Sunday, January 26, 2020

Episode 509 (1-27-20): Early-breeding Wood Frogs and Little Grass Frogs Get the Jump on Spring

Click to listen to episode (4:24)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 1-24-20.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of January 27, 2020.

MUSIC – ~6 sec – instrumental

That’s part of “The Coming Spring,” by Andrew VanNorstrand, from his 2019 album, “That We Could Find a Way to Be.”  This week, with spring still two months away by the calendar, we get an early jump on that season with two frogs that begin breeding in Virginia in mid-winter.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds to these mystery sounds, and see if you know these frogs.  And here’s a hint: If you heard these species’ earliest breeding calls, you would probably see little grass.

SOUNDS - ~19 sec

If you guessed a Wood Frog and a Little Grass Frog, you’re right!  You heard the clucking of a Wood Frog and the insect-like chirps of a Little Grass Frog.  These two species are part of 28 native frog and toad species found in Virginia.  As a group, frogs and toads are known for aquatic-habitat breeding that typically involves calling by males to attract females.   For most Virginia frogs and toads, that breeding activity starts in March or April.  But six species are considered early-season breeders, with activity starting by February, and Wood Frogs and Little Grass Frogs may start in January.

These two species occupy different parts of Virginia: Wood Frogs are found mostly in Virginia’s mountains and Piedmont, while Little Grass Frogs are found in the Commonwealth’s southeastern corner.  Wood Frogs gather in large groups in various temporary, or ephemeral, water habitats, for breeding over a few days, during which the females deposit large floating masses containing hundreds or thousands of eggs.  Little Grass Frogs, the smallest frog species in North America, seek shallow-water grassy areas and lay much smaller numbers of eggs on plants or on the bottom of a shallow pond.

These two frog species—in different regions, with different sounds and different breeding behavior—together offer much of Virginia a chance to hear life-cycles restarting well before the more familiar signs of spring.

Thanks to the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and to Lang Elliott for permission to use the Little Grass Frog sound, from the 2008 CD, “The Calls of Virginia Frogs and Toads.”  Thanks also to Andrew VanNorstrand for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “The Coming Spring,” featuring singer Kailyn Wright.

MUSIC – ~21 sec - lyrics: “I went outside and I remembered everything: how the coldest winter melts before the coming spring.”

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Wood Frog sounds heard in this episode were recorded by Virginia Water Radio in Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., on February 18, 2018.

The Little Grass Frog sounds in this episode were from “The Calls of Virginia Frogs and Toads” CD, copyright 2008 by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) and Lang Elliott/NatureSound Studio, used with permission.   For more information on this CD, contact VDGIF online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/; by mail to P.O. Box 90778, Henrico, VA 23228-0778; by phone to (804) 367-1000 (VTDD); or by e-mail to dgifweb@dgif.virginia.gov.  Lang Elliott’s work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

“The Coming Spring,” from the 2019 album “That We Could Find a Way to Be,” is copyright by Andrew VanNorstrand, used with permission.  More information about Andrew VanNorstrand is available online at https://www.andrewvannorstrand.com/.

Thanks to the following people for their help with this episode:
Tommy Cianolo, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation;
Kevin Hamed, Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation;
Tom McNamara, Craig County, Va.;
John Kleopfer, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries;
Elizabeth Shadle, Virginia Tech Department of Biological Sciences.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Wood Frog.  Photo by Elizabeth Shadle, used with permission.


Little Grass Frog (Pseudacris ocularis) in Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia, February 2011.  Photo from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12030/rec/1.


Wood Frog egg masses.  Photo by Elizabeth Shadle, used with permission.


Virginia county occurrence map for the Wood Frog.  Map from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Wildlife Information/Wood Frog,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/wood-frog/.


Virginia county occurrence map for the Little Grass Frog.  Map from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Wildlife Information/Little Grass Frog,” online at online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/little-grass-frog/.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE WOOD FROG AND THE LITTLE GRASS FROG

Wood Frog

The Wood Frog’s scientific name is Lithobates sylvaticus.

The following information on the Wood Frog is quoted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Wood Frog Life History Chapter,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020019&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18270.

