Monday, May 20, 2019

Episode 473 (5-20-19): Water in Shenandoah National Park, Featuring "Big Run Thrives" by Timothy Seaman


Click to listen to episode (4:30).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-17-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 20, 2019.

MUSIC – ~7 sec

This week, that music opens an episode on water and other aspects of one of Virginia’s natural treasures.  Have a listen for about 20 more seconds.

SOUNDS - ~22 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “Big Run Thrives,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., from the 1997 album, “Here On This Ridge.”  The song refers to the Big Run watershed in Rockingham County, within Shenandoah National Park.  The album is Mr. Seaman’s celebration of Shenandoah National Park, which comprises over 197,000 acres in eight Virginia counties along the Blue Ridge.

According to Dennis Simmons, in a 1978 Ph.D. dissertation, the conception and establishment of the park between 1924 and 1936 was a story of conservation, cooperation among many private interests and government officials, and controversy over displacement of people who had lived for generations on land to be included in the park.  Today the park story includes tourism, scenery, history, geology, plants and animals, dark skies, air-quality issues, climate-change issues, and, not least, water.

The park has about 90 perennial streams, flowing from the Blue Ridge into the drainages of the James, Rappahannock, and Shenandoah Rivers.  The streams typically run down a steep elevation change, leading to riffles, pools, rapids, and waterfalls.  The mountainous elevation and tree shading of many of the streams result in cold water temperatures, making them suitable for native Brook Trout.  Other aquatic life in the park includes about 40 fish species, 24 amphibian species, aquatic and wetland plants, many stream-dwelling insects and other invertebrates, and water-related reptiles, birds, and mammals.  Despite their protection within a national park, Shenandoah’s waters have long been affected by air pollutants, particularly those that have led to acidification.  Accordingly, air quality and water-quality monitoring have been conducted since the 1970s, led now by the University of Virginia’s Shenandoah Watershed Survey and Trout Stream Sensitivity Survey.

High, fast-flowing, and ecologically important, Shenandoah National Park’s waters attract anglers, scientists, musicians, and—if you’re in that area—maybe you.

Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Big Run Thrives.”

MUSIC – ~20 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Big Run Thrives,” from the 1997 Album “Here on This Ridge,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  According to the composer, the piece was inspired by his observations of regrowth in the watershed about 10 years after a wildlife in the 1980s.  Information about the making of the album is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/timothys-blog/entry/the-making-of-our-album-here-on-this-ridge.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

A pool in Big Run in Shenandoah National Park.  Photo by Hugh Crandall, from “The Nature of Shenandoah,” by Napier Shelton, National Park Service Natural History Series, 1975.  Photo accessed online at http://npshistory.com/centennial/1216/photos.htm, 5/20/19.


Thornton River, Shenandoah National Park, Rappahannock.County, Va., June 19, 2006.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Ronald L. Heinemann, “Shenandoah National Park,” Jan. 18, 2012, Virginia Humanities’ Encyclopedia Virginia, online at https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah_National_Park#start_entry.

National Park Service:
“Annual Visitation Highlights,” online at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/annual-visitation-highlights.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/History,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/historyculture/index.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/Management,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/management/index.htm; “Shenandoah National Park/Nature,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/index.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/ “Nature/Animals,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/animals.htm [check lists are available here];
“Shenandoah National Park/ “Nature/Environmental Factors,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/environmentalfactors.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/ “Nature/Fish,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/fish.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/Water,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/water.htm.

The Scientific Fisherman, “Temperature Classifications of Fish,” online at http://thescientificfisherman.com/temperature-classifications-of-fish/.

Timothy Seaman, “The making of our album ‘Here on this Ridge,’ 9/4/14, online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/timothys-blog/entry/the-making-of-our-album-here-on-this-ridge.

Dennis E. Simmons, “Conservation, Cooperation, and Controversy: The Establishment of Shenandoah National Park, 1924-1936,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 89, NO. 4 (Oct. 1981), pp. 387-404; accessed online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/4248512.  According to the author, this article is a distillation of his 1978 Ph.D. dissertation, “Creation of Shenandoah National Park and the Skyline Drive, 1924-1936,” done at the University of Virginia.

University of Virginia Department of Environmental Sciences, “Shenandoah Watershed Survey and Virginia Trout Stream Sensitivity Study,” online at http://people.virginia.edu/~alr8m/POST/scripts/overview.php; and “Mountain Stream Symposium II: Continuing Challenges for Critical Ecosystems,” online at http://people.virginia.edu/~alr8m/POST/scripts/mss2.php.

