Monday, December 30, 2019

Episode 505 (12-30-19): Eyes on the Water as the 2020s Arise

Click to listen to episode (4:29)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-27-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 30, 2019.

MUSIC – ~7 sec – instrumental

This week, a traditional tune opens our annual episode marking the start of the New Year. Have a listen for about 25 more seconds.

MUSIC - ~26 sec – instrumental

You’ve been listening to part of “Midnight on the Water,” performed here by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va.  As midnight approaches on December 31, waters all over the world will be the scenes for celebrations of the arrival of a new year and a new decade.  Just within Virginia, water-focused New Year’s observances will range from Potomac River cruises out of Alexandria, to a party in the Waterside District of Norfolk, to a sunrise wade-in at the New River in Giles County.

Water’s an apt place to start the new year, because that versatile, life-sustaining substance will be part of many events and issues to come this year, as it is every year.  Here are a few safe bets on how water will be part of Virginia’s 2020 story.

Water resources will be affected by dozens of bills and the state budget under consideration by the Virginia General Assembly.

Groundwater levels and use, especially in eastern Virginia, will get attention from various stakeholders.

Sea level rise will be a factor in the environment and economics of coastal areas.

Infrastructure for drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater will require significant planning, installation, maintenance, and money.

Water will be a factor in debates, decisions, and lawsuits over energy production and use.

And Virginians will enjoy activities in, on, and around water.

Besides being central in many predictable developments, water in Virginia will probably be part of some unpredictable challenges, too.  As examples, tropical-storm flooding, a widespread drought, or a significant toxic spill could all propel water to the top of the agenda for citizens and elected officials.

Whatever mix of predictable or unpredictable things happens in 2020, the year as a whole will almost certainly be, in some ways, unique.   In that spirit, we close with another traditional tune, whose title is a word for something unmatched or unequaled.  Here’s part of “Nonesuch,” performed by No Strings Attached.  Happy New Year, and I hope that in 12 months we can say there was none such a year so good for water as 2020.

MUSIC - ~21 sec - instrumental

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Midnight on the Water,” a tune attributed to early 20th-Century Texas fiddler Lucas Thomasson, was recorded for Virginia Water Radio by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., on August 9, 2017.  This music was also used in Episode 381, 8-14-17.  For more information on the tune, please see Andrew Kuntz and Valerio Pelliccioni, “The Traditional Tune Archive/Midnight on the Water,” online at https://tunearch.org/wiki/Midnight_on_the_Water and https://tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Midnight_on_the_Water.  More information on Timothy Seaman is available online at http://timothyseaman.com/en/.

“Nonesuch” is an English dance tune first published in 1651.  For more information on the tune, please see Andrew Kuntz and Valerio Pelliccioni, “The Traditional Tune Archive/Nonesuch,” online at https://tunearch.org/wiki/Nonesuch_(1) and https://tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Nonesuch_(1).  The “Nonesuch” version heard in this episode is by No Strings Attached, from the 1999 album “In the Vinyl Tradition – Volume I,” used with permission.  More information about No Strings Attached—a long-time Blacksburg- and Roanoke-based band which is no longer performing—is available online at http://www.enessay.com/index.html.  Another version of “Nonesuch,” performed by Timothy Seaman, was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 458, 2-4-19

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Sunset over the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg, December 31, 2019, 5 p.m. EST.


New River as viewed from Big Falls Road in Giles County, Va., January 1, 2020, 8:25 a.m. EST.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

123NewYear.com, “New Year Traditions Around the World,” online at http://www.123newyear.com/newyear-traditions/.

City of Norfolk [Va.] Waterside District, “NYE Live! Norfolk,” 12/3/19, online at https://watersidedistrict.com/event/nye-live-at-waterside-district/.

Jeremy Cox, Flood of volunteers measures Norfolk’s increasing tides; “Catch the King” data from citizens is helping scientists improve flood forecasts amid rising seas, Bay Journal, 12/2/19.

Crowne Plaza Hampton-Marina, Hampton, Va., “New Year’s Eve Masquerade Party,” online at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/golden-757-events-new-years-eve-bash-tickets-76853995369?aff=erelexpmlt.

Jennifer Ortiz, Arlington water main break causes commute chaos, closes schools; boil advisory issued, WTOP – Chevy Chase, Md., 11/8/19.

Potomac Riverboat Company, “New Year’s Eve Fireworks Cruise,” online at https://www.potomacriverboatco.com/sightseeing-tours/new-years-fireworks-cruise/?loc=feat&1.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “EPA Approves Virginia Plan to Improve Water Quality,” 10/2/19 News Release, online at https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-approves-virginia-plan-improve-water-quality.  This describes funding for Clean Water State Revolving Fund projects (wastewater projects).

Virginia General Assembly, online at https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/.  The 2020 session convenes on January 8.

Virginia Governor’s Office, “Governor Northam Announces Country’s Strongest Flood Protections for State-Owned Property; New executive order creates Virginia Flood Risk Management Standard to guard against climate change impacts,” 11/15/19 News Release, online at https://www.governor.virginia.gov/newsroom/all-releases/2019/november/headline-849374-en.html.