Physical Description
“This species ranges in length from 35-83 mm (1.5-3.25 in).   It has a distinctive dark "mask" extending back from the eye.  Dorsal [top] coloration varies from nearly pink to shades of brown to nearly black.  Females are typically more brightly colored and larger than the males.”

Reproduction
“This species is often described as an explosive, short-term breeder.  In this region, breeding often takes place over just a few days in February or March.  The breeding cue is typically temperature with males sometimes heard calling when ponds are still iced over.  Male breeding call is a raspy clacking sound similar to the quacking of a duck.  Breeding adults gather in large numbers. Females lay globular masses of eggs often closely aggregated and attached to submerged plants or other objects in shallow pools.  Mean clutch size is 1750 eggs. …This species prefers ponds, slow portions of streams, and ditches for breeding.”

Behavior, Feeding, and Habitat

This species is adapted to the cold and ranges farther north than any other North American amphibian or reptile.  It appears very early in the year, and males are often heard calling before ice-out on the ponds. …Apart from the breeding period, individuals are typically found in or near moist woods often far from open water.  They hibernate under detritus or logs in wooded ravines.  This frog feeds primarily on insects, especially beetles and flies. …In Virginia, this species is found in the mountains and in scattered locations across the Piedmont and northern Coastal Plain.  It is typically found in or near moist woods frequently far from open water.”

Little Grass Frog

The Little Grass Frog’s scientific name is Pseudacris ocularis.

The following information on the Little Grass Frog is quoted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Little Grass Frog Life History Chapter,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020010&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18285.

Physical Description
“This is the smallest frog in North America ranging in size from 11-19 mm (7/16 to 3/4 in).  Its dorsal [top] coloration ranges from gray to brown to reddish.  A characteristic dark stripe extends from nostril through the eye onto the sides.  A dark mid-dorsal stripe is sometimes present.”

Reproduction
“Few specifics are known about the life history of this species in the northern portion of its range which is southeastern Virginia.  However, general information is available.  This species breeds in association with spring and summer rains.  The male's mating call is a tinkling, insect-like ‘set-see, set-see.’  Though breeding is typically associated with rains, the calls can be heard throughout the year during warm weather.  Females deposit approximately 100 eggs singly on the bottom of shallow ponds and in vegetation.”

Behavior, Feeding, and Habitat
“This species prefers grassy areas near bogs or ponds in pine savannas and pools or streams in hardwood forests and swamps. …This species' principal prey item are small insects. …This species is found near bogs or ponds in pine savannas and pools or streams in hardwood forests and swamps.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Bernard S. Martof et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1980.

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org.  The Wood Frog entry is at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Lithobates_sylvaticus/; there’s no listing for the Little Grass Frog.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/.
The Wood Frog entry is online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020019&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18270.
The Little Grass Frog entry is online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020010&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18285.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Frog Facts: Wood Frog,” 2/6/15, online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/blog/frog-facts-wood-frog/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia Frog and Toad Calling Survey,” online at http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/frogsurvey/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Wildlife Information,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/. A list of 85 amphibians, including 28 frogs and toads, found in Virginia is online at this link.
The Wood Frog entry is online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/wood-frog/.
The Little Grass Frog entry is online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/little-grass-frog/.

Virginia Herpetological Society (VHS), online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/.  The VHS supports the scientific study of amphibians (frogs, toads, and salamanders) and reptiles (lizards, snakes, and turtles).
The VHS’ Wood Frog entry is online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/wood-frog/wood_frog.php.
The VHS’ Little Grass Frog entry is online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/little-grass-frog/little_grass_frog.php.
The “Frog Calling Schedule” is online (as a PDF) at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/_phenology/va-frog-and-toad-phenology.pdf.

For More Information about Frogs and Other Amphibians

AmphibiaWeb, https://amphibiaweb.org/index.html.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “National Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative [ARMI],” online at https://armi.usgs.gov/index.php.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia is for Frogs” Web site, online at http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/virginia-is-for-frogs/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Amphibians” subject category.

