_Phoebe/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Flycatcher,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/flycatcher.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor; the Eastern Phoebe entry is online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040236&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17631.

For More Information about Birds

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.   Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on springtime.
Episode 206, 3/14/14 – A Spring Serenade.
Episode 212, 5/5/14 – Timing and Cues are Keys to Flowers of the Forest—Musically by No Strings Attached and Biologically by Woodland Plants.
Episode 308, 3/21/16 – Treating Spring Fever with Water, Featuring ‘Until the Summer Comes’ by The Steel Wheels.
Episode 408, 2-19-18 – A Frog and Toad Medley.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels:
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade;
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school;
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, April 9, 2018

Episode 415 (4-9-18): Spotting the Spotted Lanternfly in 2018 Means a New Invasive Insect on Virginia Trees


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:27).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-6-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 9, 2018.

This week, we’re focusing on a new, potentially serious insect pest, the Spotted Lanternfly, a member of the insect order of true bugs.  It’s not an aquatic species, but its potential effects on many tree species—including maples, oaks, sycamores, and willows—could, in turn, have consequences for watersheds or water bodies near such trees.  To learn about this emerging issue, I’m joined by Eric Day, who runs Virginia Tech’s Insect ID Lab in Blacksburg. Eric, welcome to Virginia Water Radio.

E.D.: Thank you, Alan.  It’s a real pleasure to be here today and speaking about this very important invasive insect.

VWR: What’s the origin of the Spotted Lanternfly, and where’s it being found in the United States?

E.D.: The origin appears to be northern China, and initially it was found in southeast Pennsylvania in 2014.  And we’ve been carefully watching it there because it is emerging as a pest of grapes and peaches, and also of hops.   And then now, starting in 2018, it’s been discovered in Virginia. So now we’re starting to gear up our work, gear up fact sheets and other information to deal with the new pest here.

VWR: Why is the discovery of it such a concern?

E.D.: There’s several issues in the pest status.  One is it’s a pest of fruit: tree fruits, the grapes, peaches, and hops I mentioned earlier, also on apples.   It’s also a huge nuisance pest, and it is in backyards causing a lot of issues, because it produces a lot of what’s called honeydew, which is this clear, sticky, sugary material, and then sooty mold grows on that, too.   So it is a big backyard issue. It also feeds on Tree-of-Heaven, which is also known as Ailanthus, which is an invasive species as well, so it [the invasive Spotted Lanternfly] is coupled with another invasive species.  Unfortunately, it doesn’t control Ailanthus, it just hitches a ride on Ailanthus and gets its way across the state in that manner.

VWR: What actions are federal or state scientists or officials taking in response to the discovery in the States?

E.D.: Several things.  The state [Virginia] is about to issue a quarantine, so there’ll be quarantines in place where this infestation occurs.  In addition, the federal government is going to be doing eradication, combined eradication of Ailanthus and the Spotted Lanternfly. But what we’ve seen, unfortunately, in other states and in other countries, too—it’s invaded in other countries, as well—is the Spotted Lanternfly is very hard to eradicate, because it feeds on a wide range of trees and shrubs.  That means it spreads out into the woods and it’s virtually impossible to eradicate.  We can slow its spread, much like we’ve done for Gypsy Moth, but ultimately it’s going to establish itself as a pest—yet another thing that farmers and backyard growers will have to deal with.

VWR: Well how can listeners identify this insect?

E.D.: This is a very easy insect to identify.  The name pretty much tells it all.  It looks like a tropical moth, with spots on its wings.  The immature stages are black, with either white or red spots. So, compare it to pictures on the Internet, and you’ll find it to be a very easy insect to identify. If you think you have it, report it.  You can report it to any number of sources: your local Cooperative Extension office, your county office; you can also report it to the Department of Agriculture, either the federal or the state; or the [Virginia] Department of Forestry.  All [these] people are aware of this and all [these] people are looking for it.

