Monday, February 24, 2020

Episode 513 (2-24-20): Turtles Inhabit Waters from Bogs to Oceans

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:25).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Image
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 2-21-20.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 24, 2020.

MUSIC – ~7 sec – Instrumental.

This week, that music by a Fredericksburg, Va., singer/songwriter opens an episode about a familiar and fascinating group of reptiles that are found in habitats from mountain bogs to the open oceans.  Have a listen to the music for about 25 more seconds, and see if know this group of creatures.  And you won’t need a hint, even though this is a shell game.

MUSIC - ~25 sec – Lyrics: “Grown-up turtles still play in the mud; everything they do is in cold blood. Don’t stick out their head when strangers around, spend their winters in the ground. Turtles don’t need no 401-K, they sit on the rock in the sun all day. Turtles don’t need no 401-K; it’s stuck in my head and it won’t go away.”

If you guessed turtles, of course you’re right!  You heard part of “Turtles Don’t Need No 401-K,” a light-hearted comparison between turtle life and modern human life, by Bob Gramann, from his 1995 album, “Mostly True Songs.”  Over 50 species of turtles, including certain species called tortoises or terrapins, are native to the United States and its coastal waters.  Current classification lists 22 species and some subspecies native to Virginia, with another four non-native species or subspecies having been introduced into the Commonwealth.

Except for the familiar Woodland Box Turtle, all of Virginia’s turtles require habitats that are at least partially aquatic.  There are semi-aquatic species, like the Bog Turtle and Wood Turtle; freshwater species, like Pond Sliders and River Cooters; the estuarine Diamondback Terrapin; and five species of sea turtles.  Turtles’ most characteristic feature, their shell, is used for defense but also to retain moisture.  Most turtles are omnivores, feeding both on plants and animals. Some kinds, such as River Cooters, are primarily plant-eaters, while others, like the Snapping Turtle, are primarily carnivores; and food habits can change seasonally and between young and adult turtles.  As a group, turtles are known for basking in the sun to warm their bodies for activity or metabolism; for long lives, as much as 100 years or more; and for migrations, whether a mile or so for some species, or the thousands of miles traveled by Sea Turtles.

The southeastern United States, including Virginia, is one of the world’s greatest areas of turtle diversity.  From woods and wetlands, to rivers, to the seas, these unique creatures fill roles in ecosystems, spark scientific curiosity, and generate stories in folklore, popular culture, and music.

Thanks to Bob Gramann for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 10 more seconds of “Turtles Don’t Need No 401-K.”

MUSIC - ~10 sec – Instrumental.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Turtles Don’t Need No 401-K,” from the 1995 album “Mostly True Songs,” is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at http://www.bobgramann.com/.  This song was also featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 123, 8-13-20 (on reptiles generally).

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

The four following turtle photographs were accessed from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Digital Library (main Web page http://digitalmedia.fws.gov), at the specific URL’s indicated.


Loggerhead Sea Turtle at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia, February 2011, accessed online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12034/rec/1.


Snapping Turtle at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia, September 2017, accessed online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/27223/rec/3.


Green Sea Turtle nesting at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia, February 2011, accessed online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12029/rec/8.


Woodland Box Turtle at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, W. Va., July 2018, accessed online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/29233/rec/9.

 Turtles in Fredericksburg, Va., April 27, 2018.  Photo by David Cox, used with permisison.

Turtles on Gayles Pond in Fredericksburg, Va., March 13, 2020.  Photo by David Cox, used with permisison.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT TURTLES IN VIRGINIA

Following are turtle species and subspecies known to occur in Virginia, as of February 2020. This list is a composite of the lists from three sources:

John D. Kleopfer et al., A Guide to the Turtles of Virginia, Bureau of Wildlife Resources Special Publication Number 4, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, Va., 2014.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) Fish and Wildlife Information Service, “Species Information,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/?Menu=Home.Species+Information.

Virginia Herpetological Society, “Turtles of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/reptiles/turtles/turtles_of_virginia.htm).

Scientific names (in parentheses and italics) are according to the Virginia Herpetological Society for the native species except for the Midland Painted Turtle; the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries for the Midland Painted Turtle; and Kleopfer et al. for the non-native species.  The threatened or endangered status is according to the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.