For More Information about Big Run and Other Areas in Shenandoah National Park

HikingUpward.com, “Big Run/Shenandoah National Park,” online at https://www.hikingupward.com/SNP/BigRun/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia Bird and Wildlife Trail/Mountain Region/Skyline Drive,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/vbwt/mountain-trail/MSD/.

Virginia Trail Guide, “Big Run Loop,” online at https://virginiatrailguide.com/2009/11/15/big-run-loop/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “River, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes with information on Shenandoah National Park.
Episode 229 - 9/1/14 – on Virginia and the National Park Service System.
Episode 230 – 9/8/14 – on air pollution and water.
Episode 231 – 9/15/14 – on climate change basics.
Episode 339 – 10/24/16 – on the Hazel River in Rappahannock and Culpeper counties.

Following are links to some other episodes on the Blue Ridge area of Virginia.
Episode 192 – 12/16/13 – on the Rockfish River, with “Blue Ridge Girl” by Chamomile and Whiskey.
Episode 209 – 4/14/14 – on three major watersheds starting on the Blue Ridge.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystems.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.6 – ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.2 – physical geography and native peoples of Virginia past and present.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.3 – how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.4 – types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.
WG.18 – cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Episode 472 (5-13-19): Mallards are Widespread, Well-known Waterfowl

Click to listen to episode (4:11).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-10-19.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 13, 2019.

SOUND – ~8 sec – Mallard quack

This week, that raucous sound opens an episode about the most abundant species of waterfowl in North America.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds to these mystery sounds, and see if you know this bird.  And here’s a hint: the green mineral malachite reveals both the first part of this bird’s name and the color of the males’ head.

SOUNDS - ~22 sec – various Mallard sounds

If you guessed the Mallard, you’re right!  This relatively large duck is found throughout North America and also breeds in Asia, Australia, and Europe; moreover, the species is the source of all domestic ducks, excluding the Muscovy Duck.  Male Mallards are notable for their green head, reddish breast, and white neck ring, while the females have a less conspicuous mottled brown coloration.  Both sexes, however, have a distinctive blue wing patch, or speculum.  While males have the brighter colors, the females make the loud, recognizable quacks.

Mallards inhabit a wide variety of habitats, including wetlands, ponds, lakes, estuaries, parks, meadows, and agricultural fields.  They nest in shallow depressions on the ground, concealed by tall grasses or other plants.  On the water, Mallards feed by dabbling, that is, tipping forward and dunking their head to grasp aquatic plants.  On land, they’ll graze on natural or cultivated vegetation and they’ll prey upon various insects, worms, and other invertebrates.

The species has become common and adapted to humans in many urban and suburban areas, accepting offers of food and at times stopping traffic as a mother and ducklings cross a street.  In the wild, though, fast-flying Mallards may adroitly avoid humans, as described in this passage from the 1800s by John James Audubon: “Look at that Mallard as he floats on the lake; see his elevated head glittering with emerald-green, his amber eyes glancing in the light!  Even at this distance, he has marked you, and suspects that you bear no good will towards him…. The wary bird draws his feet under his body, springs upon them, opens his wings, and…bids you farewell.”

And we say farewell for now to the bird that the Cornell Lab of Ornithology has called the “standard against which all other ducks are compared.”  If anyone ever asks you to name the most abundant duck in North America, here’s a whimsical way you might answer:

VOICE - ~2 sec – “Mallard!”

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Mallard sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio on December 10, 2015, at the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg.

The “Mallard” name call-out was voiced by a Blacksburg, Va., friend of Virginia Water Radio on November 10, 2012.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Mallard painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plate 221), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York.  Photo taken May 13, 2019, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance.  Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.


Female Mallard on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, May 8, 2019.


Male Mallards on Stroubles Creek on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, May 9, 2019.


Female Mallard at Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, April 2008.  Photo by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, made available for public use by the Service's National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/2513/rec/3, accessed 5-13-19.


Male Mallard, location unidentified, April 2008.  Photo by Erwin and Peggy Bauer, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/5184/rec/2, accessed 5-13-19.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT MALLARDS

The scientific name of the Mallard is Anas platyrhynchos.

Here are some points about Mallards, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Mallard,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040051&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18025.

Population

“This is the most abundant duck in North America.  In the northeast over the past 100 years, it has changed from a rare migrant to a major game bird due in part to the release of game-farm birds, and also to expansion east of the breeding range.”