Virginia Legislative Information System, meeting notice for 3rd Annual Groundwater Stakeholder Forum for the Eastern Virginia Groundwater Management Area and Eastern Shore Groundwater Management Area (ESGMA), November 15, 2019, in Newport News, online at https://townhall.virginia.gov/L/ViewMeeting.cfm?MeetingID=30162.

Virginia Resources Authority, “Events/2020 Infrastructure Financing Conference, December 7-9, 2020,” online at https://www.virginiaresources.gov/news/category/events/.

Sam Wall, Pipeline protesters push past Christmas, Roanoke Times, 12/25/19.  This article regards the Mountain Valley natural gas pipeline currently under construction, with ongoing opposition, in western Virginia.

For More Information on New Year’s Traditions Connected to Water

Bookers International, “New Year’s Traditions in Rio, Brazil,” online at http://www.newyears-brazil.com/new-years-eve-traditions.asp.

City of Sydney, Australia, New Year's Eve Web site, “Boating,” online at http://www.sydneynewyearseve.com/boating/.

Cuban Christmas Web site, “Traditional Cuban New Year’s Guide,” online at https://cuban-christmas.com/newyears.html.

Den Haag Marketing, “New Year’s Dive,” online at https://denhaag.com/en/event/12728/new-year-s-dive.

Downtown Long Beach [Calif.] Alliance, “New Year’s Eve at the Waterfront,” 12/31/18, online at https://downtownlongbeach.org/event/new-years-eve-at-the-waterfront/.

Hindu New Year, online at http://hindunewyear.com/.

Lake Eire Shores and Islands, “New Year’s Eve Walleye Drop,” online at https://www.shoresandislands.com/local/events/new-year-s-eve-walleye-drop?id=16919.

Deena Prichep, “As the Lead Cools, Some See Their New Year Take Shape,” NPR, 12/27/13, online at https://www.npr.org/2013/12/28/257658037/as-the-lead-cools-some-see-their-new-year-take-shape.

Sea Mist Oceanfront, Myrtle Beach, S.C., “New Year’s Eve Celebration,” online at https://www.myrtlebeachseamist.com/packages/holiday-specials/new-years-celebration/.

Sputnik International, “Water Gods and Mango Leaves: India Celebrates Hindu New Year,” 4/8/16, online at https://sputniknews.com/asia/201604081037715620-hindu-new-year-festivals/.

Fred Tasker, “How do you ring in New Year’s?  Perhaps it involves a door, a water bucket and grapes,” Miami Herald, 12/27/16, online at https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/article123067969.html.

Tourism of Cambodia, “Must-visit New Year Water Festivals in Asia,” 10/31/16, online at http://www.tourismcambodia.com/news/events/21941/must-visit-new-year-water-festivals-in-asia.htm.

Maria G. Valdez, “New Year’s Traditions: 8 Latin Customs to Ring in 2018,” Latin Times, 12/24/17, online at http://www.latintimes.com/new-years-traditions-8-latin-american-customs-ring-2018-429687.

Virginia Tourism Corporation/Virginia is for Lovers, “New Year’s Eve—Pony Island [Chincoteague, Va.] Horseshoe Drop & Costume Promenade,” online at https://www.virginia.org/listings/Events/NewYearsEvePonyIslandHorseshoeDropCostumePromenade/.

Water’s Edge Resort and Spa, Westbrook, Conn., “Water’s Edge Rockin’ Eve—The Shoreline’s Premier New Year’s Party, 12/31/18, online at https://watersedgeresortandspa.com/event/new-years-eve-celebration-2/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” subject category.

Following are links to previous New Year’s episodes.

For 2019 - Episode 453, 12-31-18 – Water and the New Year of 2019 (featuring “Renewal” written and performed in spring 2017 by students at World Community Education Center in Bedford, Va., who were accompanied by members of the Blacksburg, Va.-based group Sweet Chalybeate).
For 2018 – Episode 401, 1-1-18 – Diving into 2018 with “Driving Rain” by Chamomile and Whiskey.
For 2017 – Episode 349, 1-2-17 – Water for a World of New Years, Featuring “New Year’s Water” by Torrin Hallett.
For 2016 – Episode 296, 12-28-15 – Setting a Course for 2016 with “On a Ship” by Kat Mills.
For 2015 – none.
For 2014 – Episode 195, 1-9-14 – Wading into the New Year, the New River, and Water Thermodynamics.
For 2013 – Episode 142, 12-31-12 – Encore of John McCutcheon’s “Water from Another Time.”

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Virginia natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, and cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia, “with reference to the hydrologic cycle.”
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-3 Economics Theme
2.8 – natural, human, and capital resources.
3.8 – understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Monday, December 23, 2019

Episode 504 (12-23-19): A Year of Water Sounds and Music – 2019 Edition

Click to listen to episode (5:31)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-20-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 23, 2019.