Species Native to Virginia (occurring at least occasionally)

Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) – Federal Threatened and State Endangered
Box Turtle, Wooland (Terrapene carolina carolina)
Chicken Turtle, Eastern (Deirochelys reticularia reticularia) – State Endangered
Cooter, Eastern River (subspecies) (Pseudemys concinna concinna)
Cooter, Coastal Plain (subspecies) (Pseudemys concinna floridana)
Cooter, Northern Red-bellied (Pseudemys rubriventris)
Map Turtle, Northern (Graptemys geographica)
Mud Turtle, Southeastern (Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum)
Mud Turtle, Striped (Kinosternon baurii)
Musk Turtle, Eastern (Sternotherus odoratus)
Musk Turtle, Stripe-necked (Sternotherus minor peltifer)
Painted Turtle, Eastern (subspecies) (Chrysemes picta picta)
Painted Turtle, Midland (subspecies) (Chrysemys picta marginata)
Sea Turtle, Atlantic Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata) – Federal and State Endangered
Sea Turtle, Green (Chelonia mydas) – Federal and State Threatened
Sea Turtle, Kemp’s Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) – Federal and State Endangered
Sea Turtle, Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) – Federal and State Endangered
Sea Turtle, Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) – Federal and State Threatened
Spiny Softshell, Eastern (Apalone spinifera spinifera)
Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpintina)
Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata)
Slider, Cumberland (subspecies) (Trachemys scripta troostii)
Slider, Yellow-bellied (subspecies) (Trachemys scripta scripta)
Terrapin, Northern Diamond-backed (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin)
Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) – State Threatened

Species Not Native to Virginia But Introduced by Humans

Chinese Softshell (Pelodiscus sinensis)
Map Turtle, Mississippi (Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii)
Slider, Red-eared (subspecies with native Cumberland Slider and Yellow-bellied Slider) (Trachemys scripta elegans)
Spiny Softshell, Gulf Coast (Apalone spinifera aspera)

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Kurt Buhlmann, et al., Turtles of the Southeast, University of Georgia Press, Athens, Ga., 2008.

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Reptile,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile.

John D. Kleopfer et al., A Guide to the Turtles of Virginia, Bureau of Wildlife Resources Special Publication Number 4, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, Va., 2014.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) Fish and Wildlife Information Service, “Species Information,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/?Menu=Home.Species+Information.

Virginia Herpetological Society, “Turtles of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/reptiles/turtles/turtles_of_virginia.htm.

For More Information about Turtles and Other Reptiles

Donald W. Linzey and Michael J. Clifford, Snakes of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 2002; information online at http://www.upress.virginia.edu/title/2509.

Bernard S. Martof et al.,
Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1980.

Maryland Sea Grant, “Diamondback Terrapins,” online at http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/topics/terrapins/diamondback-terrapins.

Joseph C. Mitchell, The Reptiles of Virginia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., and London, England, 1994.

Joseph C. Mitchell, “Snakes of Virginia,” online (as PDF) at http://www.people.vcu.edu/~albest/troop700/documents/TheSnakesOfVirginiaO.pdf.

Joseph C. Mitchell and Karen K. Reay, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Virginia, Special Publication No. 1, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, 1999.

Smithsonian Institution, “Bibliography on the Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles,” online at https://www.si.edu/encyclopedia_si/nmnh/reptshrt.htm.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, “Virginia’s Sea Turtles,” online at http://www.vims.edu/research/units/legacy/sea_turtle/va_sea_turtles/index.php.

Virginia Sea Grant, “Terrapin Files,” in the Summer 2012 issue of Virginia Marine Resource Bulletin, online at https://vaseagrant.org/terrapin-files/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Reptiles “subject category.

Following are links to other episodes with information on turtles.

Episode 70, 7-4-11 – on Diamondback Terrapins.
Episode 123, 8-13-12 – on reptiles generally.
Episode 371, 6-5-17 – on the “Herp Blitz” amphibian and reptile survey by the Virginia Herpetological Society.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Virginia natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, and cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 – life cycles.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystems.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.6 – bases for modern classification systems, including structures, biochemistry, and developmental stages.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Episode 512 (2-17-20): Fog’s Low Visibility Brings Mystery and Advisories

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:31).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Image
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 2-14-20.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 17, 2020.

SOUND – ~5 sec

This week, that ship’s horn opens an episode about an atmospheric event that’s often perceived as mysterious and is, in fact, often dangerous.  Have a listen for about 40 seconds to the ship’s horn again, followed by two additional mystery sounds, and see if you can guess this soundless water and weather phenomenon.

SOUNDS - ~41 sec

1) Ship horn.