Following are links to other Water Radio episodes that include sounds of the Wood Frog or the Little Grass Frog.

Episode 206, 3-24-14 – A Spring Serenade (including the Wood Frog).
Episode 408, 2-19-18 – A Frog and Toad Medley (including the Wood Frog).
Episode 464, 3-18-19 – Calling All Virginia Chorus Frogs (including the Little Grass Frog, which is classified as a type of chorus frog).

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 – life cycles.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme

2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.6 – bases for modern classification systems, including structures, biochemistry, and developmental stages.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Episode 508 (1-20-20): A Water-related Introduction to Virginia’s Legislative Commissions, Committees, and Councils

Click to listen to episode (5:42)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Image
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 1-17-20.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of January 20, 2020.

VOICE – ~7 sec – “This is an issue, this is a problem, this something that needs resolution yesterday. And we cannot wait any longer.”

That’s the voice of Eileen Filler-Corn of Fairfax County, the Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates, referring to the problem of sea-level rise and coastal flooding.  She was speaking at the December 4, 2019, meeting in Blacksburg of the Virginia Joint Commission on Technology and Science, or JCOTS.  This week we focus on JCOTS as an example of Virginia’s wide variety of legislative commissions, committees, and councils, and their connection to the work of the Virginia General Assembly.  Have a listen for about 90 more seconds to the sea-level rise part of the December 4 JCOTS meeting.

VOICES - ~98 sec

James Aylor – “Our mission, and the mission of JCOTS, really overlap extensively.   In other words, you folks are looking at science and technology for the state, and we have a set of experts…who work pretty much—well, they do work free when they do these studies.   It seemed like to me an opportunity for us to join up and do some things together. …”

Del. Eileen Filler-Corn – “Yes, I get the importance of the study, and I do think I share your interest in doing that moving forward.  What can be done prior to that study?  I’m trying to figure out what we can do now with regard to coastal flooding. I know as I spent more and more time…in your region, Mr. Chairman, countless times there were meetings and events that were literally just canceled.  People could not get out of their house, they could not down the roads.  We all know that but it’s different to actually be there and to see it. …”

Sen. Bill DeSteph – “I sit on the joint committee on coastal flooding.  We met Monday.  We had just over three hours of briefings.  I’ve been briefed by the Army Corps of Engineers; that was a six-hour brief. … The concern I have is, almost all of these folks are referring to the same NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration] model, but for 2070 everybody’s opinion of where we’re going to be [on sea level in coastal Virginia] is different. … So I think it’s truly important to get a group of scientists [and engineers] to sit down, agree on what the underlying assumptions are, and then build a model for a recommendation, if there is a way to come to an agreement in the underlying assumptions.”

Sen. John Cosgrove – “We can go back and forth on what’s causing sea-level rise, but the sea-level is rising.  And I think this group can give us a “nuts-and-bolts/here’s-what-we-really-believe brief, with no outside influence. And I think that’s exactly what we all need.”

You heard, first, James Aylor, president of the Virginia Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine, referring to that group’s proposal for a sea-level rise study, followed by some reactions from three JCOTS members: Delagate Filler-Corn, Senator Bill DeSteph of Virginia Beach, and Sen. John Cosgrove of Chesapeake.  Following-up that meeting, in January 2020 Sen. Cosgrove proposed to the General Assembly Senate Joint Resolution 38, which would direct JCOTS to study “the safety, quality of life, and economic consequences of weather and climate-related events on coastal areas in Virginia.”  This is an example of how JCOTS is involved in gathering information that may lead to General Assembly legislation.

JCOTS is one of over two dozen legislative commissions and other groups listed by the Virginia Division of Legislative Services, the legislative branch agency tasked with providing nonpartisan legal and research services to the General Assembly.  The subject matter and purposes of these groups vary widely, but collectively they provide information, make legislative or regulatory recommendations, monitor implementation of some legislation, and perform other services for the Assembly.

Besides JCOTS and its water-science connection, three other long-term groups particularly relate to water: the Chesapeake Bay Restoration Fund Advisory Committee, the State Water Commission, and the Coal and Energy Commission.  Water can also be the subject of shorter-term study committees or subcommittees that the General Assembly appoints from time to time; one current example is the Joint Subcommittee on Coastal Flooding.