This week, we look back on 2019 with a medley of mystery sounds.  Have a listen for about 70 seconds to eight sounds or voice segments from the past year of Virginia Water Radio, and see if you can identify what you hear.

SOUNDS - ~66 sec

If you guessed all or most of those, you’re a 2019 mystery-sound mastermind!

You heard

Whites Ferry on the Potomac River between Loudoun County, Va., and Maryland;
sleet;
a Mountain Chorus Frog;
the Bullpasture River in Highland County;
Mallard ducks;
people calling out the names of different milkweed species;
people calling out categories of substances considered “emerging contaminants” in water;
and last,
an excerpt from the “Connecting the Drops” program by Water Education Colorado in partnership with Rocky Mountain Community Radio, part of a series of episodes started this year to highlight water education in other states; and, last,

Thanks to Lang Elliott and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries for the frog sound, to Blacksburg friends for the milkweeds call-out, to Virginia Tech colleagues for the emerging contaminants call-out, and to Water Education Colorado for the “Connecting the Drops” excerpt.

I hope that during this year you heard lots of water-related sounds, especially those of clean, adequate water; good water management; healthy aquatic life; and safe water fun.

We close out this review of 2019 with an 80-second sample of music heard on Virginia Water Radio this year, with excerpts of  “Cool Rumblins” by Kat Mills; “The Deep Blue Green” by Andrew VanNorstrand; “Cypress Canoe” by Bob Gramann; and “The Race” by The Steel Wheels.

Thanks to those musicians for permission to use the selections.  And to 2019: so long, soon, and thanks for the water!

MUSIC - ~82 sec

From “Cool Rumblins” – “Which way now,” then closing instrumental.

From “The Deep Blue Green” - “I went searching around the bend, the Shenandoah River of my dreams.  And if I ever reach the end, I’m gonna fall back into the deep blue green.”

From “Cypress Canoe” – “But ‘til then I’ll remember the home of my youth, as I paddle around in my cypress canoe.”

From “The Race” – “Tempests turn and the winds are wailing. Oh we got a race that must be run, oh we got a race that must be run. Oh we got a race that must be run, oh we got a race that must be run.”

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

Sounds Used

(Unless noted otherwise, sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio.)

The sounds of Whites Ferry were recorded on January 11, 2019, during a regular trip across the Potomac River near Leesburg in Loudoun County, Va.  The sounds were featured in Episode 457, 1-18-19.

The sleet sound was recorded on February 17, 2019, in Blacksburg, Va.  The sound was featured in Episode 461, 2-25-19.

The Mountain Chorus Frog sound was from “The Calls of Virginia Frogs and Toads” CD, copyright 2008 by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and Lang Elliott/NatureSound Studio, used with permission.   The CD was included with the 2011 VDGIF publication, A Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Virginia. Lang Elliott’s work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.  The sound was featured in Episode 464, 3-18-19.

The sound of the Bullpasture River was recorded on March 16, 2019, along Route 612 in Highland County, Va.  The sound was featured in Episode 469, 4-22-19.

The sounds of Mallards was recorded on December 10, 2015, at the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg.  The sounds were featured in Episode 472, 5-13-19.

People calling out names of different milkweed species were recorded on August 7, 2019, in Blacksburg.  These voices were featured in Episode 487, 8-26-19.

The excerpt of “Connecting the Drops” was from Beverages Brewed with Reclaimed Wastewater Advance Reuse, November 7, 2018 (5 min./46 sec.), by Water Education Colorado and Rocky Mountain Community Radio stations, courtesy of Caitlin Coleman, Headwaters editor and communications specialist at Water Education Colorado, used with permission.  This excerpt was one of several “Connecting the Drops” excerpts featured in Episode 497, 11-4-19.

People calling out categories of substances considered “emerging contaminants” in water were recorded on November 14, 2019, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg. Theses voices were featured in Episode 499, 11-18-19.

Music Used

“Cool Rumblins,” from the 2015 album “Silver,” is copyright by Kat Mills, used with permission.  More information about Kat Mills is available online at http://www.katmills.com/ at https://www.facebook.com/katmillsmusic.  This music was used in Episode 492, 9-30-19.

“The Deep Blue Green,” from the 2019 album “That We Could Find a Way to Be,” is copyright by Andrew VanNorstrand, used with permission.  More information about Andrew VanNorstrand is available online at https://www.andrewvannorstrand.com/.  This music was used in Episode 496, 10-29-19.

“Cypress Canoe,” from the 2019 album “I Made It Just for You,” is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at https://www.bobgramann.com/folksinger.html.  This music was used in Episode 494, 10-14-19.

“The Race,” from the 2013 album “No More Rain,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, is used with permission.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/.  This music was used in Episode 460, 2-18-19, and Episode 475, 6-3-19.

IMAGES - A PHOTO SAMPLER FROM 2019


From Episode 457, 1-18-19: View of White’s Ferry's approach to Loudoun County, Va., with the ferry cable to the right, January 11, 2019.


From Episode 469, 4-22-19: The Bullpasture River, looking upstream at County Route 612 in Highland County, Va., March 16, 2019.