2) National Weather Service dense-fog advisory on August 20, 2012: “Near zero conditions are being experiences on Interstate 77 near Fancy Gap, along and near mountain ridges and passes, and in some of the deeper mountain valleys.  Conditions in these areas are not likely to significantly improve until shortly after daybreak on Monday.  Motorists traveling through the area are urged to drive with low beams on, slow down, and provide additional time to reach their destination.”

3) Foghorn on U.S. Route 50 Chesapeake Bay Bridge.


If you guessed fog, you’re right!  After the ship’s foghorn, you heard an excerpt from a National Weather Service dense-fog advisory and then the foghorn at the U.S. Route 50/Chesapeake Bay Bridge in Maryland.

Mysterious in movies and potentially dangerous on roadways, shipping channels, and flight paths, fog’s silent movement was described by poet Carl Sandburg as “coming on little cat feet.”  Fog actually comes in when invisible water vapor in air becomes cooled enough to condense into visible, liquid water suspended close to the ground—essentially a very low-lying cloud.  A key factor is the dew point, the temperature to which air of a given moisture level and pressure must be cooled for fog, clouds, or precipitation to form.

Fog can form under various weather and landscape situations, resulting in the identification of several types of fog.  Six of those types are radiation fog, when land surfaces cool at night, in turn cooling moisture-laden air; mountain-valley fog, when cold air sinks into moisture-containing valleys; advection fog, when winds move moist air over a cold ground; steam fog, occurring over lakes in the fall; freezing fog, when water droplets from fog contact objects below the freezing point; and ice fog, occurring in polar regions.

Temperature, moisture level, air pressure, landscape topography, and winds all interact to determine whether fog creeps in on mysterious city streets or on the particular route you may be traveling.

Thanks to Freesound.org user inchadney for making the ship foghorn sound available for public use.  We close with about 20 seconds of music from a song whose title matches a color that fog frequently presents.  Here’s part of “Grey” by Blacksburg, Va., singer/songwriter Kat Mills.

MUSIC - ~20 sec – Lyrics: “We won’t try to fake it, don’t worry we’ll make it, and summer will be here one day. Till then it’s grey, grey, grey.”

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 124, 8-20-12.

The first sound was as a ship foghorn recorded by “inchadney” on June 3, 2012, accessed from Freesound.org online at https://freesound.org/people/inchadney/sounds/157284/, for public use under Creative Commons License 3.0/Attribution.

The second sound was part of a National Weather Service (NWS) special weather statement/dense-fog advisory from the August 20, 2012, NWS Weather Radio broadcast from Blacksburg, Virginia, from a recording of the broadcast made by Virginia Water Radio.

The third sound was the foghorn for the Chesapeake Bay Bridge on U.S. 50 in Maryland, recorded by Virginia Water Radio on Kent Island, Maryland, February 29, 2012.

“Grey,” from the 2006 album “Two,” is copyright by Kat Mills, used with permission.  More information about Kat Mills is available online at https://www.reverbnation.com/katmills.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES


Fog below Brush Mountain north of Blacksburg, Va., February 13, 2020, 10 a.m. EST.


Morning fog on the Potomac River downstream from Bonds Landing in Allegany County, Maryland, July 11, 2010.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT SOME TYPES OF FOG

The following information on several types of fog is quoted from the National Weather Service, “Fog Advisories,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/fog-ww.

Advection Fog

“Advection fog forms as warmer, moist air moves over a cold ground.  The air is cooled to saturation by the cold from the ground below cooling the air above.  Unlike radiation fog [see below], advection fog may form under cloudy skies and with moderate to strong winds. Initial stability is relatively unimportant since low level cooling makes the air stable near the ground, allowing the fog to form.  Once formed, it may move across the landscape, pushed by low level winds.  Advection fog can last for several days and is most common in the U.S. on the West Coast.”

Freezing Fog

“Tiny, supercooled liquid water droplets in fog can freeze instantly on exposed surfaces when surface temperatures are at or below freezing.  Some surfaces that these droplets may freeze on include tree branches, stairs and rails, sidewalks, roads and vehicles.  Extreme caution should be taken if travel is necessary. Freezing fog can cause black ice to form on roadways. …For those flying, a thin layer of ice can form on aircraft, making flight very dangerous unless the aircraft is treated or has effective de-icing equipment.”

