Friday, December 30, 2016

Episode 349 (1-2-17): Water for a World of New Years, Featuring “New Year’s Water” by Torrin Hallett


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:56)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-30-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of January 2, 2017.

MUSIC – ~ 8 sec

This week, music composed especially for Virginia Water Radio focuses our attention on water as part of New Year’s celebrations.  Have a listen for about 25 more seconds.

MUSIC - ~25 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “New Year’s Water,” by Torrin Hallett, a student at Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio.  Mr. Hallett stated that the music aims to reflect water shimmering under a newly risen sun.  As the sun rises for the first time in 2017, water is part of many traditional New Year’s observances and celebrations around the world. Here are a few examples.

From the New River in Giles County, Virginia, to the North Sea in the Netherlands, cold-water dives or plunges in January are used for symbolism, charitable fund-raising, and freezing fun.   In New York City, water taxis offer New Year’s Eve cruises for viewing the Big Apple’s skyline and fireworks display.  In Edmonton, Canada, the World Waterpark puts on a New Year’s Eve Family Beach Ball at what the park claims is the world’s largest indoor wave pool.  In California, the San Diego CoastKeeper offers 10 “clean water resolutions” for the New Year, such as trying a new water recreational activity or participating in beach clean-ups.  In Puerto Rico and certain Latin American countries, a New Year’s tradition is to throw water out of a window or over one’s shoulder, symbolizing throwing out the tears, bad luck, or debris of the previous year.  In some parts of India, celebration of the Hindu New Year, in March or April, involves a procession to a water body or other rituals recognizing life’s dependence on water.  And according to the tourism agency of Cambodia, in various parts of Asia New Year festivals taking place in April’s hot weather often involve “splashing water, soaked clothes, and much revelry.”

Here’s to 2017, with all of its water celebrations and challenges.

Thanks to Torrin Hallett for this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “New Year’s Water.”

MUSIC - ~ 12 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“New Year’s Water” is copyright 2016 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  In 2016-17, Torrin is a fourth-year student at Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio, majoring in horn performance, music composition, and math major.   More information about Torrin is available at his Web site, http://www.torrinjhallett.com/.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.

PHOTOS
Several scenes of water and light on or near New Year’s Day.  Top two: Sunrise light on a temporary pool and on Toms Creek, both in Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., Dec. 30, 2016.  Next to bottom: Sunrise light on the New River in Giles County, Va., Jan. 1, 2014.  Bottom: Potomac River, looking downstream at Mt. Vernon, Jan. 10, 2005.

SOURCES USED IN AUDIO AND FOR MORE INFORMATION

City of Sydney, Australia, “Welcome to Sydney 2016,” online at http://www.sydneynewyearseve.com/boating/.

Cuban Christmas Web site, “Traditional Cuban New Year’s Guide,” online at https://cuban-christmas.com/newyears.html.

Den Haag Marketing, “New Year’s Dive,” online at https://denhaag.com/en/event/12728/new-year-s-dive.

Easia Travel, “The Water Frenzy of New Year Festivals, online at http://www.easia-travel.com/blog/water-frenzy-new-year-festivals.

Hindu New Year, online at http://hindunewyear.com/.

New York Water Taxi, “New Year’s Eve Family Cruises 2017,” online at https://www.nywatertaxi.com/family-new-years.

San Diego CoastKeeper, “10 Clean Water Resolutions for the New Year,” online at http://www.sdcoastkeeper.org/blog/other-green-thoughts/10-clean-water-resolutions-for-the-new-year.

Sputnik International, “Water Gods and Mango Leaves: India Celebrates Hindu New Year,” 4/8/16, online at https://sputniknews.com/asia/201604081037715620-hindu-new-year-festivals/.

Tourism of Cambodia, “Must-visit New Year Water Festivals in Asia,” online at http://www.tourismcambodia.com/news/events/21941/must-visit-new-year-water-festivals-in-asia.htm.

Maria G. Valdez, “New Year’s Traditions: 8 Latin Customs to Ring in 2017,” Latin Times, 12/29/16, online at http://www.latintimes.com/new-years-traditions-8-latin-american-customs-ring-2017-408235?slide=6.

West Edmonton Canada Mall, “World Waterpark Presents New Year’s Eve Family Beach Ball,” online at http://www.wem.ca/play/world-waterparks-new-years-eve-beach-ball.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).

Previous episodes for a coming New Year are the following:
for 2013 – Episode 142, 12/31/12: Encore of John McCutcheon’s “Water from Another Time”;
for 2014 – Episode 194, 12/30/13: Diving into 2014 with “Driving Rain” by Chamomile and Whiskey;
for 2016 – Episode 296, 12/28/15: Setting a Course for 2016 with “On a Ship” by Kat Mills.

A previous episode on water thermodynamics, featuring a New Year’s Day plunge into the New River in Giles, County, Va., is Episode 195, 1/6/14.

A previous episode on Virginia Special Olympics “Polar Plunges” is Episode 96, 1/23/12.

Previous episodes featuring original music composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio are the following:
Episode 335, 9/26/16
on the Canada Goose, featuring “Geese Piece”;
Episode 338, 10/17/16, on rainfall measurements, featuring “Rain Refrain”;
Episode 343, 11/21/16, on the Wild Turkey, featuring “Turkey Tune.”

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

World Geography Course
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.6 - past and present trends in human migration and cultural diffusion, including influence of environmental factors.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs, which become effective in the 2017-18 school year:

World Geography Course
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.15 – past and present trends in human migration and cultural diffusion, including influence of environmental factors.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Friday, December 23, 2016

Episode 348 (12-26-16): A Year of Virginia Water Sounds and Music—2016 Edition


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:34)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, an image, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-23-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 26, 2016.