From Episode 472, 5-13-19: Male Mallards on a branch of Stroubles Creek on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Va., May 9, 2019.


From Episode 487, 8-26-19: Swamp Milkweed in a wetland along the Huckleberry Trail in Montgomery County, Va., July 13, 2019.


From Episode 494, 10-14-19: Tidal flooding in the harbor in downtown Annapolis, Md., on October 12, 2019, a day that saw tidal flooding also in Alexandria, Va., and other areas along the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay. Photo by Paul Raflo, used with permission.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” subject category.

Following are links to previous “year of sounds/music” episodes.

2018 – Episode 452, 12-24-18
2017 – Episode 400, 12-25-17
2016 – Episode 348, 12-26-16
2015 – Episode 295, 12-21-15
2014 – Episode 246, 12-29-14
2013 – Episode 193, 12-23-13
2012 – Episode 141, 12-17-12

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio or information in the Show Notes—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

This episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

The episodes listed and hyperlinked above under “Audio Notes and Acknowledgments” may help with various SOLs in Music, Science, and Social Studies.  For specific SOLs, please see the online show notes for each episode.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Episode 503 (12-16-19): A Cold-weather Celebration of Maple Trees

Click to listen to episode (4:47)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-13-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 16, 2019.  This episode is a revised repeat of an episode from October 2011.

MUSIC – ~9 sec

This week, we feature an instrumental musical selection about a group of trees that are famous for spring sap, summer shade, and fall colors, but which are less recognized for their distinctive wintertime bark, buds, and twigs.  Have a listen to the music for about another 30 seconds, and see if you know this group of trees.  And here’s a hint: their sugary product is a STAPLE on pancakes.

MUSIC - ~30 sec

If you guessed maples, you’re right!  You’ve been listening to part of a medley called “Wind in the Maples/Sugartree Branch,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., from the 2002 album “Sycamore Rapids.”  “Wind in the Maples” was written particularly for Red Maple, and “Sugartree Branch” refers to Sugar Maples and an approximately two-mile long stream in the St. Mary’s River Wilderness area of Augusta County.  Red Maple and Sugar Maple are two of the eight species of maple native to Virginia.  Besides the eight native species, 16 other maple species occur in the Commonwealth, either cultivated (such as the Japanese Maple) or having escaped from cultivation and become established (such as the Norway Maple).

Collectively, the native maples are found all across Virginia: from cool, shady mountain slopes preferred by Sugar, Striped, and Mountain Maple; to riverside and floodplain habitats preferred by Silver Maple; to the wide range of soil conditions and habitats suitable for Red Maple, found from dry mountain slopes to the Dismal Swamp.  Red Maple is, in fact, the most numerous tree species in Virginia forests, according to a 2017 report by the U.S. Forest Service.

Within their various habitats, maples join with many other trees in having significant influences on water resources: improving water quality, modifying flow, and providing food, cover, and shelter for wildlife.

Less productive than in spring, less energetic than in summer, and less colorful than in fall, maples in winter offer a seasonal still-life, with their twigs showing the growth of past years and their buds enclosing the growth-generating tissue of the year to come.

Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music.  And in keeping with the slow, still pace of winter during a maple tree’s year, we close with about 15 seconds from the quiet ending of “Wind in the Maples/Sugartree Branch.”

MUSIC – ~16 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode revises and replaces Episode 84, 10-17-11, and the “Water Sounds and Music” segment of Episode 47, 12-10.

Thanks to Lesley Howard, John Peterson, and John Seiler for their help with this episode.

“Wind in the Maples/Sugartree Branch,” from the 2002 album “Sycamore Rapids,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Ice on a Sugar Maple on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, December 13, 2019.


Ice on a Red Maple in Blacksburg, Va., December 13, 2019.


Ice on a Japanese Maple on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, December 13, 2019.


A wintertime Sugar Maple on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, December 15, 2019.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT MAPLE TREE SPECIES IN VIRGINIA

Following is a list of the 24 species of maple known from Virginia, either as a native species in Virginia, a native species in North America but not in Virginia, or a non-native species in North America.  North American native species may spread beyond their historically native range, and some non-native species “escape” from cultivation and become established outside of cultivation.  This list is according to the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, “Virginia Tech Dendrology Fact Sheets,” online at http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/factsheets.cfm, in a search for “maple” conducted 12-12-19.  The list is in alphabetical order by the scientific names of the species (listed in italics).

Abbreviations:
V = native to Virginia.
NA = native to North America but not Virginia.
NON = non-native to North America.
NON-ES = non-native that is known commonly to escape from cultivation.