Mountain/Valley Fog

“…There are two ingredients that add to the formation of fog in areas of variable terrain.  First, overnight, the ground cools as the heat that was gathered from the sun’s rays during the day is released back into the air near the ground level.  The denser, cooler air on mountain-tops sinks into valleys, and collects there. Second, over the course of the night, the valley begins to fill from the bottom with cold layers of air.  This phenomenon is known as 'cold air drainage.'  This cooler air lowers the surrounding air temperatures closer to the dew point and subsequently saturation.  If there is sufficient moisture in the air, fog will begin to form in these valleys as the night progresses.  This type of fog is most commonly observed in the autumn and spring months, and is densest around sunrise when surface temperatures are often lowest.”

Radiation Fog

“Radiation fog is a very common type of fog throughout the United States.  It is most prevalent during the fall and winter. It forms overnight as the air near the ground cools and stabilizes.  When this cooling causes the air to reach saturation, fog will form.  Fog will first form at or near the surface, thickening as the air continues to cool.  The layer of fog will also deepen overnight as the air above the initial fog layer also cools.  As this air cools, the fog will extend upward.  The most favored areas for fog development are sheltered valleys where there is little to no wind and locations near bodies of water.  Wind would disrupt the formation of radiation fog.  Radiation fog is usually patchy, tends to stay in one place, and goes away the next day under the sun’s rays.  Thicker instances of radiation fog tend to form in valleys or over calm bodies of water.  A special kind of radiation fog, called 'tule' (TOO-lee) fog, occurs each winter in the Central Valley of California.  The combination of a cool, moist layer of air from the Pacific close to the surface, clear skies above, and light winds results in exceptionally thick fog on many nights from late October through February.  This phenomenon is often visible on satellite.”

Super Fog

“Super fog forms when a mixture of smoke and moisture released from damp smoldering organic material such as brush, leaves and trees, mixes with cooler, nearly saturated air.  Visibility is lowered to less than 10 feet.  Under light wind conditions, super fog meanders through low terrain areas such as creek beds or drainage ditches.  Super fog can be very dangerous when present over highways, and has been the cause of several large, multi-vehicle pileups.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Bartleby Publishers, “Chicago Poems/Carl Sandburg,” online at http://www.bartleby.com/165/.  “Fog” was originally published as part of Chicago Poems (1916), by Henry Holt Co. (New York).

National Weather Service, “Dew Point vs. Humidity,” online at https://www.weather.gov/arx/why_dewpoint_vs_humidity.

National Weather Service, “Fog Advisories,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/fog-ww.  That site’s “Fog Resources” section’s subjects were as follows (all hyperlinked) as of 2-12-20:
Fog Safety; Fog Over Water; Mountain/Valley Fog; Super Fog; Freezing Fog; Advection Fog; Radiation Fog; Driving in Fog; Boating in Fog; Flying in Fog.

National Weather Service, “Fog Types,” online at https://www.weather.gov/source/zhu/ZHU_Training_Page/fog_stuff/fog_definitions/Fog_definitions.html.

National Weather Service, “Glossary,” online at https://w1.weather.gov/glossary/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Weather/Climate/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on common weather phenomena.

Freezing Rain – Episode 461, 2-25-19.
Frost – Episode 387, 9-25-17.
Hail –Episode 362, 4-3-17.
Rainfall – Episode 338, 10-17-16 (frequency probabilities); Episode 455, 1-14-19 (record precipitation in 2018).
Sleet – Episode 461, 2-25-19.
Snow – Episode 300, 1-25-16 (snow terms); Episode 407, 2-12-18; Episode 461, 2-25-18.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 English SOLs

Reading Theme
8.5, 9.4, 10.4, 11.4 – symbols, imagery, figurative language, and other literary devices.

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.6 – Properties of air (including pressure, temperature, and humidity) and structure/dynamics of earth’s atmosphere, including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.12 – weather and climate.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

World Geography Course
WG.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Episode 511 (2-10-20): The Saltmarsh Sparrow and Its Connection to Sea-level Rise

CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:02).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Image
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 2-7-20.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 10, 2020.

MUSIC – ~8 sec – Instrumental.

This week, the start of “Sparrow,” from Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand, opens an episode about a kind of sparrow closely connected to the impacts of sea level rise on Atlantic coastal habitats.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to the following mystery sound and see if you know this species of sparrow.  And here’s a hint: look for it where tides wash over tall grasses.