This week, we look back on 2016 with a medley of mystery sounds. Have a listen for about 60 seconds, and see if you can identify these sounds from the past year of Virginia Water Radio.

SOUNDS - ~62 sec

If you guessed all these, you’re a 2016 water wizard! The sounds were words for snow in French, Italian, and Spanish; a spectrometer used to measure greenhouse gases in soil; Passage Creek in Shenandoah County’s Fort Valley; the Ruddy Turnstone, a kind of shorebird; the Barking Treefrog; the names of several kinds of Chesapeake Bay submerged aquatic plants; dissolved gases bubbling up from the bottom of a pond; stormwater during an unusually heavy September rain; and waves at York River State Park.

Thanks to Blacksburg friends for the snow words; to Lang Elliott for the Ruddy Turnstone sound; to Mr. Elliott and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries for the Barking Treefrog sound; and to students at Achievable Dream High School in Newport News for the Chesapeake Bay plant names.

I hope that during this past year, your ears were treated to sounds of clean, adequate water; healthy aquatic life; and safe water fun.

We close out 2016 with a 60-sec sample of music heard on Virginia Water Radio this year, courtesy of The Steel Wheels, No Strings Attached, and Torrin Hallett.

MUSIC - ~ 58 sec – Excerpts of “Rain in the Valley,” by The Steel Wheels; “Flying Cloud Reel,” by No Strings Attached; “Geese Piece,” by Torrin Hallett.

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The snow words were recorded on January 20, 2016, courtesy of several Blacksburg, Va., friends. These sounds were part of Episode 300, 1-25-16.

The spectrometer for measuring greenhouse gases in soil samples was recorded on April 13, 2016, at the water-quality lab of Virginia Tech’s Biological Systems Engineering Department, courtesy of Tyler Weiglein. This sound was part of Episode 312, 4-18-16.

Passage Creek in Fort Valley, in Shenandoah County, Va., was recorded on August 22, 2016. This sound was part of Episode 331, 8-29-16.

The sound of the Ruddy Turnstone was taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. This sound was part of Episode 315, 5-9-16.

The sound of the Barking Treefrog was taken from “The Calls of Virginia Frogs and Toads” CD, copyright 2008 by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and Lang Elliott/NatureSoundStudio, used with permission. For more information on the CD, see https://www3.dgif.virginia.gov/estore/proddetail.asp?prod=VW252. This sound was part of Episode 319, 6-6-16.

The names of Chesapeake Bay submerged aquatic vegetation, or “Bay grasses,” were recorded on July 13, 2016, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg by visiting students from Achievable Dream High School in Newport News. More information about Achievable Dream schools in Newport News is available online at http://achievabledream.nn.k12.va.us/. These sounds were part of Episode 325, 7-18-16.

The sound of gases bubbling up from the bottom of a pond was recorded at Heritage Park in Blacksburg, Va., on July 27, 2016. The sound was part of Episode 333, 9-12-16.

Stormwater flowing through a culvert was recorded in Blacksburg, Va., on September 26, 2016. This sound was part of Episode 338, 10-17-16.

Waves at Croaker Landing in York River State Park were recorded on December 5, 2016, by Timothy Seaman. Tbhe sound was part of Episode 346, 12-12-16.

“Rain in the Valley” is from The Steel Wheels’ 2012 album, “Lay Down, Lay Low,” used with permission. More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. This music was used in Episode 328, 8-8-16, on flash flooding.

“Flying Cloud Reel/Rusty Piper,” by No Strings Attached, is from the 1999 album “In the Vinyl Tradition—Volume I,” from Enessay Music, used with permission. More information about No Strings Attached is available online at http://www.enessay.com/. This music was part of Episode 315, 5-9-16, on sandpipers.

“Geese Piece,” composed for Virginia Water Radio, is copyright 2016 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission. More information about Mr. Hallett is available at his Web site, http://www.torrinjhallett.com/. The music was used in Episode 335, 9-26-16, on Canada Geese.

PHOTOS
 
Two water snapshots from 2016: upper—snow around American Beech trees in Blacksburg, Va., on January 24; lower—storm clouds over Brush Mountain north of Blacksburg September 26.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).

Previous “year of sounds/music” episodes include the following:
2015 – Episode 295, 12/21/15;
2014 – Episode 246, 12/29/14;
2013 – Episode 193, 12/23/13;
2012 – Episode 141, 12/17/12.

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

The episodes listed and hyperlinked above under Audio Notes and Acknowledgments may help with various SOLs in Science and Social Studies. For specific SOLs, please see the online show notes for each episode.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Monday, December 19, 2016

Episode 347 (12-19-16): Virginia’s State Water Commission Works Where Water Supply, Allocation, and Legislation Meet


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:34)


Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, an image, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-16-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 19, 2016.

SOUNDS – ~ 8 sec - household faucet, pouring water, filling water bottle

This week, household water sounds open our focus on a legislative commission tasked with studying the supply and allocation of water to Virginia’s households and other users.   Let’s drop in for about 60 seconds on this group’s most recent meeting.

SOUNDS AND VOICE - ~63 sec

You’ve been listening to an excerpt from the November 30, 2016, meeting of Virginia’s State Water Commission.  The speaker was Commission Chair Delegate Thomas Wright, Jr., of Lunenburg County.  The Commission consists of 13 members of the Virginia General Assembly, including the chairs of the House and Senate natural resources committees, plus two non-legislator citizens.