VWR: All right, Eric Day, of the Virginia Tech Insect ID Lab, thank you for visiting Virginia Water Radio to tell us about the Spotted Lanternfly.  If you’d like to learn more about this or other insect pests, contact your local Cooperative Extension office.

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode’s interview with Eric Day of the Virginia Tech Insect ID Lab was recorded in Blacksburg on April 5, 2018.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Eric for his participation in this episode.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

PHOTOS
Spotted Lanternfly adults (upper photo) and immature stages (lower photo). Photos courtesy of Eric Day, Virginia Tech Insect ID Lab, Blacksburg, Va., accessed online https://ext.vt.edu/spotted-lanternfly.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT THE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY

The scientific name of the Spotted Lanternfly is Lycorma delicatula.  It was first detected in Virginia on January 10, 2018, in Frederick County, according to the Virginia Cooperative Extension publication, “Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia,” online at https://ext.vt.edu/spotted-lanternfly.

Following are excerpts from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Spotted Lanternfly,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/resources/pests-diseases/hungry-pests/the-threat/spotted-lanternfly/spotted-lanternfly for USDA-APHIS information.

Basics: “The Spotted Lanternfly…is native to China and was first detected in Pennsylvania in September 2014.  Spotted Lanternfly feeds on a wide range of fruit, ornamental and woody trees, with tree-of-heaven being one of the preferred hosts.  Spotted lanternflies are invasive and can be spread long distances by people who move infested material or items containing egg masses.  If allowed to spread in the United States, this pest could seriously impact the country’s grape, orchard, and logging industries. People spread the insect by moving infested material or items containing egg masses.”

List of “what’s at risk”: almonds, apples, apricots, cherries, grapes, hops, maple trees, nectarines, oak trees, peaches, pine trees, plums, poplar trees, sycamore trees, walnut trees, and willow trees.

Recommendations for what citizens can do: “Inspect your trees and plants for signs of this pest, particularly at dusk and at night when the insects tend to gather in large groups on the trunks or stems of plants.  Inspect trees (in particular, tree of heaven), bricks, stone, and other smooth surfaces for egg masses.   If you find an insect that you suspect is the spotted lanternfly, please contact your local Extension office or State Plant Regulatory Official to have the specimen identified properly.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Eric Day, Virginia Tech Insect ID Lab, “Spotted Lanternfly in Virginia,” 2018, online at https://ext.vt.edu/spotted-lanternfly.

U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), “Spotted Lanternfly,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/resources/pests-diseases/hungry-pests/the-threat/spotted-lanternfly/spotted-lanternfly.  APHIS’s November 2014 “Pest Alert” on the Spotted Lanternfly is available online (as a PDF) at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/plant_health/2014/alert_spotted_lanternfly.pdf.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Insects” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes that discuss non-native, invasive species.
EP321 – 6/20/16 – on invasive species generally.
EP383 – 8/28/17 – on river stewardship, including washing boating equipment to help prevent spread of aquatic, invasive species.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme
2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 all include the objective of “current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10- impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels:
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade; Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school;
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, April 2, 2018

Episode 414 (4-2-18): Water-quality Monitoring from a Trio of Perspectives


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:26).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 3-30-18.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 2, 2018.

This week, we’re joined by guest host Saalehah Habeebah, the spring 2018 intern at the Virginia Water Resources Research Center.

This week, imagine yourself at my annual dinner celebrating water, where guest are calling out water mystery words.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds, and see if you can guess what the topic of conversation was.

VOICES - ~18 sec

If you guessed that we were talking about water-quality monitoring, then you’re a water-quality monitoring expert!  All of the words you just heard were different properties we test for in streams, lakes, or estuaries.  Scientists often refer to measured properties as parameters.

Water-quality monitoring typically consists of three areas of measurements: biological, chemical, and physical.