SOUNDS - ~11 sec

If you guessed the Saltmarsh Sparrow, you’re right!  This species, sometimes referred to as the Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, is one of 25 kinds of sparrow known to occur in Virginia.  The Saltmarsh Sparrow is found exclusively in Atlantic Coast salt marshes, living among the grasses and other plants in tidal zones from Maine to Virginia in breeding season and as far south as Florida in winter.  This has made the Saltmarsh Sparrow an indicator species—or, in a familiar bird metaphor for a danger signal, a so-called “canary in a coal mine”—for the loss of Atlantic coastal saltmarsh habitat, particularly as a result of rising sea level and higher tides.  Reports indicate that the bird’s population over its whole range decreased about 75 percent between 1998 and 2012; moreover, according to the Saltmarsh Sparrow Research Initiative in Rhode Island, some studies predict that rising water levels could cause the species’ extinction by 2040.

The Saltmarsh Sparrow’s woes have been one stimulus for various saltmarsh habitat restoration or preservation efforts, including a project started in 2016 in Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on the Chesapeake Bay near Cambridge, Maryland.  If successful, those efforts will help not only Saltmarsh Sparrows but a wide range of organisms and ecological functions sustained by salt marshes.

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  Thanks also to Andrew VanNorstrand for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Sparrow.”

MUSIC – ~22 sec –Instrumental.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Sparrow,” from the 2004 album “Driftage,” is copyright by Andrew and Noah VanNorstrand and Great Bear Records, used with permission.  More information about Andrew and Noah and their bands is available online at https://www.andrewandnoah.com/andrewandnoah/dev/music/.  This music was also used in Virginia Water Radio Episode 254, 2-23-15, on sparrows generally.

The sounds of the Saltmarsh Sparrow were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGE

Saltmarsh Sparrow, location unidentified, June 11, 2005.  Photo by Dominic Sherony, made available for use under Creative Commons, “Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0),” accessed online at https://www.flickr.com/photos/9765210@N03/7749644414/, 2/10/20.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE SALTMARSH SPARROW

The scientific name of the Saltmarsh Sparrow is Ammospiza caudacuta (formerly Ammodramus caudacutus).

Here are some points about the Saltmarsh Sparrow, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Saltmarsh Sparrow,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040381&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18298.

Occurrence

“Common transient and uncommon to common winter resident in coastal and [Chesapeake] Bay salt marshes, locally common summer resident in northern Accomack County.  Peak counts occur along the coast during winter. Rare fall transient [occur] in the Piedmont and Mountains and Valleys with single sightings from Albemarle County in 1948 and 1967, Prince Edward County in 1948, and Clarksville [Mecklenburg County] in 1952.  It is a common transient and uncommon to common winter resident in the coastal salt marshes and a rare transient inland, chiefly in autumn.”

Physical Description

“Length [is] 5.0 to 5.75 inches, wingspread [is] 7.0 to 8.25 inches.  Bill [is] slender; tail graduated, [and] the feathers narrow and pointed.  Top of head [is] brownish with a median line of dark gray; cheeks deep mouse-gray, bordered above and below with cinnamon-buff; upperparts dark grayish-olive, tinged with brown, the middle of the back narrowly lined with white; bend of wing pale yellow; underparts white; the breast and sides streaked…. The similar Nelson's sharp-tailed species lacks conspicuous breast streaking and has a more strikingly streaked beak.  The Nelson's throat is buffy, contrasting little in color with the light stripe below the back.”

Reproduction

“A clutch of 3 to 6 eggs is laid in June or July. Incubation lasts 11 days and nestling period lasts about 10 days.  Usually 2 broods per year are raised.  Nest is usually in higher portions of marsh seldom flooded by tides, [in] salt hay meadows, [or in] borders of fresh marsh and upland.  Nest is typically well hidden in ground vegetation.  Breeding occurs in May, with the peak in late May for Virginia. …Males are not territorial and females defend only the nest site.”

Feeding

“Use ground and herb stem gleaning to forage for seeds, insects and small aquatic animals.  Forages on the mud of salt marshes for small animals (all year) and seeds are added in the winter.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

BirdNote®, “Canary in a Coal Mine,” online at https://www.birdnote.org/show/canary-coal-mine.

Michael Burke, “Saltmarsh sparrow needs tide to turn in its favor if it is to survive,” Bay Journal, 12/14/18, online at https://www.bayjournal.com/article/saltmarsh_sparrow_needs_tide_to_turn_in_its_favor_if_it_is_to_survive.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.  The Saltmarsh Sparrow entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Saltmarsh_Sparrow.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).  The Saltmarsh Sparrow entry is online at https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/sstspa/introduction.

Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md. (2006).  See particularly the “Salt Marshes” section in the “Wetlands” chapter, pages 209-216.

National Park Service, “Salt Marshes,” online at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/oceans/salt-marshes.htm.

Megan Ossmann, “Seven critters that call wetlands home,” Chesapeake Bay Program’s “In the News,” 11/22/19, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/news/blog/seven_critters_that_call_wetlands_home.

Kathy Reshetiloff, “The canary in this ‘coal mine’ is the saltmarsh sparrow, Bay Journal, January/February 2020, online at https://www.bayjournal.com/.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001.

Saltmarsh Sparrow Research Initiative [based in Rhode Island], online at https://www.salsri.org/.

Mike Slattery and Stephanie Smith, “By supporting key habitats, we support the ecosystem,” Chesapeake Bay Program’s “In the News,” 1/5/16, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/news/blog/by_supporting_key_habitats_we_support_the_ecosystem.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge,” online at https://www.fws.gov/refuge/blackwater/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  The Saltmarsh Sparrow entry is online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040381&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18298.  Information on 25 species of sparrows found Virginia is at this link, as of 2/7/20.

For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.


Following area links to three other episodes related to sparrows or marshes.

Episode 254, 2-23-15 – on sparrows generally.
Episode 429, 7-16-18 – on marshes generally.
Episode 430, 7-23-18 – on marsh birds generally.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.9 – adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Episode 510 (2-3-20): Voting on Water in the 2020 Virginia General Assembly

Click to listen to episode (4:59)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.)


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 1-31-20. 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of February 3, 2020.

SOUNDS – ~10 sec – Deputy Clerk of the Virginia House of Delegates Sharon Crouch Steidel: “Ayes 99.  I declare Eileen Filler-Corn duly elected Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates.” Applause.

That’s an excerpt of the January 8, 2020, election of Delegate Eileen Filler-Corn of Fairfax as the first female Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates.  After that historic moment, the House—along with the Virginia State Senate—began the business of considering over 3100 bills and resolutions that have been introduced into the 2020 General Assembly session.  At least 180 of those bills concern water resources, either focusing directly on water, or focusing on land uses, such as energy use and production, that have impacts on water.

This week is Virginia Water Radio’s annual episode giving you a chance to imagine being an Assembly member, and to consider how you’d vote on six of those water-related bills.  I’ll give brief descriptions of the bills, followed by a couple of seconds of a ticking clock sound to decide if you would vote for or against the idea.  Then I’ll give the bill’s status—still alive or already failed—as of January 29.  Here we go.

No. 1: House Bill 705 would transfer permitting authority from the Air Pollution Control Board, Waste Management Board, and State Water Control Board to the Department of Environmental Quality.  [SOUND – ~2 sec – ticking] This bill was in alive in the House Agriculture, Chesapeake, and Natural Resources, or ACNR, Committee.

No. 2: House Bill 542 would have the State Water Control Board facilitate regional water supply planning by localities, including predicting risk of shortfalls in each locality and region, encouraging cross-jurisdictional supply projects, and using river basins to designate regional planning areas. [SOUND – ~2 sec – ticking]  This bill had passed the House ACNR Committee and was alive in the House Appropriations Committee.

No. 3: House Bill 794 would create a Flood Insurance Fund to subsidize purchase of flood insurance by low-income Virginians in flood-prone areas.  [SOUND – ~2 sec – ticking]  This bill also had passed the House ACNR committee and was alive in the House Appropriations Committee.

No. 4: House Joint Resolution 89 would request the Department of Environmental Quality to study the impacts of litter on fishing, farming, stream water quality, and other components of Virginia’s economy and habitats.   [SOUND – ~2 sec – ticking]  This bill was alive in the House Rules Committee.

No. 5: Senate Bill 361 would direct the Joint Commission on Technology and Science to study the economic, quality-of-life, and safety consequences of weather and climate-related events on Virginia’s coastal areas.   [SOUND – ~2 sec – ticking]  This bill failed in the Senate Rules Committee.

And No. 6: Senate Bill 1027 would authorize the Department of Environmental Quality to establish a carbon cap-and-trade program, selling carbon allowances and using the revenues for community flood preparedness, energy-efficiency programs for low-income citizens, and statewide climate change planning and mitigation.  [SOUND – ~2 sec – ticking]  This bill was alive in the Senate Agriculture, Conservation and Natural Resources Committee.