Acer buergerianum – Trident Maple – NON
Acer campestre – Hedge Maple – NON-ES
Acer circinatum – Vine Maple – NA
Acer floridanum – Florida Maple – V
Acer ginnala – Amur Maple – NON-ES
Acer glabrum – Rocky Mountain Maple – NA
Acer grandidentatum – Bigtooth Maple – NA
Acer griseum – Paperback Maple – NON
Acer japonicum – Fullmoon Maple – NON
Acer macrophyllum – Bigleaf Maple – NON-ES
Acer miyabei – Miyabe Maple – NON
Acer negundo – Boxelder – V
Acer nigrum – Black Maple – V
Acer palmatum – Japanese Maple – NON
Acer pensylvanicum – Striped Maple – V
Acer platanoides – Norway Maple – NON-ES
Acer pseudoplatanus – Sycamore Maple – NON-ES
Acer rubrum – Red Maple – V
Acer saccharinum – Silver Maple – V
Acer saccharum – Sugar Maple – V
Acer spicatum – Mountain Maple – V
Acer tataricum – Tatarian Maple – NON
Acer truncatum – Shantung Maple – NON
Acer xfreemanii – Freeman Maple – NON

SOURCES

Used for Audio

T.J. Brandeis, A.J. Hartsell, and C. Brandeis, “Forest of Virginia 2015,” U.S. Forest Service Resource Update FS-129 (4 pages), Asheville, N.C., 2017; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54555.  Red Maple was the number-one tree on Virginia forest land in number of individuals over 1 inch DBH (diameter at breast height), with 12 percent of all live trees.

U.S. Forest Service/Center for Aquatic Technology Transfer at Virginia Tech, “Condition of Fish Populations and Habitat in the St. Mary’s River and Selected Tributaries Before and After Limestone Sand Treatment, January 2003, available online (as a PDF) at http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/catt/pdf/va/2003_va_catt_report_2.pdf.  This report has scientific information about Sugartree Branch and other trout streams in the St. Mary’s River watershed.

Penn State Cooperative Extension, “Maple Syrup Production for the Beginner,” 11/12/13, online at https://extension.psu.edu/maple-syrup-production-for-the-beginner.

U.S. Forest Service/George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, “Wildernesses,” online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/gwj/home/?cid=stelprdb5312424.

Virginia Department of Forestry, “Forest Facts,” online at http://dof.virginia.gov/stateforest/facts/index.htm.

Virginia Department of Forestry, Common Native Trees of Virginia, 2016, available online at http://www.dof.virginia.gov/infopubs/#ForestEducation.

Virginia Department of Forestry, “2018 State of the Forest,” available online at http://www.dof.virginia.gov/infopubs/.  The archive of previous “State of the Forest” reports is also available at that Web site.

Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, “Virginia Tech Dendrology Fact Sheets,” online at http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/factsheets.cfm.

For More Information about Trees or Other Plants in Virginia and Elsewhere

Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “An Introduction to Trees in Virginia and Their Connections to Water,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, December 2011; available online from the Virginia Water Central News Grouper, at http://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/2011/12/07/an-introduction-to-trees-in-virginia-and-their-connections-to-water/.

U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “Plants Data Base,” online at https://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, “Invasive Plant Species of Virginia,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/invspinfo.

Virginia Native Plant Society, online at http://vnps.org/.  This organization provides information about native species and natural plant habitats.  Located at 400 Blandy Farm Lane, Unit #2, Boyce, VA 22620; (540) 837-1600.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on trees and shrubs.

Ash trees – Episode 376, 7-10-17.
Flora of Virginia – Episode 354, 2-6-17.
Forestry – Episode 160, 5-6-13.
Rhododendrons – Episode 216, 6-2-14.
Sycamore trees – Episode 176, 8-26-13.
Tree buds – Episode 449, 12-3-18.
Tree colors and changes in fall – Episode 285, 10-9-15.
Tree structures for water movement – Episode 285, 10-9-15.
Trees’ human and ecological benefits – Episode 153, 3-18-13.
Witch Hazel trees/shrubs – Episode 238, 10-31-14.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
K.10 – Changes in natural and human-made things over time.
1.7 – changes in temperature, light, and precipitation affect plants and animals, including humans.
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Virginia natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 – life cycles.
4.4 – basic plant anatomy and processes.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.

Earth Science Course
ES.6 – renewable vs. non-renewable resources (including energy resources).

Biology Course
BIO.6 – bases for modern classification systems, including structures, biochemistry, and developmental stages.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-3 Geography Theme
1.6 – Virginia climate, seasons, and landforms.

Grades K-3 Economics Theme
2.8 – natural, human, and capital resources.
3.8 – understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services.

World Geography Course
WG.3 – how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.4 – types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Episode 502 (12-9-19): Winter Brings Brant to Atlantic Coastal Waters

Click to listen to episode (3:28)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-6-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 9, 2019.

This week, we feature a faraway migrant mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds, and see if you know this creature that migrates from Arctic shores to the mid-Atlantic coast for the winter.  And here’s a hint: the name rhymes, partially, with that of another, more legendary, winter traveler from the North Pole.

SOUNDS - ~10 sec

If you guessed the Brant, you’re right!  You don’t have to believe in Santa to appreciate the long trip that this relatively small and dark-colored goose makes from its summer breeding grounds in northern Canada and Greenland to wintering areas along the Atlantic from Massachusetts to North Carolina, including coastal Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay region.  That’s the pathway for eastern sub-populations of the species; western sub-populations migrate between Arctic parts of Canada and Alaska and the Pacific coastline.