As noted in the excerpt, the Virginia Code mandates the Commission to “study all aspects of water supply and allocation problems in the Commonwealth; coordinate legislative recommendations of state entities having water-supply and -allocation responsibilities; and report annually its findings and recommendations to the General Assembly and the Governor.”  In any given year, certain issues may receive particular attention; for example, in 2015, the Commission’s annual report included discussion of coal ash management; in 2006, desalinization; in 1995, the Lake Gaston water-supply pipeline; and in 1985, streamside conservation programs.

At the November 2016 meeting, the Commission’s main focus was the eastern Virginia groundwater aspects of a study completed in October by the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (or JLARC), which reviewed Virginia’s overall water resource management and planning.  The 2015 Virginia General Assembly called for the JLARC study, and if the 2017 Assembly considers any bills in response to that study, it’s a good bet that one or more State Water Commission members will play a significant role in those bills.

Thanks to Stephen Schoenholtz for recording the November 30 Commission meeting, and we’ll let the Commission chair adjourn this episode.

VOICE - ~ 15 sec

SHIP’S BELL


For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Audio used in this episode was recorded by Stephen Schoenholtz at the Virginia State Water Commission meeting on November 30, 2016, at the Virginia General Assembly Building in Richmond.

IMAGE
Screenshot of the cover of the Virginia Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission’s October 2016 report on water planning and management. Image accessed online at http://jlarc.virginia.gov/landing-water.asp, 12/19/16.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT THE VIRGINIA STATE WATER COMMISSION

According to the Virginia Code, starting at Section 30-186, “Chapter 24: State Water Commission,” online at http://law.lis.virginia.gov/vacode/title30/chapter24/, the Commission has the following powers and duties:
“1. Study all aspects of water supply and allocation problems in the Commonwealth, whether these problems are of a quantitative or qualitative nature.
“2. Coordinate the legislative recommendations of all other state entities having responsibilities with respect to water supply and allocation issues.
3. Report annually its findings and recommendations to the General Assembly and the Governor.

“The chairman of the Commission shall submit to the General Assembly and the Governor an annual executive summary of the interim activity and work of the Commission no later than the first day of each regular session of the General Assembly. The executive summary shall be submitted as provided in the procedures of the Division of Legislative Automated Systems for the processing of legislative documents and reports and shall be posted on the General Assembly's website.”

Again according to the Code, “The Commission shall consist of 15 members to be appointed as follows: the Chairmen of the House Committee on Agriculture, Chesapeake and Natural Resources and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Conservation and Natural Resources; seven members of the House of Delegates appointed by the Speaker of the House of Delegates; four members of the Senate appointed by the Committee on Rules; and two non-legislative citizen members to be appointed by the Governor, who shall be citizens of the Commonwealth.”

As of December 2016, the members of the Commission were as follows:
Del. Thomas C. Wright, Jr., Chair;
Del. David L. Bulova;
Del. T. Scott Garrett;
Del. Barry D. Knight;
Del. Daniel W. Marshall, III;
Del. John M. O’Bannon, III;
Del. Luke E. Torian;
Del. R. Lee Ware, Jr.;
Sen. Lynwood W. Lewis, Jr.;
Sen. Frank M. Ruff, Jr.;
Sen. William M. Stanley, Jr.;
Sen. Richard H. Stuart;
Sen. Frank W. Wagner;
Mr. Lamont W. Curtis;
Mr. Richard A. Street.

A recording of the entire State Water Commission meeting on November 30, 2016, is available at this link on the Virginia Water Central News Grouper site: Virginia State Water Commission Meeting on November 30, 2016.

SOURCES USED IN AUDIO AND FOR MORE INFORMATION

Virginia Code, starting at Section 30-186, “Chapter 24: State Water Commission,” online at http://law.lis.virginia.gov/vacode/title30/chapter24/.

Virginia Division of Legislative Services, “State Water Commission,” online at http://dls.virginia.gov/commissions/swc.htm.

Virginia General Assembly, “Interim Studies and Commission Listings/State Water Commission,” online at http://studies.virginiageneralassembly.gov/studies/188.

Virginia Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC), “Effectiveness of Virginia’s Water Resource Planning and Management,” October 2016 (114 pages), available online at http://jlarc.virginia.gov/landing-water.asp.

Virginia Legislative Information System, Virginia General Assembly 2015 House Joint Resolution 623: “Water resource and planning management; JLARC to study Virginia's resources,” online at http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?151+sum+HJ623.

Virginia State Water Commission, Annual Reports 1984-2017, online at the Virginia Legislative Information System, http://leg2.state.va.us/DLS/h&sdocs.nsf/Search+All/?SearchView&SearchOrder=4&query=State%20Water%20Commission.

Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central News Grouper: “Two Virginia Water Resources Studies Called for by 2015 General Assembly: 1) Eastern Virginia Groundwater Management Advisory Committee Convenes Aug. 18, 2015; 2) JLARC to Study Groundwater and Surface Water Planning and Management,” 8/17/15.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the Community/Organizations subject category.

Previous episodes on Virginia water-related state agencies include the following:
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries - Episode 322, 6/27/16.
General Assembly – Episode 143, 1/7/13; Episode 147, 2/4/13; Episode 196, 1/13/14; Episode 247, 1/5/15; Episode 252, 2/9/15; Episode 297, 1/4/16; Episode 302, 2/8/16.
Marine Resources Commission - Episode 91, 12/5/11.
State Parks (under Department of Conservation and Recreation) – Episode 161, 5/13/13; Episode 320, 6/13/16.
State Water Control Board – Episode 94, 1/9/12.

A previous episode on water supply planning and management is Episode 261 – 4/13/15.