This short game obviously can’t capture the scope of the General Assembly’s potential impacts on a subject as complicated, connected, and vital as water.  Any bill involves more information and details than you heard here.   The General Assembly’s Web site, virginiageneralassembly.gov, has tools to help you get the details and to express your opinions to Assembly members.  The 2020 General Assembly is scheduled to adjourn on March 7, so now’s the time.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The opening audio was from the Virginia House of Delegates opening session January 8, 2020, in Richmond.  The audio was excerpted from the House of Delegates livestream video archives, accessed online at https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Virginia Supreme Court Chief Justice Donald Lemons swearing in Delegate Eileen Filler-Corn as Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates, January 8, 2020. Image taken from House of Delegates livestream video archives, online at https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php.


Members of the Virginia House of Delegates, January 8, 2020. Image taken from House of Delegates livestream video archives, online at https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php.


Members of the Virginia Senate, January 8, 2020. Image taken from Senate livestream video archives, online at virginia-senate.granicus.com/MediaPlayer.php?view_id=3&clip_id=2825.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT LEGISLATION MENTIONED IN THIS EPISODE

Following are Virginia Legislative Information System (LIS) summaries of the bills mentioned in this episode, as of 1/31/20, accessed at http://lis.virginia.gov/ (edited in some cases for space or clarity).  The bill numbers are hyperlinked to the respective LIS pages for each bill.

HB 542 – Regional water resource planning; State Water Control Board regulations.  “Directs the State Water Control Board to predict the risk that each locality and region in the Commonwealth will experience water supply shortfalls, to encourage the development of cross-jurisdictional water supply projects, and to adopt regulations designating regional planning areas based primarily on river basin.  Each locality in a particular regional planning area shall participate in cross-jurisdictional, coordinated water resource planning, and all localities in each area shall together develop and submit a single regional water supply plan.  The bill directs the Department of Environmental Quality to facilitate the creation of the regional water plans by ensuring sufficient coordination among localities, providing planning and other assistance, and ensuring that each regional plan identifies risks and proposes cost-effective strategies in response.  The bill directs that the Board and the Department prioritize the allocation of funds to localities that sufficiently participate in regional planning. The bill contains technical amendments.”

HB 705 – State air, waste, and water boards; permit authority.  “Removes the authority to issue, reissue, amend, or modify permits or certificates or to hear permit actions from the Air Pollution Control Board, the Waste Management Board, and the State Water Control Board and places such authority with the Department of Environmental Quality.  The bill changes the composition of the three boards from appointment exclusively by the Governor to the following: two members appointed by the Governor; two members appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules from a list recommended by the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Conservation and Natural Resources; and three members appointed by the Speaker of the House from a list recommended by the House Committee on Agriculture, Chesapeake and Natural Resources.  The appointing authority shall appoint members for the unexpired term upon a vacancy other than by expiration of a term.”

HB 794 – Flood Insurance Fund; low-income Virginians.   “Creates a Flood Insurance Fund and directs the Executive Director of the Board of Directors of the Virginia Resources Authority to establish a program to use the Fund to subsidize the purchase of flood insurance by low-income Virginians.  Such program shall include an application process, application guidelines, and a ranking system that prioritizes the use of the Fund to support the purchase of flood insurance in the most flood-prone areas.”

HJ 89 - Study; economic and environmental impacts of litter on fishing, farming, habitat, organisms, and water quality in streams; report.   “Requests the Department of Environmental Quality to study the economic and environmental impacts of litter on fishing, farming, water quality, and other components of Virginia's economy and habitat and to propose strategies, campaigns, and necessary state actions to protect the economy of the Commonwealth from harm caused by litter and to promote Virginia's economic welfare.”

SB 361 – Study; JCOTS; safety, quality of life, and economic consequences of weather and climate-related events on coastal areas in Virginia; report.   “Directs the Joint Commission on Technology and Science (JCOTS) to study the safety, quality of life, and economic consequences of weather and climate-related events on coastal areas in Virginia.  In conducting its study, JCOTS shall examine (i) the negative impacts of weather, and geological and climate-related events, including displacement, economic loss, and damage to health or infrastructure; (ii) the area or areas and the number of citizens affected by such impacts; (iii) the frequency or probability and the time dimensions, including near-term, medium-term, and long-term probabilities of such impacts; (iv) alternative actions available to remedy or mitigate such impacts and their expected cost; (v) the degree of certainty that each of these impacts and alternative actions may reliably be known; and (vi) the technical resources available, either in state or otherwise, to effect such alternative actions and improve our knowledge of their effectiveness and cost.”