One of eight species of goose native to North America, Brant live in a variety of saltwater or estuarine habitats, especially areas inhabited by its preferred aquatic plant food, Eelgrass [Zostera marina].  Brant will eat various other aquatic plants, too, and juveniles of the species will consume insects, crustaceans, and other animals.  But, according to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in New York, Brant are more dependent on a single food type than other geese species, and this dependence can make Brant more vulnerable than other geese to starvation in some years.

In the 1800s, John James Audubon described the Brant as, quote, “a shy bird, not easily approached; it swims well, and when wounded can dive with great expertness.”  Audubon also remarked that “the extent of the migrations of this species remains as yet unknown.”  Two hundred years later, the Cornell Lab can still note that, while the species has been widely studied, much is yet to be learned about the Brant.

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  And we close by letting a bunch of Brant have the last call.

SOUNDS - ~4 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Brant sounds were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Brant Goose painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plate CCCXCI [391]).   Image made available for public use by The National Audubon Society, online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america; specific URL for the image is https://df0bd6h5ujoev.cloudfront.net/Plate-391-Brant-Goose-final.jpg.


Brant in defensive position in Alaska.  Photo by Tim Bowman, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 12-10-19.  Specific URL for the photo is https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/4267/rec/1.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE BRANT

The scientific name of the Brant is Branta bernicla.

Here are some points about Brant, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Brant,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040119&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17596.

Physical Description

“The adult neck and head are black, except for a broken white crescent on each side of the neck.  The bill is black and the eye is brown.  The chest and foreback are black, sharply defined against the breast and sides.  The back and scapulars are brown with the feathers vaguely tipped with lighter brown.  The rump is dusky brown to dusky, with the sides of the rump white.  The forebreast and sides are pale ashy-gray, and the feathers of the sides are slightly browner, and broadly tipped with white.  The breast, belly and flanks are pale grayish to light grayish-brown.  The feet are black, and the tail is black….”

Nesting Habitat and Behavior

“This species breeds in Arctic North America, Arctic islands, northern Canada, [and] Greenland off- shore islands, river deltas, marshy uplands, and tundra lakes.  This species is seldom far from the coast.  They use marshy ground, sandy beaches, talus slopes, coastal sedge tundra, lowland coastal tundra just above the high tide line, low islands of tundra lakes and dry inland slopes covered with vegetation, low grass-covered flats dissected by tidal streams, [and] grassy islands and grassy slopes of low mountains near the coast.  The nest site is always in the open, on offshore or lake islands, or on low lying land. …The nest cover is low, thick, grass or sedge mat vegetation. They nest in colonies. …The nest is initially a depression formed in soggy earth. Sedges are molded around the scrape and down is later added. …The young are led to tidal flats or pools where they consume quantities of insects as well as grass….”

Winter Habitat (of Eastern Sub-populations)

“Non-breeding habitat is on the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to North Carolina.  They are coastal but also occur in lower Chesapeake Bay, the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Chincoteague Bay, Gargathy Bay, and Accomack County.  Most of the time the 8000 that winter in Virginia are concentrated in Back Bay, [other] bays, tidal flats with abundant pondweed growth, mudflats, …lagoons, estuaries, saltmarshes, islands, …marine habitat, and shallow expanses of saltwater.  They are most abundant on Chesapeake Bay on the barrier beach side of the bays. They may be in shallow areas of brackish water.  They are gregarious, and often form large rafts on open water while feeding and resting.  They rest on sandbars, and roost on banks or on water near the feeding grounds.”

Diet

“This species forages in water, mud, and fields.  It immerses the head and neck and grazes or up-ends. This species prefers to feed in bays, shallow plant filled waters on the leeward side of barrier islands, spits, and sandbars and grassy fields.  This species feeds at low tide and does not dive. …The juveniles eat insects, grass, larvae, small crustaceans, sedge, marine invertebrates, mosquito larvae, and pondweed.  Eelgrass is the primary food, and they have been recently feeding extensively on sea lettuce due to the destruction of eelgrass beds.   They may also graze on saltmarsh pastures. Other foods include moss, lichens, algae, sea lettuce, widgeon grass, …sedge, [and other materials]. …Animal foods are taken accidentally and include fish eggs, worms, snails, amphipods, insects, crustaceans, and clams.  When saltmarshes and bays freeze over, they will graze on grass planted in yards.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

John James Audubon, “Brant Goose,” from Birds of America (1827-1838), Plate 391, accessed at the Audubon Web site, online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/brant-goose.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.  The Brant entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Brant/.

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Eelgrass,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/eelgrass.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).  The Brant entry is online at https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/brant; this is the source for the Cornell Lab information mentioned in the audio about Brant’s dependence on Eelgrass and more yet to be learned about Brant.

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Brant,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/brant-bird; and “Goose,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/goose-bird.

Maryland Biodiversity Project, “Brant,” online at https://www.marylandbiodiversity.com/viewSpecies.php?species=905.  This site offers several photographs of Brant.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  The Brant entry is online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040046&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18235.