Physical Description

“This is a large surface-feeding duck, with a stocky build.  The adult male has a length of 24.7 inches average and a weight of 2.75 pounds average.  The adult female has an average length of 23.1 inches and an average weight of 2.44 pounds.  The adult male has an uncrested, glossy-green head, white neck ring, reddish brown breast, brownish back, white tail, and dark rump.  It has a yellowish bill, orange feet, violet-blue speculum, and recurved central tail feathers.  The adult female is mottled brown, with a whitish tail, a bill patched with orange, orange feet, and a violet-blue speculum.  In flight, a white bar on each side of speculum evident in both sexes.”

Nesting Habitat and Behavior

“In Virginia on the Coastal Plain, eggs [have been] observed as early as 10 April, with ducklings from 11 May to mid-August. In the Piedmont, young are seen from 27 April through late July.  In the western Mountains and Valleys, many broods are evident in June.  The clutch size is from 6 to 15, usually 7 to 10 with larger clutches laid earlier in the season.  There is usually 1 egg laid daily until the clutch is complete.  They have one brood per year, with re-nesting not uncommon if the first clutch is lost. Incubation is done by the female and lasts 26-30 days. …They begin establishing pair bonds as early as August, although September and October is the usual time.  As males assume nuptial plumages, courtship flights and displays reach a high level of activity continuing through winter and into spring. …Upon arrival at the breeding grounds, the flock breaks up as pairs head to small water areas. …The preferred nest site is upland and the distance to water varies greatly, depending on the availability of nesting cover, from a few feet up to 5 miles, but is usually within 100 yards.  It prefers placing the nest in high vegetation, from 10 to 50 inches tall.  It is not attracted to wooded habitats, but prefers nesting in typical grassland marsh habitat.  Other sites chosen include: marshes with nests built in marsh growth over water, under groupings of American yew and white cedar, on levees, along roadsides, and in hayfields in agricultural areas. …For the nest, the female forms a depression in plant debris or moist soil 7-8 inches across and 1-2 inches deep.  As each egg is laid, more vegetative material and some down is added.”

Food

“They are found grazing in grain fields, marshes, and meadows, dabbling in shallow water, and diving if necessary to obtain food. ...The mallard is fitting well into park situations in urban areas.  [In such areas,] often supplemental food is provided (corn, bread) and by [these areas] offering refuge during hunting season, large numbers [of birds] assemble, especially in the winter.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

John James Aububon, Birds of America, “Mallard Duck,” online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/mallard-duck.

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide/Birds/Mallard,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/mallard.

Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, “All About Birds, online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/.  The Mallard entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Mallard/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online, at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).  The Mallard entry (Introduction) is online at https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/mallar3/introduction.

Oxford University Press, “Oxford Living Dictionaries/malachite,” online at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/malachite; and “speculum,” online at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/speculum.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, N.Y., 2001.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Mallard,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040051&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18025.

For More Information on Cormorants or Other Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere

BirdNote®, a daily broadcast/podcast on birds, online at http://birdnote.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “E-bird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  This program was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 440, 10-1-18.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID,” online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes using Mallard sounds.

Episode 118, 7/9/12 – A Summertime Virginia Sampler of Birds around Water.
Episode 294, 12/14/15 – A Holidays History of Counting Birds (about the annual Christmas Bird Count).
Episode 322, 6/27/16 – Fish, Wildlife, Habitats, and Human Interactions on the Agenda Since 1916 for the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.
Episode 327, 8/1/16 – A Wetland Walk on a Midsummer Morning.

Following are links to other episodes on ducks.

Episode 136, 11/12/12 – Ducks at the Dance (about ducks in Virginia generally).
Episode 197, 1/20/14 – Canvasback Ducks Dive While Others Dabble.
Episode 303, 2/15/16 – Common Goldeneye's Wings Whistle Over Virginia's Winter Waters.
Episode 398, 12/11/17 – The Green and Blue of Teal.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10 – impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.

Life Science Course
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, May 7, 2019

Episode 471 (5-6-19): Tuning in to Water Education at Iowa’s Water Rocks! Program


Click to listen to episode (5:10).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-3-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 6, 2019.

MUSIC – ~ 10 sec – Opening instrumental section of the song “Water Rocks”

This week, that music opens one of a series of occasional episodes on water-related programs outside of the Old Dominion of Virginia.  The focus this week is on the Iowa State University program called Water Rocks!  Water Rocks! is a water-education campaign for youth, using the STEM disciplines—that’s science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—combined with the arts to challenge and inspire Iowans towards a greater appreciation of water resources.  The program employs a variety of tools in support of that goal: teacher-development workshops; classroom visits; school assemblies; traveling conservation trailers; games and other activities; videos; and, not least, music.  Water Rocks! staff and collaborating musicians have written and recorded songs on a range of water-related topics, including watersheds, wetlands, trees, soil, and pollinators.  Let’s have a listen for about 2 minutes to three samples: here are parts of “All About That Bog,” “Hidden Water,” and “Dino Water.”