Biological monitoring uses the presence, absence, numbers, or condition of various organisms to indicate environmental conditions.  Of the words just called out, algae, aquatic insects, fish, and coliforms are all organisms used to monitor water quality.  A particularly important area of biological monitoring is testing for bacteria, which includes coliforms.  Coliforms are used as indicators of possible sewage contamination, because they are found in human and animal feces.   Coliform presence indicates the potential presence of pathogenic, or disease-causing, bacteria or viruses that also live in human and animal digestive systems.  Some other groups of organisms used in biological monitoring are aquatic plants and molluscs.

Chemical monitoring assesses whether water contains various chemical substances that affect aquatic health.  Remember when you heard the words dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and pH?  These are examples of chemical parameters.  Chemical monitoring can test for substances that organisms need—such as dissolved oxygen—as well as for potentially harmful substances, called pollutants or contaminants.  For example, chemical contaminants are one of the complex water-quality issues facing the Chesapeake Bay.  Some other chemical parameters are biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, and metals.

Lastly, physical monitoring focuses on non-living and non-chemical attributes of water, as well as tangible, structural materials that affect water bodies.   You heard two physical-monitoring words: temperature and turbidity.  Temperature affects rates of biological and chemical processes; turbidity is a measure of how much sediment water carries, which can affect organisms’ physiology and reproduction.  Some other physical parameters are flow, depth, stream-bottom materials, and streamside vegetation.

Thanks to Blacksburg friends for lending their voices to this episode.  We hope this introduction to the biological, chemical, and physical perpectives of water-quality monitoring will help citizens make informed decisions about Virginia’s waters.

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The water-quality terms were recorded by Virginia Water Radio with several Virginia Tech students in Blacksburg on March 28-29, 2018.  We thank those participants for contributing to this episode.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS
Algae—such as this population on New River near Whitethorn in Montgomery County, Va., June 15, 2008—are biological indicators of water quality.

Aquatic insects are another group of biological indicators of water quality.  Shown here is the larvae of midge species sampled from Eastland Creek in Wise County, Va., in October 2012.  (Specimens courtesy of Tony Timpano and Kriddie Whitmore, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation.  Photo by Eric Day, Virginia Tech Department of Entomology.)
When present in a water body, polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs—such as those leading to a fish-consumption advisory sign along the New River at Whitethorne in Montgomery County, Va., March 7, 2010—are an aspect of chemical water quality.
Stream flow, woody debris and rocks in the channel and the impacts of streamside vegeation on light and temperature are all physical factors affecting the Roanoke River in this photo from the Blue Ridge Parkway on June 15, 2017.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Learn the Issues,” online at at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Water, Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual (EPA 841-B-97-003), November 1997, online (as a PDF) at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/stream.pdf.

North Carolina State University Water Quality Group, “Biomonitoring,” online at http://www.water.ncsu.edu/watershedss/info/biomon.html.

For More Information about Water Quality
Coastal and Marine EUCC and EUCC Mediterrean Centre’ CoastLearn Web site, “Water Quality Management,” online at http://www.coastlearn.org/water_quality_management/concepts-wqp.html.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Water Quality Standards: Regulations and Resources,” online at https://www.epa.gov/wqs-tech.

U.S. EPA, “Water Topics,” online at https://www.epa.gov/environmental-topics/water-topics.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/.

USGS, “Water Science School/Water Quality,” online at https://water.usgs.gov/edu/waterquality.html.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Water Quality Information and TMDLs,” online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterQualityInformationTMDLs.aspx.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” and “Science” subject categories.

Following are links to some other episodes on water quality.
Water quality in general (including Virginia agencies involved) – Episode 94, 1/9/12; Episode 378, 7/24/17.
Water quality and coal – Episode 97, 1/30/12; Episode 98, 2/6/12; Episode 99, 2/13/12.
Water quality and natural gas – Episode 380, 8/7/17.
Water quality assessment using aquatic insects or other macroinvertebrates – Episode 81, 9/26/11; Episode 363, 4/10/17.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme

3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 –Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – current applications to reinforce life science concepts.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
ES.2 - understanding scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science.
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Chemistry Course
CH.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19)
– on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.