While the General Assembly is in session for only about one to two months each year, during the rest of the time legislative commissions, committees, and councils help carry out Assembly actions and gather information to support future bills.  More information on these groups is available at the Division of Legislative Services’ Web site, dls.virginia.gov.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The voices heard in this episode were recorded on December 4, 2019, at the meeting of the Virginia Joint Commission on Technology and Science (JCOTS) at the Virginia Tech Inn in Blacksburg.  The comments presented here are excerpts intended to give the sense of the speaker’s comments at the time.  The excerpts are in the order in which people spoke during the sea-level rise segment of the meeting.

Thanks for James Aylor, president of the Virginia Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine, for providing information for this episode.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGE

Dr. James Aylor, president of the Virginia Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine, making a presentation to the Virginia Joint Commission on Technology and Science at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, December 4, 2019.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE COMMISSIONS, COMMITTEES, SUBCOMMITTEES, AND COUNCILS

Following are the commissions, committees, subcommittees, and councils listed by the Virginia Department of Legislative Services (DLS), online at http://dls.virginia.gov/commissions.html, as of January 20, 2020.  The categories are as listed on the DLS page, and the group hyperlinks from that page are retained here.

Business
Commission on Electric Utility Regulation
Commission on Economic Opportunity for Virginians in Aspiring & Diverse Communities
Health Insurance Reform Commission
Manufacturing Development Commission
Small Business Commission
Joint Commission on Technology and Science
Commission on Unemployment Compensation

Education
Commission on Civic Education

Energy and Environment
Chesapeake Bay Restoration Fund Advisory Committee
Coal and Energy Commission
State Water Commission

Health
Autism Advisory Council
Virginia Disability Commission

Historical
Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Committee
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Commission
Virginia World War I Commemoration Commission
Virginia World War II Commemoration Commission

Housing
Virginia Housing Commission

Legal and Regulatory
Administrative Law Advisory Committee
Joint Commission on Administrative Rules
Virginia Code Commission
Virginia Conflict of Interest and Ethics Advisory Council
Freedom of Information Advisory Council
Commissioners for the Promotion of Uniformity of Legislation in the United States

Procurement Processes
Public-Private Education Facilities and Infrastructure Act Model Guidelines Working Group

Taxation
Joint Subcommittee to Evaluate Tax Preferences

Transportation
Joint Commission on Transportation Accountability

Interim Study Committees
ABC Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Rehabilitation and Social Services
Joint Subcommittee to Study Mental Health Services in the Commonwealth in the 21st Century
Joint Subcommittee on Coastal Flooding
Joint Committee to Study the Future of Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the Commonwealth
Paid Family and Medical Leave Study

Other Legislative Commissions and Councils
Commission on the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program
Capitol Square Preservation Council
Chesapeake Bay Commission
Virginia State Crime Commission
Joint Commission on Health Care
Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC)
Virginia Commission on Youth

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Virginia Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine, online at http://www.vasem.org/.

Virginia Division of Legislative Services (DLS), “Commissions and Committees,” online at http://dls.virginia.gov/commissions.html; “Joint Commission on Technology and Science,” online at http://dls.virginia.gov/commission/jcots.htm; and “Joint Subcommittee on Coastal Flooding,” online at http://dls.virginia.gov/interim_studies_flooding.html.

Virginia General Assembly, “Interim Studies and Commissions Listing/Joint Commission on Technology and Science,” https://studies.virginiageneralassembly.gov/studies/179.

Virginia General Assembly, “Virginia House of Delegates Member Listing,” online at https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/members/members.php; and “Senate of Virginia,” online at https://apps.senate.virginia.gov/Senator/index.php.

Virginia Legislative Information System, “Bills and Resolutions/2020 Session/ Senate Joint Resolution (SJ) 38: Coastal areas; study on economic consequences of weather-related events,” online at http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+ful+SJ38.  This is the source of the quote from SJ 38 in this episode’s audio.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

Virginia’s State Water Commission was the focus of Episode 347, 12-19-16.