MUSIC – ~ 1 min/56 sec

“All About That Bog” excerpt lyrics:
“Because you know I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—go wetlands; I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—go wetlands; I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—go wetlands; I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—bog, bog, bog.  Wetlands have many names like swamp, bog, marsh and slough, fen, and myre, the prairie pothole, too.  Wetlands slow down the water, cleansing and filtering—so many jobs they must do.  A swamp or bog or a marsh or a slough….”

“Hidden Water” excerpt lyrics:
“Water is abundant on our planet; from clouds to oceans it runs the gamut.  You find it in lakes, rivers, and streams; a whole lot of water goes unseen.  It’s hidden underground in soil or rocks, across the land, a buried treasure box.  Water fills cracks and open spaces, moves through the earth in porous places.   Hidden water, hidden water, groundwater, hidden water. Hidden, hidden, hidden water….”

“Dino Water” excerpt lyrics:
“It’s our water now; it was the dinosaurs’, too. Velociraptor, T. rex, Pterodactyl, and you.  Cycling its way through the clouds, dinosaurs back then, and me and you now.  Molecules rearrange themselves fast; they do the molecule change-up and the molecule mash.  Talkin’ ‘bout the water, dino water, dino water….”

“The Drinking Song” excerpt lyrics:
“Dig it, swig it, straight from the spigot – it’s H2O, H2O, H2O-O-O; H2O, H2O, H2O-O-O.”



From the Iowa State University campus in Ames, Water Rocks! is aiming to provide Iowa’s three million citizens with information, inspiration, and entertainment about water.  In the process, the Hawkeye State is providing a useful resource to the rest of the country, too.  More information about Water Rocks! is available online at www.waterrocks.org.

Thanks to Water Rocks! for permission to use this week’s music.  We close with one more sample of about 25 seconds, this time from “The Drinking Song.”

MUSIC - ~23 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Water Rocks! songs were provided courtesy of Jacqueline Comito, program executive director, used with permission.  More information about Water Rocks! is available at the program’s Web site, https://www.waterrocks.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES





Images above are as follows: Upper - The logo of Iowa State University’s Water Rocks! program; Middle - A photograph of one of the program’s traveling conservation trailers; Lower - The entry page of an online watershed game provided by the program.  All accessed at the program Web site, https://www.waterrocks.org/, and used with permission of Jacqueline Comito, program executive director.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Iowa State University, “Water Rocks!” online at https://www.waterrocks.org/.

U.S. Census Bureau, “Quick Facts/Iowa,” online at https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/ia.  The July 1, 2018, estimate of Iowa’s population was 3,156,145.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs
SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

English SOLs
8.5, 9.4, 10.4, 11.4 – symbols, imagery, figurative language, and other literary devices.

2010 Science SOLs
Many of Virginia’s water-related Science SOL’s may be supported by the information and educational resources—on a wide range of water-related topics—available at Iowa State University’s “Water Rocks!” Web site, https://www.waterrocks.org/.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, April 29, 2019

Episode 470 (4-29-19): Getting the Weather Message


Click to listen to episode (4:31).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-26-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 29, 2019.

SOUND – ~ 6 sec - Thunder and heavy rain.

When a severe thunderstorm or some other kind of severe weather is forecast or is actually approaching, what kinds of messages can you expect from your favorite information sources?  Have a listen for about 45 seconds to several examples that were broadcast on April 19, 2019, on NOAA Weather Radio from the National Weather Service’s Blacksburg, Va., Forecast Office.

SOUND - ~47 sec
“The National Weather Service in Blacksburg has issued and urban and small stream flood advisory for….”
“And now a special weather statement. At 1:44 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time, radar indicated strong thunderstorms located along a line from Piper’s Gap to Pleasant Hill….”
“A tornado watch remains in effect until 5 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time for north central and northwestern North Carolina and southwestern and west central Virginia….”
“A tornado warning remains in effect until 2:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time for north central Surry and south central Carroll counties. At 2:19 Eastern Daylight Time, a severe thunderstorm capable of producing a tornado was located over Fancy Gap, moving northeast at 55 miles per hour.”