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following 2010 Science SOLs:

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

The episode may also help with the following 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.10 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.16 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

The episode may also help with the following 2015 Social Studies SOLs, which become effective in the 2017-18 school year:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Monday, December 12, 2016

Episode 346 (12-12-16): The York River Archaeological Treasure of Werowocomoco


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:22)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, an image, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-9-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 12, 2016.

SOUNDS – ~ 6 sec

This week, those sounds from Virginia’s York River State Park open our episode about a center of native American civilization that existed along the York for hundreds of years before Virginia’s first English settlement at Jamestown. Have a listen for about 40 seconds to some more sounds from the river, accompanied by music inspired by that center of civilization, and see if you can guess the complicated name for the place.

SOUNDS and MUSIC - ~39 sec

If you guessed Werowocomoco, you’re right! The site beside the York River’s Purtan Bay in Gloucester County was the center of the Powhatan Chiefdom of Algonquian Indians for centuries prior to European settlement. The music you heard is called “In Powhatan’s Realm,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, who used flutes, drums, and a rattle to create a musical image of Werowocomoco. At one time, that realm, called Tsenacomacoh by the Algonquians, covered much of the area between the James and Potomac Rivers and was home to some 30 native tribes with thousands of people collectively. At the heart of it was Werowocomoco, “the place of kings” in Algonquian language, described by archaeologist Martin Gallivan, of the College of William and Mary, as the Powhatan Chiefdom’s “Vatican, Washington, and New York City all combined in one place.”

On November 30, 2016, the National Park Service publicly announced its purchase of 264 acres of the site; it will eventually become part of the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail, which follows Smith’s exploration of the Chesapeake and its tributary rivers in 1607 and 1609. Among the most well-known of the events of Smith’s exploration in 1607 is his report of being saved from death by the intervention of Pocahontas, the daughter of Chief Powhatan. There’s continuing debate over this legend, but, according to William and Mary’s Martin Gallivan, whatever actually happened took place at Werowocomoco, and so did many other events of significance to the history of Virginia.

Thanks to Timothy Seaman for recording this week’s sounds and for permission to use this week’s music. We close with a few more seconds of “In Powhatan’s Realm.”

MUSIC – ~14 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“In Powhatan’s Realm,” on the 2006 album “Jamestown: On the Edge of a Vast Continent,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission. More information about Mr. Seaman’s music is available online http://timothyseaman.com/.

The sounds from York River State Park were recorded by Timothy Seaman at Croaker Landing on December 5, 2016.

IMAGE


Captain John Smith's 1612 map showing towns in the Powhatan Chiefdom.  Red underlining added to show Jamestown and Werowocomoco.  Image acquired from the National Park Service, “Historic Jamestowne/Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend,” online at https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/pocahontas-her-life-and-legend.htm.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT WEROWOCOMOCO


From the National Park Service, “Werowocomoco Planning,” online at https://www.nps.gov/cajo/getinvolved/werowocomoco-planning.htm, as of 12/12/16:
“Werowocomoco is the location of the leader Powhatan's headquarters during the time of the English arrival at Jamestown in 1607 and the location where Captain John Smith was taken after his capture. ­­ It was here that Smith met the influential Powhatan and his daughter Pocahontas. Archaeology indicates it had been a major town for several centuries before Powhatan.

“The Conservation Fund, a not-for profit 501(c)3 national conservation organization, recently purchased 264 acres of land in Gloucester County VA encompassing the historic site known as Werowocomoco. The Conservation Fund then transferred the property to the National Park Service to ensure its permanent protection. The site is one of the most important Virginia archeological finds in recent history, and its protection, study and interpretation to the public are of high importance.

“The Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will manage the property for the National Park Service. Werowocomoco has long been identified as a high potential historic site in the trail's comprehensive management plan and conservation strategy.

“The site is not yet open to public visitation. National Park Service staff will begin a collaborative planning and design process for guiding future management of Werowocomoco. The process and resulting plan will address visitor use and facilities, interpretation, education, and overall resource protection.

“Many Virginia Indian Tribes have a great deal of interest in Werowocomoco, and we will be working with them to make sure that use of the site is respectful of their heritage.

“We anticipate initiating the planning/design process by early 2017.”

From the National Park Service, “Historic Jamestowne/Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend,” by Sarah J. Stebbins, August 2010, online at https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/pocahontas-her-life-and-legend.htm:
“[Pocahontas] was the daughter of Wahunsenaca (Chief Powhatan), the mamanatowick (paramount chief) of the Powhatan Chiefdom. At its height, the Powhatan Chiefdom had a population of about 25,000 and included more than 30 Algonquian speaking tribes—each with its own werowance (chief). The Powhatan Indians called their homeland ‘Tsenacomoco.’

“...What happened next is what has kept the names of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith inextricably linked: the famous rescue of John Smith by Pocahontas. As Smith tells it, he was brought in front of Chief Powhatan, two large stones were placed on the ground, Smith's head was forced upon them, and a warrior raised a club to smash in his brains. Before this could happen, Pocahontas rushed in and placed her head upon his, which stopped the execution. “Whether this event actually happened or not has been debated for centuries. One theory posits that what took place was an elaborate adoption ceremony; its adherents believe that Smith's life was never in danger (though, he most likely would not have known that). Afterwards, Powhatan told Smith he was part of the tribe. In return for ‘two great guns and a grindstone,’ Powhatan would give Smith Capahowasick (on the York River), and ‘forever esteem him as his son Nantaquoud.’ Smith was then allowed to leave Werowocomoco.”