For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Angus Phillips, Brant are a Breed Apart, But They’re Abundant, The Washington Post, 12/22/85.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes focusing on types of geese.

Episode 138, 11-26-12 – on Snow Geese.
Episode 335, 9-26-16 – on Canada Geese.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 – life cycles.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.6 – ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 – adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school. Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Episode 501 (12-2-19): Winter Preparedness and Safety, featuring “Cold, Frosty Morn’” by New Standard

Click to listen to episode (4:53)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-29-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 2, 2019.

MUSIC – ~10 sec

This week, that excerpt of the traditional tune “Cold Frosty Morn’,” performed by the southwestern Virginia group New Standard, opens our annual episode on winter preparedness.

In 2019, winter comes to Virginia on December 21 at 11:19 p.m.  That’s the Eastern Standard time of the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, when that hemisphere is at its maximum annual tilt away from the sun.

To help you be prepared for winter’s cold temperatures, hazardous roads, power outages, and fire hazards, here are 12 tips from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

1. Avoid traveling in winter-storm conditions if you can. If you must travel, get road conditions from the Virginia 511 telephone system, Web site, or app.

2. Have an emergency kit for your vehicle, including jumper cables, water, non-perishable food, blankets, a flashlight, and other items.

3. Have a battery-powered or hand-cranked radio, especially one with a NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration] weather band.

4. Get fireplaces, wood stoves, and chimneys inspected and cleaned.

5. Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on every floor level, test them monthly, and replace the batteries every six months.

6. Install a carbon monoxide detector in your home and check or replace the battery every six months.

7. If you use space heaters, plug them into wall outlets, not into extension cords; keep heaters at least three feet from other objects; don’t leave heaters unattended; and check for cracked or damaged wires or plugs.

8. Generators, camp stoves, and other devices that burn gasoline or charcoal should be used outdoors only.

9. Whenever possible, use flashlights and not candles during power outages.  If you use candles, put them in safe holders away from anything flammable, and don’t leave a burning candle unattended.

10. Learn how to shut off water valves in case a pipe bursts.

11. Be careful of overexertion during snow shoveling.

And 12. Make a family emergency plan that covers sheltering; evacuation; emergency meeting places; communications; a supply of food, water, and medications; and other factors specific to your circumstances.

More information on preparing for winter weather, fires, and other emergencies is available from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, online at the “Prepare” link of vaemergency.gov.

Next time the forecast calls for snow, sleet, freezing rain, or other wintry weather, here’s hoping that you can stay warm, dry, and safe.

Thanks to New Standard for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Cold Frosty Morn’.”

MUSIC – ~21 sec - instrumental

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The performance of “Cold Frosty Morn’” heard here is copyright by New Standard, from the 2016 album “Bluegrass,” used with permission.  More information about New Standard is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.  This music was also featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 387, 9/25/17, on frost, and in Episode 400, 12-25-17, a look-back at music and sounds used in the previous year.  For more information on this traditional tune, please see Library of Congress, “Audio Recording—Frosty Morning,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/afcreed000115/; or Ian Perry, “Cold Frosty Morning,” Banjo Newsletter, April 2010, online at https://banjonews.com/2010-04/cold_frosty_morning_exploring_the_fingerboard.html.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

This car was evidence of a “cold, frosty morning” in Blacksburg, Va., at 7 a.m. on November 5, 2019.


Morning ground frost in Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., in January 14, 2018.


Snow on an oak tree beside Engel Hall on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg in December 9, 2017.

EXTRA INFORMATION ON WINTER PREPAREDNESS AND SAFETY

On Winter Weather Preparedness

The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Winter Weather,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/threats/winter-weather/, accessed 11/27/19.

Winter storms can range from freezing rain or ice, to a few hours of moderate snowfall, to a blizzard that lasts for several days.  Many winter storms are accompanied by dangerously low temperatures, power outages and unpredictable road conditions.

Before, during, and after a winter storm, roads and walkways may become extremely dangerous or impassable.  Access to critical community services such as public transportation, child care, healthcare providers and schools may be limited.  Preparing your home, car and family before cold weather and a winter storm arrives is critical.

During a winter storm, stay off the roads as much as possible and only drive when absolutely necessary.  Always give snow plows the right of way.

Never use a generator, grill, camp stove or gasoline, propane, natural gas or charcoal burning device inside your home, garage, basement, crawlspace or any other partially enclosed area.

Snow shoveling is a known trigger for heart attacks! Always avoid overexertion when shoveling.

When severe weather occurs, plan to check on elderly or disabled neighbors and relatives.

If you must travel, know road conditions before you leave home.  Visit 511Virginia.org or call 511 for road condition updates.

Protect yourself from frostbite!  Hands, feet and face are the most commonly affected areas so wear a hat, mittens (which are warmer than gloves) and cover your mouth with a scarf to reduce heat loss.

Keep dry!  Change out of wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat.

Wear several layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than one layer or heavy clothing.