Those Weather Service messages alerted listeners to conditions that resulted in severe thunderstorms and at least 15 confirmed tornadoes in Virginia on April 19.  The Weather Service uses the four types of messages you heard on any given day to alert citizens nationwide about impending atmospheric hazards, from thunderstorms to tropical storms, from fire danger to frost, and from high winds to high waves.  Here are some details about these four types of messages, according to the Weather Service. An advisory highlights weather conditions that may cause significant inconvenience or threaten life or property if caution is not used.  A special weather statement alerts the public about ongoing or imminent weather hazards which require a heightened level of awareness or action.  A watch means that conditions are right for a hazardous weather event to occur, but the location or timing is uncertain.  And a warning is issued when a hazardous event is actually occurring, is imminent, or is very likely to occur, and people should take appropriate safety action immediately.  Information on appropriate actions for specific weather events is available from the Weather Service, the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, the American Red Cross, and other organizations.  Take some time now to get ready for the next severe-weather message.

Finally, here’s one other Weather Service message that the Blacksburg office broadcast on April 19.

SOUND - ~13 sec
“Skywarn is currently activated and operational at the National Weather Service in Blacksburg, Va. Spotters are encouraged to submit reports of flooding, hail, wind damage, and tornadoes.”


Skywarn® spotters provide the Weather Service with valuable information about cloud conditions, flooding, hail, and other weather events.  If you’re interested in being a Skywarn® spotter, visit the program Web site at www.weather.gov/skywarn, where you can find the upcoming spotter training opportunities nearest you.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This week’s Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 106, 4-9-12.

Virginia Water Radio thanks Phil Hysell, Warning Coordination Meteorologist at the National Weather Service Blacksburg, Va., Forecast Office, for his help with this episode.

The rain and thunder sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio at about 9 p.m. on April 20, 2015, in Blacksburg, Va.

The NOAA Weather Radio broadcast messages, from the National Weather Service’s Blacksburg, Va., Forecast Office, were recorded by Virginia Water Radio on April 19, 2019, at about 2 p.m.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

National Weather Service/Storm Prediction Center map of preliminary storm reports (reports of tornadoes, high winds, and hail) on April 19, 2019, showing the high number of reports in Virginia and other parts of the southeastern United States.  Map accessed at https://www.spc.noaa.gov/climo/reports/190419_rpts.html, 4/26/19.


Tornado preliminary data and track map for tornadoes around Emporia, Va., and Pleasant Hill, N.C., on April 19, 2019.  Map from the National Weather Service/Wakefield, Va., Forecast Office, online at https://www.weather.gov/akq/April_19_2019_EventReview, accessed 4/26/19.


Damage in Charles City, Va., from a tornado on April 19, 2019.  Photo from the National Weather Service/Wakefield, Va., Forecast Office, online at https://www.weather.gov/akq/April_19_2019_EventReview, accessed 4/26/19.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MESSAGES

The following definitions were taken from the National Weather Service, “Glossary,” online at https://w1.weather.gov/glossary/, accessed on 4/25/19.

Advisory – “Highlights special weather conditions that are less serious than a warning.  They are for events that may cause significant inconvenience, and if caution is not exercised, it could lead to situations that may threaten life and/or property.”

Special Marine Warning – “Warning product issued for potentially hazardous weather conditions usually of short duration (up to 2 hours) producing sustained marine thunderstorm winds or associated gusts of 34 knots or greater; and/or hail 3/4 inch or more in diameter; and/or waterspouts affecting areas included in a Coastal Waters Forecast, a Nearshore Marine Forecast, or an Great Lakes Open Lakes Forecast that is not adequately covered by existing marine warnings.  Also used for short duration mesoscale events such as a strong cold front, gravity wave, squall line, etc., lasting less than 2 hours and producing winds or gusts of 34 knots or greater.”

Special Tropical Disturbance Statement – “This statement issued by the National Hurricane Center furnishes information on strong and formative non-depression systems.  This statement focuses on the major threat(s) of the disturbance, such as the potential for torrential rainfall on an island or inland area. The statement is coordinated with the appropriate forecast office(s).”

Severe Weather Potential Statement – “This statement is designed to alert the public and state/local agencies to the potential for severe weather up to 24 hours in advance. It is issued by the local National Weather Service office.”

Warning – “A warning is issued when a hazardous weather or hydrologic event is occurring, is imminent, or has a very high probability of occurring.  A warning is used for conditions posing a threat to life or property.”