SOURCES USED IN AUDIO AND FOR MORE INFORMATION

College of William and Mary, “Werowocomoco: A place in history,” June 24, 2013 video (3 min./12 sec.) with Martin Gallivan, William and Mary professor of archeology, available online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0H8MHu1T3G0.

Martin Gallivan, “Werowocomoco: Seat of Power,” June 18, 2011, lecture for the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation; 56 min./13 sec. video available online at http://www.historyisfun.org/videos-and-podcasts/videos/videos-events/martin-gallivan/.

Joseph McClain, Werowocomoco National Park? It would benefit both tourism and scholarship, William & Mary News, 5/21/14.

Historic Jamestowne, “Jamestown Rediscovery/History/Chief Powhatan,” online at http://historicjamestowne.org/history/chief-powhatan/.

Jamestown Settlement and American Revolution Museum at Yorktown, “Werowocomoco: Seat of Power ,” April 16, 2010 video (3 min./00 sec.), available online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUhH24SXrLEl; and special museum exhibit in 2010-11, Web site at http://www.historyisfun.org/exhibitions/collections-and-exhibitions/special-exhibitions/werowocomoco/.  The video tells the story of the founding of Jamestown and its connection to Werowocomoco, including footage historical reenactors in the lands and waters of the area.

Lara Lutz, “Iconic Indian site on York River purchased by National Park Service,” Bay Journal, 7/5/16, online at http://www.bayjournal.com/article/iconic_indian_site_on_bay_purchased_by_national_park_service.

National Park Service, “Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail,” online at http://smithtrail.net/.

National Park Service, “Historic Jamestowne/Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend,” by Sarah J. Stebbins, August 2010, online at https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/pocahontas-her-life-and-legend.htm.

National Park Service, “Werowocomoco Planning,” online at https://www.nps.gov/cajo/getinvolved/werowocomoco-planning.htm.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “York River State Park,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/state-parks/york-river#general_information.

Virginia Governor’s Office News Release, Governor McAuliffe Celebrates National Park Service Purchase of Werowocomoco, 11/30/16.

Virginia Places, “Werowocomoco,” online at http://www.virginiaplaces.org/vacities/werowocomoco.html. This is a detailed article with images, maps, and informative references.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “History” subject category and the Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.

Episode 140, 12/10/12 also discusses the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail.

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

The episode may help with 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; and water monitoring.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
2.2 – lives and contributions of three American Indian cultures of the past and present (Powhatan, Lakota, Pueblo).
2.4 – regions of the Powhatan, Lakota, and Pueblo Indians, and understanding the environment and culture of these peoples.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.2 – physical geography and native peoples of Virginia past and present.
VS.3 – first permanent English settlement in America.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.6 - past and present trends in human migration and cultural interaction as influenced by social, economic, political, and environmental factors.

Virginia and United States History Course
VUS.2 – early European exploration and colonization and interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians.

Government Course
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

The episode may also help with the following 2015 Social Studies SOLs, which become effective in the 2017-18 school year:

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
2.3 – lives and contributions of three American Indian cultures of the past and present (Powhatan, Lakota, Pueblo).
2.7 – regions of the Powhatan, Lakota, and Pueblo Indians, and understanding the environment and culture of these peoples.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.2 – physical geography and native peoples of Virginia past and present.
VS.3 – first permanent English settlement in America.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.15 – past and present trends in migration and cultural diffusion, including effects of environmental factors.

Virginia and United States History Course
VUS.2 – early European exploration and colonization and interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians.

Government Course
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Monday, December 5, 2016

Episode 345 (12-5-16): From Alex to Otto, 2016 Atlantic Tropical Storm Season was a Bit Above Normal


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:59)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 12-2-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of December 5, 2016.

VOICE AND MUSIC – ~ 11 sec

This week, that excerpt from a video created by Sgt. David Erskine of the South Carolina National Guard, opens our review of the 2016 Atlantic tropical storm season, which officially ended on November 30. The season in the Atlantic basin—including the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico—officially begins June 1, but this year’s first storm formed in mid-January. Hurricane Matthew in late September and early October was the most powerful and destructive of this season’s 15 named Atlantic storms. It devastated Haiti, struck Cuba and the Bahamas, and then brought storm surge, strong winds, heavy rain, and flooding to the U.S. East Coast. Damage in Virginia led to federal disaster assistance in seven southeastern cities and two southeastern counties. For some insight into the kinds of responses a destructive hurricane can require, let’s have a listen for about 90 seconds to two people involved in responding to Matthew: first, a North Carolina National Guard member; and second, U.S. Coast Guard Rear Admiral Dan Abel, Director of Operations for the Southern Command.

GUEST VOICES - ~87 sec

Sgt. Daren Deese, NC National Guard member: “I’m Sgt. First Class Deese, Daren Deese, I’m from Pembroke, N.C., right here in Robinson County. Once the storm came through, Robinson County got hit pretty hard with flooding in the area. ...After being in the Guard 15 years, yesterday was the first time I took a convoy of seven vehicles to the high school I graduated from, with 720 cots, blankets, toddler supplies, diapers, wipes. And when I pulled up...I could see the glow on the faces of people I knew personally, on a personal level....”

U.S. Coast Guard Rear Admiral Dan Abel, Director of Operations for the Southern Command: “We always have Joint Task Force Bravo, which has some phenomenal aviation heavy capabilities, in Honduras. Also during the hurricane season, we have Special Purpose MGTF, the Marines—again, heavy aviation—that’s also deployed. And having those tools ready, already sources to us and in theater, was critical to making this [the response to Hurricane Matthew in the Caribbean] happen. ...The other thing we really had going for us is the Navy, [which] had to dispatch/sortie their vessels anyway out of Norfolk, made the decision...to embark on those ships emergency-response forces, assets, stores, aircraft. So they didn’t just put to sea for hurricane avoidance, they put to sea prepared to join in any response that may be there. And, boy, did we put them to use as well. The response from the sea was huge.”