This most recent episode on the Virginia General Assembly is Episode 506, 1-6-20; the show notes for that episode include links to previous General Assembly episodes.

Following are links to some other episodes on Virginia state agencies.
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries – Episode 322, 6-27-16.
Marine Resources Commission – Episode 91, 12-5-11.
State Water Control Board – Episode 94, 1-9-12.
State Parks System – Episode 320, 6-13-16.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Virginia natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, and cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

Biology Course
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Episode 507 (1-13-20): Snow Geese Gather for Coastal Virginia's Winter

Click to listen to episode (4:06)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 1-10-20.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of January 13, 2020.  This is a revised repeat of an episode from November 2012.

SOUND - ~ 4 sec

This week we feature mystery sounds from a bird whose flocks are known for filling eastern Virginia skies and wetlands in winter.  Have listen for about 10 more seconds and see if you can guess what’s making this riot of sound.  And here’s a hint: Snow or no, the Chesapeake Bay area entertains huge groups of these visitors every winter.

SOUND - ~11 sec

If you guessed Snow Geese, you’re right!  After breeding in the Arctic and other far northern lands in summer, some populations of Snow Geese return to the Chesapeake Bay region for late fall and winter.  Gathering to feed on plants around water bodies and in wetlands and agricultural fields, Snow Geese flocks can number in the thousands.  The species has two color forms, or “morphs”: a light, or white, morph; and a dark, or blue, morph.  From 1916 to 1975, Snow Goose hunting in the eastern United States was banned due to low population levels of the birds, but in recent decades populations have increased greatly.   In fact, the Snow Goose is now one of the most abundant species of waterfowl in North America, according to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s “All About Birds” Web site.  And big gangs of Snow Geese are a sight to behold: According to a description by the Cornell Lab, “watching huge flocks of Snow Geese swirl down from the sky, amid a cacophony of honking, is a little like standing inside a snow globe.”

Besides its biological features, this bird species is also noteworthy for its role as a character and a symbol in a World War II-era short story titled, “The Snow Goose.”  American author Paul Gallico’s November 1940 story, set in coastal England, merges themes of life on the water, disability, emotional connection, natural history, and human history, particularly the civilian-aided evacuation of British troops from Dunkirk, France, in mid-1940.

Thanks to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for making this week’s sound available for public use.  We close with some instrumental music, with a title recalling the behavior of a Snow Goose flock taking flight if it senses danger from predators.  Here’s part of “Elusive Goose,” by Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand, from their 2007 album, “A Certain Tree.”

MUSIC - ~12 sec.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 
This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 138, 11-26-12.  This week’s script was based in part on work done by Minni Gupta, a 2011 Virginia Tech graduate who did an internship with the Virginia Water Resources Research Center in the fall 2010 semester.  Ms. Gupta wrote Virginia Water Radio Episode 38, 10-18-10, which also includes Snow Geese sounds and information.

The Snow Geese sounds heard in the episode were taken from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Digital Library, http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/.  The specific URL for the Snow Gees sound clip was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/audio/id/70/rec/1, accessed 1/10/20.  These sounds were also used in Episode 150, 2-25-123, on winter birds in the Chesapeake Bay region.

“Elusive Goose,” from the 2007 “A Certain Tree,” is copyright by Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand and Great Bear Records, used with permission.  More information about Andrew and Noah is available online at https://andrewandnoah.bandcamp.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES



Snow Goose painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (Plate 381).  Image made available for public use by The National Audubon Society, online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america; specific URL for the image is https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/snow-goose.


Snow Geese in flight (location and date unidentified).  Photo made available for public use the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the image is https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/4372/rec/1, as of 1/14/20.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE SNOW GOOSE

The scientific name of the Snow Goose is Anser caerulescens (formerly Chen caerulescens).

Here are some points about the Snow Goose, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Snow Goose,” online at online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040410&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18271.