Watch – “A watch is used when the risk of a hazardous weather or hydrologic event has increased significantly, but its occurrence, location, and/or timing is still uncertain.  It is intended to provide enough lead time so that those who need to set their plans in motion can do so.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

John Boyer, At least 15 tornadoes hit Virginia on Friday. For Charles City, it was the first in 26 years, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/22/19.

Kevin Myatt, Weather Journal: Franklin County tornado reached historic strength, locally, Roanoke Times, 4/23/19.

National Weather Service, “Glossary,” online at http://www.weather.gov/glossary/,

National Weather Service, “Skywarn® Storm Spotter Program,” online at www.weather.gov/skywarn.

National Weather Service, “Multi-purpose Weather Products Specification,” Instruction 10-517, October 9, 2017, available online (as a PDF) at https://www.nws.noaa.gov/directives/sym/pd01005017curr.pdf.

National Weather Service, “Weather Safety,” online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/safety.php.

National Weather Service/Wakefield Forecast Office, “April 19 [2019] Tornado Paths Virginia,” online at https://www.weather.gov/akq/April_19_2019_TornadoSummary_Statewide.

NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration] Weather Radio All Hazards, online at https://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “VDEM Offers Flooding Messaging for Communities Dealing with Heavy Rain,” 3/18/18 news release, online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/vdem-offers-flooding-messaging-for-communities-dealing-with-heavy-rain/.

Sam Wall, Cleanup continues in Franklin County after Friday's 159-mph tornado, Roanoke Times, 4/20/19.

For More Information about Emergency Preparation

American Red Cross, “How to Prepare for Emergencies,” online at https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies.html.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, online at https://www.ready.gov/.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “Prepare and Recover,” online at https://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
5.6 – characteristics of the ocean environment (ecological, geological, and physical).

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.6 – Properties of air (including pressure, temperature, and humidity) and structure/dynamics of earth’s atmosphere, including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
ES.12 – weather and climate.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

Government Course
GOVT.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Episode 469 (4-22-19): Introducing the Bullpasture and Cowpasture Rivers


Click to listen to episode (4:33).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-19-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 22, 2019.

SOUNDS – ~ 8 sec

This week, those bovine bellows open an episode about two western Virginia rivers with cattle in their names.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds to sounds from the two rivers, accompanied by some music for a special wildlife area in that part of the Commonwealth, and see if you can guess the river names.  And here’s a hint: If you’re familiar with the Virginia counties of Bath or Highland, this question probably won’t get PAST you.

SOUNDS - ~29 sec

If you guessed the Bullpasture or Cowpasture rivers, you’re right!  You heard, first, the Bullpasture in Highland County, and then the Cowpasture in Bath County, both recorded in March 2019.  The music was “Deer of the Dawn,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, composed for the Highland State Wildlife Management Area, located in Highland County.  Both rivers arise in that county and flow southwesterly on either side of Bullpasture Mountain, with the Bullpasture River eventually flowing into the Cowpasture near the Highland-Bath county line.  Farther south still, in Botetourt County, the winding Cowpasture River—its Native American name has been interpreted in English as “winding waters”—joins the Jackson River to form the James.

The National Park Service has described the Cowpasture and Bullpasture watershed as “one of the largest unpolluted, unspoiled, and undisturbed river systems in the region,” and the Bullpasture as “one of the most scenic tributaries in the James River watershed.”  Bullpasture Gorge is particularly noteworthy for steep mountain ridges on land and significant rapids in the river.  The Bullpasture River is a stocked trout fishery described by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries as “a big stream that will delight almost any angler.”  The Cowpasture River Preservation Association has described that river’s region as “remote, mountainous, and rural,” home primarily to farms, other residences, summer camps, and hunting and fishing camps.

Named for cattle, the Cowpasture and Bullpasture watershed is home not only to those creatures but also to fish, wildlife, forests, scenic terrain, and a history of human ties to those natural resources.

Thanks to Freesound.org for making the cattle sounds available.  Thanks also to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Deer of the Dawn.”

MUSIC – ~ 20 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The cattle sounds (“Bulls and cows in a field in Missouri, USA,” May 2013) were recorded by user felix.blume and made available for public use by Freesound.org, online at https://freesound.org/people/felix.blume/sounds/202795/, under the Creative Commons 0 License (Public Domain Dedication).  For more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/; information on the Public Domain Dedication license specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/.

The Bullpasture River and Cowpasture River sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio along Route 612 in Highland County, Va., on March 16, 2019, and along U.S. Route 39 in Bath County, Va., on March 17, 2019, respectively.