END GUEST VOICES

As destructive as Matthew was, it—of course—wasn’t the whole story of the 2016 Atlantic season. The 15 named storms included seven hurricanes and three major hurricanes, that is, Category 3 or above, a bit above the average annual numbers from 1981 to 2010. Five named storms made landfall in the United States, the most since six occurred in 2008. And the “accumulated cyclone energy” for 2016—combining strength and duration of storms—was about 40 percent above the 1981-2010 average, largely due to three relatively strong and long-lived storms: major hurricanes Matthew, Gaston, and Nicole.

Thanks to the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System for making this week’s sounds available for public use. And we close with a few more seconds of music from Sgt. Erskine’s Hurricane Matthew video.

MUSIC - ~9 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode’s sounds were excerpted from the public-domain videos listed below, all accessed at the audio link of the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System (DVIDS), using the site’s “Hurricane Matthew” tag, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/tags/video/hurricane-matthew:

South Carolina National Guard during Hurricane Matthew,” by Sgt. David Erskine, South Carolina National Guard, 10/25/16.

North Carolina Guard responds to Hurricane Matthew, 10/13/16, by Staff Sgt. Brendan Stephens, North Carolina National Guard.

JTF-Matthew -- A SOUTHCOM story,” by Raymond Sarracino, U.S. Southern Command, Miami, Fla., 11/3/16. This was an interview with Rear Adm. Dan Abel, U.S. Coast Guard Director of Operations for the U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), who describes his command’s role in humanitarian operations in the Caribbean during Hurricane Matthew in October 2016.

IMAGES

 Hurricane Center’s graph of preliminary (subject to verification) tracks of Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes in 2016, as of 12-1-16; accessed at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/text/MIATWSAT.shtml.


Cumulative wind history of Hurricane Matthew for 9/28/16 through 10/9/16 (period covered by Public Advisories 1 through 47). Graphic taken from the National Hurricane Center, online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/graphics_at4.shtml?5-daynl#contents, accessed 11/1/16, 8:00 a.m. EDT.


Hurricane Matthew (Category 3 at the time), centered over the Bahamas; and Tropical Storm Nicole in the Atlantic east of the Bahamas, 10/6/16, 8:15 a.m. EDT. Photo accessed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Web site at http://www.goes.noaa.gov/browsh.html, on 10/6/16, 9:00 a.m. EDT. NOTE: Z, or Greenwich Mean Time, shown on the photo is 4 hours ahead of EDT and 5 hours ahead of EST.

EXTRA INFORMATION FOR THIS EPISODE

Below is the Hurricane Center’s list of all tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes in the Atlantic basin in 2016, with their dates of occurrence and maximum wind speeds (H = hurricane; MH = major hurricane; TD = tropical depression; TS = tropical storm):
H Alex – Jan. 13-15 – 85 mph
TS Bonnie – May 27-June 4 – 45 mph
TS Colin – June 5-7 – 50 mph
TS Danielle – June 19-21 – 45 mph
H Earl – Aug. 2-6 – 80 mph
TS Fiona – Aug. 17-23 – 50 mph
MH Gaston – Aug 22-Sep. 3 – 120 mph
TD Eight – Aug. 28-Sep 1 – 35 mph
TS Hermine – Aug 28-Sep. 3 – 80 mph
TS Ian – Sep. 12-16 – 60 mph
TS Julia – Sep. 13-19 – 40 mph
TS Karl – Sep. 14-25 – 70 mph
TS Lisa – Sep. 19-25 – 50 mph
MH Matthew – Sep. 28-Oct. 9 – 160 mph
MH Nicole – Oct. 4-18 – 130 mph
H Otto – Nov. 21-26 – 110 mph

Source: National Hurricane Center, http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/index.php?season=2016&basin=atl.

The average annual numbers of Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1981 to 2010 is 12 named storms, six hurricanes, and three major hurricanes. 2016 overall, according to the National Hurricane Center, was the first “above-normal” Atlantic tropical storm season since 2012.

Source: National Hurricane Center news release, “First above-normal Atlantic hurricane season since 2012 produced five landfalling U.S. storms,” 11/30/16.

Below are hurricane categories, based on sustained wind speeds and potential for damage:
Category 1 – wind speed 74-95 mph (119-153 km/hr.; 64-82 knots); very dangerous winds will produce some damage;
Category 2 – wind speed 96-110 mph (154-177 km/hr.; 83-95 knots); extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage;
Category 3 – wind speed 111-129 mph (107-208 km/hr.; 96-112 knots); devastating damage will occur;
Category 4 – wind speed 130-156 mph (209-251 km/hr.; 113-136 knots); catastrophic damage will occur;
Category 5 – wind speed ≥157 mph (252 km/hr.; 137 knots); catastrophic damage will occur.

Source:
National Weather Service, “Tropical Weather,” part of “JetStream—An Online School for Weather,” online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/tropics_intro.html.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO

John Boyer, Several storms left their mark during 2016 hurricane season, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/30/16.

National Hurricane Center, “Monthly Tropical Weather Summary,” 12/1/16, online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/text/MIATWSAT.shtml.

National Hurricane Center news release, “First above-normal Atlantic hurricane season since 2012 produced five landfalling U.S. storms,” 11/30/16.