Physical Description

“The adult is identical to the white phase of the lesser snow goose, all white with black primaries and gray wing coverts. …The bill is pinkish-red and the nail white.  A black line runs along the edge of both mandibles.  The legs and feet are pink.  The average length is 78 cm” [about 31 inches; a bird’s length is measured from head to tail].

Nesting Behavior and Habitat

“The breeding season is from late June to early July. …This species will display aggressive behavior, and the wing tips are displayed prominently.  There is a triumph ceremony wherein the pairs point the head and neck upwards calling noisily with half open wings.  They arrive on the breeding grounds already paired and remain in flocks until the thaw. … It breeds on level plains some distance inland on steep slopes and cliff faces, and sheltered sides of ravines.  It selects a slightly raised mound on a ridge in a mostly level area that is well-drained with westward slopes or on vegetated hilltops, habitats where stony terrain meets wet and grassy tundra, where land is flat, marshy and protected from the north by mountains.  This species constructs a nest of grasses on the ground.  The nest is a scrape with surrounding vegetation added.”

Migration

During migration, this species rests on fresh and saltwater marshes, flooded meadows, grain fields, and lakes.   It generally avoids forested areas.  The fall migration begins in early September…. The spring migration begins in late February.  There is a narrow migration corridor through eastern Canada and the northeastern United States.  Spring flocks are 35-400 birds.  It migrates above 2000 feet by day or night.  The Chesapeake Bay migration during the fall is from October 15 to December 15, with a peak from November 10 to December 15.   In the spring it is from February 20 to March 30, with the peak from February 20 to March 15.”

Winter Habitat In or Near Virginia

“They are found at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay and along the coast.  They are found in coastal bays and shallow estuaries often with marshy areas nearby. ... They prefer abundant emergent vegetation in brackish marshes.”

Diet

“This species feeds in marshes in the early morning or late afternoon or sometimes at night.  It pulls plants up rather than grazing… It takes saltmarsh cordgrass, which is an important food in Chesapeake Bay.  Juvenile foods include fruits, flowers, horsetail shoots, grasses, bulrushes, grain, wild and cultivated rice, rootstalks and shoots of bulrush and saltmarsh cordgrass.   They will also feed in agricultural fields….”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Lisa Allardice, Winter Reads: The Snow Goose, by Paul Gallico, The Guardian, December 19, 2011.

John James Audubon, “Snow Goose,” from Birds of America (1827-1838), Plate 381, accessed at the Audubon Web site, online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/snow-goose.

Martin Benson, “The Literature of Paul Gallico,” online at http://www.paulgallico.info/notitle.html.

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Snow Goose,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/S=0/fieldguide/critter/snow_goose.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.  The Snow Goose entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Snow_Goose/.  This is the source of the “snow globe” quote used in the audio for this episode.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).  The Snow Goose entry is online at https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/snogoo/introduction.

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Dunkirk Evacuation,” online at https://www.britannica.com/event/Dunkirk-evacuation. [May 26-June 4, 1940.]

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001.

Travel About Britain, “Essex,” online at https://www.travelaboutbritain.com/essex/essex.php.

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web/Anser caerulescens (snow goose), online at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Anser_caerulescens/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  The Snow Goose entry is online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040410&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18271.

Phillipa Weery, Children’s War Books/The Snow Goose, July 3, 2014, online at http://childrenswarbooks.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-snow-goose-by-paul-gallico.html.

For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes on geese.

Episode 335, 9-26-16 – on Canada Goose.
Episode 502, 12-9-19 – on Brant.

Following are links to other episodes on birds found in coastal Virginia in winter.

Episode 90, 11-28-11 – on Tundra Swan.
Episode 197, 1-20-14 – on Canvasback.
Episode 150, 2-25-13 –on Chesapeake Bay area winter birds generally, with sounds of Horned Grebe, Dunlin, American Coot, Hooded Merganser, Tundra Swan, and Snow Goose.
Episode 233, 9-29-14 – on grebes.
Episode 303, 2-15-16 – on Common Goldeneye.
Episode 398, 12-11-17 – on Green-winged Teal.
Episode 445, 11-5-18 – on loons.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

English SOLs

Reading Theme
8.5, 9.4, 10.4, 11.4 – symbols, imagery, figurative language, and other literary devices.