Prepare Your Home

Make sure your home is properly insulated.
Check the weather stripping around your windows and doors.
Learn how to shut off water valves in case a pipe bursts.
Have additional heat sources on hand in case of a power outages.
Keep a fire extinguisher accessible.
Replace the batteries in your carbon monoxide detector annually.

Prepare Your Car

Batteries lose power as temperatures drop, be sure to have yours tested.
Check your car’s antifreeze level.
Have your radiator system serviced.
Replace your car’s windshield wiper fluid with a wintertime mix.
Proactively replace your car’s worn tires and wiper blades.
To help with visibility, clean [snow or ice] off your car entirely, including your trunk, roof, windows and headlights.
Download an emergency-kit checklist online at www.vaemergency.gov.

If it’s too cold for you, it’s too cold for your pet! Don’t leave pets outside for prolonged periods of time and have plenty of fresh, unfrozen water on hand.

On Fire Safety

The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Fires,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/threats/fires/, accessed 11/27/19.

In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening.  In just five minutes, a home can be engulfed in flames.

Home Fire Prevention

Install smoke alarms on every level of your residence, outside bedrooms, at the top of open stairways, or at the bottom of enclosed stairs and near the kitchen.
Test and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least twice a year.
Replace smoke alarms every 10 years.
Review escape routes with your family and practice escaping from each room.
Make sure windows are not nailed or painted shut.
Make sure security gratings on windows have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside.
Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one level.
Make sure anti-burglary devices installed on windows can be easily opened from the inside.
Teach family members to stay low to the floor (where the air is safer in a fire) when evacuating.

To Escape a Fire

If you come to a closed door, check it for heat with the back of your hand; check the top, bottom, doorknob and any cracks. Do not open a hot door; [instead], use a window.   If the door is cool, open it slowly and check your escape route.   If it’s clear, leave immediately and close the door behind you.  Crawl low under any smoke to your exit – heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the ceiling.
Stay out once you are safely out.  Do not re-enter.   Call 911.
If you cannot escape, hang a white or light-colored sheet outside the window, alerting fire fighters to your presence.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Federal Emergency Management Agency:
“Build a Kit,” online at https://www.ready.gov/kit;
“Car Safety,” online at https://www.ready.gov/car;
“How to Prepare for a Winter Storm,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1494008826172-76da095c3a5d6502ec66e3b81d5bb12a/FEMA_2017_WinterStorm_HTP_FINAL.pdf.
“Make a Plan,” online at https://www.ready.gov/plan;
“Snowstorms and Extreme Cold,” online at http://www.ready.gov/winter-weather.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “Weather Radio All Hazards” network, online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/.

National Weather Service/Cleveland, Ohio, Forecast Office, “The Seasons, the Equinox, and the Solstices,” online at https://www.weather.gov/cle/seasons.

TimeandDate.com, “Winter Solstice—Shortest Day of the Year,” online at https://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/winter-solstice.html.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
“Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/Frequently Asked Questions,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/co/faqs.htm;
“Proper Use of Candles During a Power Outage,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/psa/candles.html.

U.S. Fire Administration:
“Heating Fire Safety,” online (as a PDF) at https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/heating_fire_safety_vertical.pdf;
“Put a Freeze on Winter Holiday Fires” and “Fireplace and Woodstove Safety,” online at https://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM):
“Fires,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/threats/fires/;
“Make an Car Emergency Kit,” 1 min./31 sec. video, online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPgvWgtiWHI.;
“Prepare” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare/ - this is the Commonwealth of Virginia’s central source of information on preparedness for all types of emergencies and disasters;
“Winter Weather,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/threats/winter-weather/.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “Virginia Traffic Information,” online at http://www.511virginia.org/.

For More Information about Winter Weather and Preparedness

American Red Cross, “Winter Storm Safety,” online at https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/types-of-emergencies/winter-storm.html, or contact your local Red Cross chapter.

National Weather Service, “Weather and Water Events Preparedness Calendar,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/events_calendar. This page lists events, such as “Winter Weather Awareness Week,” by state.

U.S. Department of Energy, “Portable Heaters,” online at http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/portable-heaters.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes related to winter weather.

Episode 258, 3-23-15 – on winter precipitation and water supplies.
Episode 300, 1-25-16 – on words for snow.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 461, 2-25-19 – on snow, sleet, and freezing rain.

Following are links to previous years’ winter-preparedness episodes featuring winter-related music. The content of these episodes is similar to this year’s episode, but the music differs.

Episode 242, 12-1-14 – featuring “Cold World” by Kat Mills.
Episode 292, 11-30-15 – featuring “Winter is Coming” by The Steel Wheels.
Episode 344, 11-28-16 – featuring “Drive the Cold Winter Away” by Timothy Seaman.
Episode 396, 11-27-17 – featuring “Winter’s Fall” by No Strings Attached.
Episode 448, 11-26-18 – featuring “New Boots” by John McCutcheon.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature, including daily, seasonal, and lunar changes.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
6.6 – properties of air and structure of Earth’s atmosphere; including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.12 – weather and climate.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.