Virginia Governor’s Office news releases:
Governor McAuliffe Requests Federal Disaster Declaration Following Hurricane Matthew, 10/21/16;
President Obama Approves Federal Aid for Virginians Impacted by Hurricane Matthew, 11/2/16; and
Governor McAuliffe Announces Federal Disaster Assistance for State and Local Governments Impacted by Hurricane Matthew, 11/17/16.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT TROPICAL STORMS

National Hurricane Center briefing podcasts, available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/audio/.

National Weather Service, “Tropical Weather,” part of “JetStream—An Online School for Weather,” online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/tropics_intro.html. This site has information on the history and science of tropical storms. The main JetStream site, at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/index.html, has information about many other weather topics, too.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper tropical storm posts, available online at https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=tropical+storm.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html); see particularly the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Previous episodes on tropical storms include the following:
Annual season-preview episodes: Episode 163 - 5/27/13, Episode 215 - 5/26/14, Episode 266 - 5/18/15, Episode 317 - 5/23/16.
Mid-season outlook: Episode 330 - 8/22/16.
Storm surge threat: Episode 134 - 10/29/12 (during Hurricane Sandy); Episode 337 - 10/10/16 (during Hurricane Matthew).

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS
The episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
5.6 – characteristics of the ocean environment.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.6 – structure and dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.

Life Science Course
LS. 10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.
ES.11 – origin, evolution, and dynamics of the atmosphere, including human influences on climate.
ES.12 – weather and climate.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.10 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs, which become effective in the 2017-18 school year:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.4 - types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Monday, November 28, 2016

Episode 344 (11-28-16): Winter Preparedness and Safety, featuring “Drive the Cold Winter Away” by Timothy Seaman


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:22)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-28-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 28, 2016.

MUSIC - ~12 sec

That music is part of “Drive the Cold Winter Away,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., accompanied by Phillip Skeens.   It opens our annual episode on winter preparedness.

In 2016, winter comes to Virginia—astronomically—on December 21, whether you’re ready or not.  Here are some tips from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management for staying safe from winter’s hazardous roads, power outages, and fire hazards.

*Get road conditions from the Virginia 511 telephone system, Web site, or smartphone app.
*Have a battery-powered or hand-cranked radio, especially one with a NOAA Weather Radio band.
*Get fireplaces, wood stoves, and chimneys inspected and cleaned.
*Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on every floor level, and check the batteries regularly.
*If you use space heaters, plug them into wall outlets, not into extension cords; keep heaters at least three feet from other objects; and don’t leave heaters unattended.
*Generators, camp stoves, and charcoal-burning devices should be used outdoors only.
*Use flashlights, not candles, during power outages.
*And make a family emergency plan that includes a meeting place if your family can’t return home; an out-of-town emergency contact; and at least a three-day emergency supply of food, water, and medications.

More information on preparing for severe winter weather and other emergencies is available online at vaemergency.gov.

Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music, and until next spring comes along to “Drive the Cold Winter Away,” here’s hoping that you can stay warm, dry, and safe.

MUSIC – ~21 sec

SHIP’S BELL


For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.   In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Drive the Cold Winter Away” is a traditional tune performed by Timothy Seaman and Phillip Skeens on the 1998 album “Celebration of Centuries,” copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Mr. Seaman’s music is available online http://timothyseaman.com/.  This music was previously featured in Episode 300, 1-25-16, on winter words.

IMAGES
Winter-weather preparedness poster from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/winter-weather/.

Icy tree limbs threatening to down power lines are a frequent winter concern in Virginia. Photo taken in Blacksburg, Va., January 25, 2015.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT WINTER PREPAREDNESS AND SAFETY INFORMATION

Before A Winter Storm

The recommendations below are from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “Nov. 29-Dec. 5 is Winter Preparedness Week,” 11/24/15, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/winter/winter-preparedness-week.”

Get a kit.
Basic emergency supplies include the following:
*Three days’ food that doesn’t need refrigeration or electricity to prepare it;
*Three days’ water (a gallon per person per day);
*A battery-powered and/or hand-crank radio with extra batteries;
*For businesses and offices, bottled water, food bars, and a radio or TV to hear local information about whether or not it is safe to travel;
*A power pack for recharging cell phones and other mobile devices.

Make a plan.
Everyone needs an emergency plan:
*Decide who your out-of-town emergency contact will be;
*Where will you meet up with family members if you can’t return home?
*Get an emergency plan worksheet at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/make-emergency-plan/.

Stay informed.
Before, during and after a winter storm, you should do the following:
*Listen to local media for information and instructions from emergency officials;
*Be aware of winter storm watches and warnings and road conditions;
*Get where you need to go before the weather gets bad;
*Get road-condition information by calling 511 or checking www.511Virginia.org.

Download the Ready Virginia app, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/ready-virginia-mobile-app/.
The Free app for iPhone® and Android™ features the following:
*Location-specific weather watches and warnings issued by the National Weather Service;
*“I'm Safe!” notification that allows users to quickly send a text message to let family and friends know they are safe;
*A customizable family emergency plan that can be easily shared;
*A checklist for gathering emergency supplies.

During A Winter Storm

The recommendations below are from the National Weather Service, “What To Do If You're Caught in a Winter Storm,” online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/winter/during.shtml.

Outside
*Find Shelter: Try to stay dry and cover all exposed body parts.
*When there is no shelter nearby: Build a lean-to, windbreak or snow cave for protection from the wind. Build a fire for heat and to attract attention. Place rocks around the fire to absorb and reflect heat.
*Melt Snow for Drinking Water: Eating unmelted snow will lower your body temperature.
*Exercise: From time to time, move arms, legs, fingers and toes vigorously to keep blood circulating and to keep warm.   Avoid overexertion such as shoveling heavy snow, pushing a car or walking in deep snow if you are not in good health.  The strain from the cold and the hard labor may cause a heart attack.  Sweating could lead to a chill and hypothermia.