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 – life cycles.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.6 – ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 – adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Episode 506 (1-6-20): Action on Budget, Bills, and Other Business Commences January 8 for the 2020 Virginia General Assembly

Click to listen to episode (4:32)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 1-3-20.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of January 6, 2020.

This week is our annual preview of the Virginia General Assembly, which convenes this year on January 8 and is scheduled to adjourn on March 7.  We start by dropping in on some of the work that went on before the opening gavel of the 2020 Assembly.  Have a listen for about [35 or 50] seconds.

VOICE – ~36 sec

“Good morning. I’m Delegate Nick Rush.  I represent the 7th District, that’s Montgomery, Pulaski, and Floyd counties.  As Charles [Delegate Charles Poindexter] and Bill [Senator William Carrico] said, we’re here for the public hearing.  We’re happy so many folks showed up today. … Know that this is the governor’s budget; it is not the House of Delegates’, Senator Carrico’s, or Charlie Poindexter’s budget.  And so we’re here to hear your comments, and then take those—as we’ve done over the last decades—to Richmond to represent your views.  Thank you all for coming.”

You’ve been listening to Virginia House of Delegates member Nick Rush during a January 2, 2020, public hearing in Blacksburg on Governor Ralph Northam’s proposed biennial state budget.  That hearing was one of four held around the state that day, following presentation of the governor’s budget in December.  Proposals from the governor and legislators’ forums for public input are two kinds of activities leading up to a General Assembly session.  Other activities include studies conducted during the year as called for by a previous General Assembly; meetings by various legislative committees and commissions, such as the State Water Commission, to consider issues for possible legislation; and pre-filing of measures by Assembly members—for example, as of January 3, almost 800 bills or resolutions had already been introduced for the 2020 session.

Once a session begins, typically over 2000 bills and resolutions will be considered, along with the budget.  Probably 100 to 200 of those measures will relate to water resources, either directly, through impacts on aquatic life, water supply, or other water uses; or indirectly, through land uses that affect water.  The budget also affects water, particularly through funding of water-related departments, such as Conservation and Recreation, Environmental Quality, Game and Inland Fisheries, and the Marine Resources Commission.

Action on measures in the General Assembly involves sub-committees, full committees, and floor debate, and passed bills go to the governor for approval, veto, or proposed changes.  All along the way, citizens, interest groups, and other stakeholders vie to have a say through information and opinions.  You can join in by following the Assembly’s work and by communicating with your local delegate or senator about issues of concern.  Tools to help you do so are available online at virginiageneralassembly.gov.

We close with part of a song whose title recalls what many people at the Virginia General Assembly are aiming to do for their particular issues.  Here’s some of “Try to Change It,” by Bob Gramann of Fredericksburg.

MUSIC - ~ 19 sec

Lyrics: “Try to change it; why can’t I change it? Strength of will, push and pull, I’m bettin’ on that train; strength of will, push and pull, I’m bettin’ on that train.”

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The excerpt from the January 2, 2020, public hearing on Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam’s proposed 2020-22 biennial state budget was recorded by Virginia Water Radio on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg on January 2, 2020.  The legislators for that public hearing were Del. Charles Poindexter (R-9th District; meeting chair); Delegate Nick Rush (R-7th District); and retiring Senator William Carrico (R-40th District).  Other public hearings were held on January 2 in Manassas, Richmond, and Suffolk.  The public hearings were conducted by the Virginia House of Delegates’ Appropriations Committee and the Virginia Senate’s Finance Committee.  Information from the House Appropriations Committee on those public hearings is available online (as a PDF) at http://hac.virginia.gov/press/Press%20Release%202020%20Public%20Hearings%20-%20Revised.pdf.

“Try to Change It,” from the 2001 album “See Farther in the Darkness,” is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at https://www.bobgramann.com/folksinger.html.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES


From left, Sen. William Carrico, Del. Charles Poindexter, and Del. Nick Rush at the January 2, 2020, public hearing on Gov. Ralph Northam’s proposed 2020-22 biennial budget held on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg.