“Deer of the Dawn,” from the 2004 album “Virginia Wildlife,” is copyright 2004 by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://www.timothyseaman.com/.  The “Virginia Wildlife” CD was a collaboration between Mr. Seaman and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Bullpasture River, looking upstream at County Route 612 in Highland County, Va., March 16, 2019.


Cowpasture River, looking upstream from the U.S. Route 39 bridge in Bath County, Va., March 17, 2019.


Cowpasture River, looking upstream from County Route 633 in Alleghany County, Va., July 19, 2009.


Confluence of the Cowpasture River (right background) and the Jackson River (left background) to form the James River in Botetourt County, Va., July 19, 2009.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

American Whitewater, “Safety Code of American Whitewater,” online at https://www.americanwhitewater.org/content/Wiki/safety:start.

County of Bath, Va., “Farms and Fish Hatcheries,” online at https://discoverbath.com/what-to-do/farms-farmers-market/.

Cowpasture River Preservation Association, “History,” online at https://www.cowpastureriver.org/history.

Highland County Chamber of Commerce, “Farm Stays,” online at http://www.highlandcounty.org/for-the-visitor/farm-stays/.

National Park Service, “Rivers/Virginia,” online at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/rivers/virginia.htm.

Stephen J. Resser, “Cowpasture River Fish Community Assessment,” Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 2014, online (as PDF) at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/Cowpasture-River-Report-2014.pdf.

Roanoke Outside Foundation, “Find Rivers and Creeks/Bullpasture River,” online at https://www.roanokeoutside.com/water/rivers-creeks/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Highland [Wildlife Management Area,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wma/highland/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Cowpasture River,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/waterbody/cowpasture-river/.

Virginia Tourism Corporation, “Virginia is For Lovers/Bullpasture Gorge,” online at https://www.virginia.org/listings/OutdoorsAndSports/BullpastureGorge/.

WeRelate.org, “Settlers of the Bullpasture in Augusta County, Va.,” online at https://www.werelate.org/wiki/Settlers_of_the_Bullpasture_in_Augusta_County%2C_Virginia.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on areas near the Bullpasture and Cowpasture Rivers.
Episode 379, 7/31/17 – Water’s at the Heart of Virginia’s Western Highlands.
Episode 428, 7/9/18 – Introducing the Jackson River.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-3 Economics Theme
2.8 – natural, human, and capital resources.
3.8 – understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.2 – physical geography and native peoples of Virginia past and present.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.4 – types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Episode 468 (4-15-19): Adding a Splash of Color to Stormwater Management


Click to listen to episode (4:33).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-12-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 15, 2019.  This week our guest host is Lily Michaud, the spring 2019 intern at the Virginia Water Resources Research Center.

For this week’s episode, we focus on the topics of stormwater management, storm-drain markers, and a creative approach in Virginia designed to increase awareness of local watersheds.  We start with some music for stormwater.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds to part of “Storm,” composed by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at Manhattan School of Music in New York.

MUSIC – ~18 sec

Upon listening to that music, you may get the sense that water has a story.  The notes and patterns convey the idea that water endures a fascinating journey.  Water’s journey involves both natural pathways across land and through the atmosphere as well as human-made pathways through pipes, into drains, and across pavement, with significant impacts as it travels through both kinds of pathways.  The water in human-made pathways is what we call stormwater.

Stormwater is defined by the U.S EPA as rain or snowmelt that “flows over land or impervious surfaces, such as paved streets, parking lots, and building rooftops, and does not soak into the ground.”  In developed areas, typically stormwater ends up going down a storm drain. Water that flows into storm drains gets directly channeled into local waterways and watersheds without any passage through a wastewater treatment plant.  Storm-drain markers are an educational and cost-effective way to raise awareness about the connection between stormwater and the environment.

Storm-drain markers can range from basic stamps that say, “Do not dump, empties to stream,” to more elaborate depictions of the ecosystem that is receiving the stormwater.  The Town of Blacksburg, Virginia has chosen the latter, more picturesque approach to tell its local stormwater story.  In 2019, Blacksburg conducted its second annual storm-drain mural competition, where the winning designers paint their design on a local storm drain.  In 2018, four unique designs were selected and assigned to storm-drain locations around downtown Blacksburg.  The designs include realistic and symbolic depictions of landscapes, waterways, and aquatic creatures.  According to Kafi Howard, Blacksburg town engineer, and Carol Davis, manager of the Blacksburg Sustainability Division, the project is an eye-catching way to educate people of all ages about of their local natural resources.  Instead of letting storm drains fade into the background, the program grabs people’s attention and makes storm drains a part of a conversation about conservation.