SB 1027 – Clean Energy and Community Flood Preparedness Act; fund.   “Directs the Department of Environmental Quality to incorporate into regulations previously adopted by the State Air Pollution Control Board certain provisions establishing a carbon dioxide cap and trade program to reduce emissions released by electric generation facilities.  Such provisions are required to comply with the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative model rule.  The bill authorizes the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality to establish, implement, and manage an auction program to sell allowances into a market-based trading program.  The bill requires revenues from the sale of carbon allowances, to the extent permitted by Article X, Section 7 of the Constitution of Virginia, to be deposited in an interest-bearing account and to be distributed without further appropriation (i) to the Virginia Community Flood Preparedness Fund; (ii) to the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy for low-income energy efficiency programs; (iii) for administrative expenses; and (iv) for statewide climate change planning and mitigation activities.  The bill continues the Virginia Shoreline Resiliency Fund as the Virginia Community Flood Preparedness Fund for the purpose of creating a low-interest loan program to help inland and coastal communities that are subject to recurrent or repetitive flooding.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

University of Virginia, “State Government Relations/Key Dates for the 2020 General Assembly Session,” online at https://sgr.virginia.edu/key-dates-2020-general-assembly-session.

Virginia House of Delegates Appropriations Committee, “Legislative Budget Process,” online at http://hac.virginia.gov/legislative.htm.

Virginia House of Delegates live stream video archive, online at https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php, and Virginia Senate live stream video archive, online at http://virginia-senate.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3.  Live streaming of committee meetings also is available; information on live streaming of House committee meetings is online at https://publications.virginiageneralassembly.gov/display_publication/209; Senate committee meetings are online at http://virginia-senate.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3.

Virginia Legislative Information System, online at https://lis.virginia.gov/lis.htm.  This site provides lists and summaries of all bills, searchable by topic, member, committee, etc.  As of January 31, 2020, “Session Statistics,” online at https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+oth+STA, listed 3155 House or Senate bills, resolutions, or joint resolutions introduced for the 2020 session.

Virginia General Assembly, online at http://virginiageneralassembly.gov/index.php.  This Web site offers several useful features, including member lists, session calendars, live video of floor sessions, and information on legislative processes.

Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Virginia Water Legislation,” online at https://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/virginia-water-legislation/.  This site provides access to inventories of water-related bills in the Virginia General Assembly from 1998 through 2019.

For More Information about the Virginia General Assembly

To express an opinion on legislation, citizens are requested to contact their respective delegate of senator.  If you do not know your representatives or their contact information, you can use the online “Who’s My Legislator” service, available at http://whosmy.virginiageneralassembly.gov/.  You can find members’ contact information at these links:
House: http://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/members/members.php;
Senate: https://apps.senate.virginia.gov/Senator/index.php.

The Lobbyist-In-A-Box subscriber service also offers free tracking for up to five bills, and it offers tracking of more than five bills for a fee; visit http://lis.virginia.gov/h015.htm.  For assistance, phone Legislative Automated Systems at (804) 786-9631.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper posts on the Virginia General Assembly are available online at https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=General+Assembly.  Items are categorized by the year of each session, from 2012 to 2020.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

Following are links to previous episodes on the Virginia General Assembly.

Episode 143, 1-7-13 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 147, 2-4-13 – on General Assembly committees.
Episode 196, 1-13-14 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 247, 1-5-15 – annual General Assembly preview, with special focus on state budget.
Episode 252, 2-9-15 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 297, 1-4-16 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 302, 2-8-16 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 350, 1-9-17 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 353, 1-30-17 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 359, 3-13-17 – on General Assembly subcommittees.
Episode 402, 1-8-18 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 405, 1-29-18 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 410, 3-5-18 – on electricity regulation legislation in 2018 session.
Episode 454, 1-7-19 – annual General Assembly preview.
Episode 460, 2-18-19 – annual “voting on water” episode.
Episode 506, 1-6-20 – annual General Assembly preview.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION
The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs 

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
6.9 – public policy decisions regarding the environment.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.6 – renewable vs. non-renewable resources (including energy resources).
ES.10 – oceans, including economic and policy decisions affecting oceans, the coastal zone, and the Chesapeake Bay.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – social studies skills that responsible citizenship requires.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course

GOVT.1 – social studies skills that responsible citizenship requires.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.