Cartoon by George Wills of Blacksburg, Va. (http://www.etsy.com/people/BlacksburgArt), published originally in “Inside Virginia’s State Budget for Water,” Virginia Water Central Newletter, April 2001, p. 1; available online via http://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/water-central-news/.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Jane Alvarez-Wertz, Packed public hearing in Suffolk; residents voice concerns on governor’s proposed budget, WAVY TV – Portsmouth, Va., 1/2/20.

Joe Dashiell, Gun rights advocates turn out for state budget hearing, WDBJ TV – Roanoke, Va., 1/2/20.

University of Virginia, “State Government Relations/Key Dates for the 2020 General Assembly Session,” online at https://sgr.virginia.edu/key-dates-2020-general-assembly-session.

Virginia Division of Legislative Services, “Commissions, Committees, and Councils,” online at http://dls.virginia.gov/commissions.html.

Virginia House of Delegates Appropriations Committee, “Legislative Budget Process,” online at http://hac.virginia.gov/legislative.htm.

Virginia Legislative Information System, online at https://lis.virginia.gov/lis.htm.  This site provides lists and summaries of all bills, searchable by topic, member, committee, etc.  As of January 3, 2020, “Session Statistics,” online at https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+oth+STA, listed 795 House or Senate bills, resolutions, or joint resolutions introduced for the 2020 session.

Virginia Association of Counties, “Governor Northam Presents Biennium Budget Proposals,” 12/20/19, online at https://www.vaco.org/governor-presents-biennium-budget-proposals/.

Virginia General Assembly, online at http://virginiageneralassembly.gov/index.php.   This Web site offers several useful features, including member lists, session calendars, live video of floor sessions, and information on legislative processes.

Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Virginia Water Legislation,” online at https://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/virginia-water-legislation/.  This site provides access to inventories of water-related bills in the Virginia General Assembly from 1998 through 2019.

For More Information about the Virginia General Assembly

During sessions, live streaming video is available.  The House of Delegates live video stream Web site is https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php; the Senate live video steam Web site is http://virginia-senate.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3.  Live streaming of committee meetings also is available.  Information on live streaming of House committee meetings is online at https://publications.virginiageneralassembly.gov/display_publication/209; for Senate committee meetings, online at http://virginia-senate.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3.

To express an opinion on legislation, citizens are requested to contact their respective delegate of senator.  If you do not know your representatives or their contact information, you can use the online “Who’s My Legislator” service, available at http://whosmy.virginiageneralassembly.gov/.  You can find members’ contact information at these links:
House: http://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/members/members.php;
Senate: https://apps.senate.virginia.gov/Senator/index.php.

The Lobbyist-In-A-Box subscriber service also offers free tracking for up to five bills, and it offers tracking of more than five bills for a fee; visit http://lis.virginia.gov/h015.htm.  For assistance, phone Legislative Automated Systems at (804) 786-9631.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper posts on the Virginia General Assembly are available online at https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=General+Assembly.   Items are categorized by the year of each session, from 2012 to 2020.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

Following are links to previous episodes on the Virginia General Assembly.

Episode 143, 1-7-13 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 147, 2-4-13 – on General Assembly committees.
Episode 196, 1-13-14 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 247, 1-5-15 – annual General Assembly preview, with special focus on state budget.
Episode 252, 2-9-15 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 297, 1-4-16 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 302, 2-8-16 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 350, 1-9-17 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 353, 1-30-17 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 359, 3-13-17 – on General Assembly subcommittees.
Episode 402, 1-8-18 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 405, 1-29-18 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 410, 3-5-18 – on electricity regulation legislation in 2018 session.
Episode 454, 1-7-19 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 460, 2-18-19 – annual “voting on water” episode.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
6.9 – public policy decisions regarding the environment.

Life Science Course
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course

ES.6 – renewable vs. non-renewable resources (including energy resources).
ES.10 – oceans, including economic and policy decisions affecting oceans, the coastal zone, and the Chesapeake Bay.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – social studies skills that responsible citizenship requires.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.1 – social studies skills that responsible citizenship requires.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.