All over Virginia, storm-drain marking is part of various local efforts to increase community engagement and involvement in improving water quality.  A picture speaks a thousand words, and in the case of storm-drain marking, it can serve as a concrete reminder of the greater connectivity among citizens, water and ecosystems.

Thanks to Torrin Hallett for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 15 more seconds of “Storm,” as one last reminder of the story that water can tell!

MUSIC – ~18 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode was created and written by Lily Michaud, a major in Water Resources at Virginia Tech.  In spring 2019, Lily was an intern with the Virginia Water Resources Research Center.

Virginia Water Radio thanks Kafi Howard, with the Town of Blacksburg, Va., for her help with this episode.

“Storm,” a movement within “Au Naturale,” is copyright 2017 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; as of 2019, he is a graduate student in Horn Performance at Manhattan School of Music in New York.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  “Storm” was also included in the following other Virginia Water Radio episodes:
Episode 362, 4-3-17, on hail;
Episode 377, 7-17-17, on clouds; and
Episode 438, 9-17-18, on hurricane facts and history.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES


Basic storm drain marker on University City Boulevard in Blacksburg, Va., April 15, 2019. The marker says “Don’t Pollute—Flows to Waterways.”


Storm drain mural on Draper Road in Blacksburg, Va., April 15 2019.


Storm drain mural on Clay Street in Blacksburg, Va., April 15, 2019.


Cover in the center of the storm drain mural on Clay Street in Blacksburg, Va., April 15, 2019.


QR code label offering more information in the storm drain mural on Clay Street in Blacksburg, Va., April 15, 2019.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Chesapeake Bay Foundation, “Storm Drain Stenciling,” online at https://www.cbf.org/join-us/education-program/resources/storm-drain-stenciling.html.

City of Chesapeake, Va., “Storm Drain Marker Program,” online at http://www.cityofchesapeake.net/Page3402.aspx.

City of Staunton, Va., “Adopt-a-Stream Program,” online at https://www.ci.staunton.va.us/departments/engineering-division/adopt-a-stream-program.

City of Warrenton, Va., “Adopt-a-Stream Program,” online at http://www.warrentonva.gov/government/departments/public_works/adopt_a_stream_program.php

Scott Harper, New Norfolk storm drain markers aim to keep polluters away, Virginian-Pilot, May 5, 2007.

Kafi Howard, Town of Blacksburg, Va., in-person interview by Lily Michaud, February 13, 2019.

Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, “Stenciling Storm Drains,” online at https://www.potomacriver.org/resources/get-involved/water/storm-drains/.

Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, “Storm Drain Marking,” online at http://prj.geosyntec.com/npsmanual/stormdrainmarking.aspx.

Minnesota Stormwater Manual, “MS4 Fact Sheet—Storm Drain Stenciling,” as of 4/21/17, online at https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=MS4_fact_sheet_-_Storm_Drain_Stenciling.

Town of Blacksburg, Va., “Water Quality Public Arts Projects,” online at http://www.blacksburg.gov/departments/departments-l-z/sustainability/water-quality-public-arts-projects.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Stormwater Program, online at https://www.epa.gov/npdes/npdes-stormwater-program.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR), “Storm Drain Stenciling” form, 2000, accessed online at https://www.roanokecountyva.gov/DocumentCenter/Home/View/229. (This form is no longer active, according to the DCR online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/forms.)

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Stormwater Management,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/StormwaterManagement.aspx.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes related to stormwater.
Episode 182, 10/7/13 – on stormwater generally.
Episode 338, 10/17/16 – on rainfall measurements.
Episode 365, 4/24/17 – on stormwater and watersheds, featuring voices of Montgomery County, Va., middle-school students.

Following are links to other episodes featuring music composed by Torrin Hallett.
“Geese Piece” – Episode 335, 9-26-16 on the Canada Goose; and Episode 440, 10-1-18, on E-bird.
“New Year’s Water” – Episode 349, 1-2-17, on New Year’s 2017.
“Rain Refrain” – Episode 338, 10-17-16, on rainfall measurements; and Episode 455, 1-14-19, on record Virginia precipitation in 2019.
“Tropical Tantrum” – Episode 369, 5/22/17 and Episode 423, 6/2/18, on the upcoming Atlantic tropical storm seasons in 2017 and 2018, respectively; and Episode 438, 9-17-18, on hurricane basic facts and history.
“Turkey Tune” – Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.6 – ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.