In Vehicles
If you must drive during a storm, take the following precautions:
*Slow down!  Even if the roads just look wet they could still be slick.  More than 6,000 fatalities occur on the roadways each year due to weather conditions.
*Make sure your vehicle is completely clear of ice or snow before starting the trip.  Flying snow from cars causes accidents.
*Let someone know where you are going and what route you will take. If something happens, this person will know where to start a search.
*Don't leave the house without the following: a fully charged mobile phone charger and an emergency supplies kit in your car.
*If you are driving and begin to skid, remain calm, ease your foot off the gas and turn your wheels in the direction you want the front of the car to go.  If you have an anti-lock braking system (ABS), apply steady pressure to the brake pedal.  Never pump the brakes on an ABS equipped vehicle.
*If you are having trouble seeing due to weather conditions, pull over to the side of the road and stop your car until visibility improves.  Turn off your lights and use your parking break when stopped so that another car won't mistakenly follow your tail/brake lights and end up hitting you.

If your car gets stuck during a storm:
*Stay in the vehicle! If you leave your vehicle, you will become disoriented quickly in wind-driven snow and cold.
*Run the motor about 10 minutes each hour for heat.  While running the motor, open the window a little for fresh air to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning.  Clear snow from the exhaust pipe to avoid gas poisoning.
*Be visible to rescuers. Turn on the dome light at night when running the engine.  Tie a bright colored cloth, preferably red, to your antenna or door.  After snow stops falling, raise the hood to indicate you need help.

Inside
*Stay Inside.
*When using heat from a fire place, wood stove, space heater, etc., use fire safeguards and properly ventilate.
*If you have a gas furnace, make sure it is not blocked by a snowdrift as soon as it's safe to go out.  If you have an upstairs gas furnace which vents out the roof, you may need to turn off the upstairs unit until the snow melts off your roof.
If your heat goes out:
*Close off unneeded rooms to avoid wasting heat.
*Stuff towels or rags in cracks under doors.
*Close blinds or curtains to keep in some heat.
*Eat and drink. Food provides the body with energy for producing its own heat.  Drinks lots of water and other non-caffeinated, non-alcholohic drinks to prevent dehydration.  Cold air is very dry.
*Wear layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing.  Remove layers to avoid overheating, perspiration and subsequent chill.

SOURCES

Used in Audio

Deborah Byrd, “Everything you need to know: December solstice 2016,” EarthSky, online at http://earthsky.org/earth/everything-you-need-to-know-december-solstice.

CNN, “Solstice Fast Facts,” 6/23/16, online at http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/03/world/solstice-fast-facts/.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Winter Weather,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/stayinformed/winter; and “Winter Preparedness Week 2015,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/winter/winter-preparedness-week.  The VDEM’’s “Ready Virginia” program, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/, is the Commonwealth’s central source of information on preparedness for all types of emergencies and disasters.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “Virginia Traffic Information,” http://www.511virginia.org/.

For More Information on Winter Weather Preparedness

American Red Cross, “Winter Storm Preparedness, at http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/winter-storm; or contact your local Red Cross chapter.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Snowstorms and Extreme Cold,” online at http://www.ready.gov/winter-weather.

National Weather Service, “Weather and Water Events Preparedness Calendar,” online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/severeweather/severewxcal.shtml.  This page lists events nationwide, by state.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) “Weather Radio All Hazards” network, online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/.

U.S. Department of Energy, “Portable Heaters,” online at http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/portable-heaters.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper posts on weather, available online at http://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/category/weather/.  The posts—mostly about Virginia, but in some cases about other areas—cover primarily severe-weather events, precipitation and drought, and tropical storms during the June-November Atlantic tropical storm season.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See specifically the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Previous episodes on winter-weather preparedness are the following:
Episode 292, 11-30-15, “Winter is Coming” by The Steel Wheels Gives the Cue for Winter Preparedness and Safety in 2015-16.

Episode 253, 2-16-15, “Cold World” by Kat Mills, for Winter Preparedness and Safety, repeating 242 (12-1-14).

Episode 190, 12-2-13, Cold Winds Return and So Does Winter Weather Preparedness Week in Virginia.

Previous episodes on winter weather in general included the following:
Episode 300, 1-25-16, Winter Word Whirlwind.

Episode 249, 1/19/15, At the Freezing Point (on water’s properties at cold temperatures).

Episode 199, 2/3/14, Snow and Ice Follow Physics and Chemistry.

Episode 144 1/14/13, Ice on the Pond.

SOLS INFORMATION FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

The episode may help with Virginia’s 2013 Music Standards of Learning (SOLs) at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature, including daily, seasonal, and lunar changes.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
6.6 – properties of air and structure of Earth’s atmosphere; including weather topics.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.6 – Properties of air (including pressure, temperature, and humidity) and structure/dynamics of earth’s atmosphere.

Earth Science Course
ES.12 – weather and climate.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2008 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.10 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs, which become effective in the 2017-18 school year:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Monday, November 21, 2016

Episode 343 (11-21-16): Wild Turkey and Water


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:34)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-18-16.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 21, 2016.

This week, we re-do an episode from November 2012 featuring a Thanksgiving-sound mystery.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds, and see if you know what this familiar call has to do with water.

SOUNDS - ~15 sec

You’ve been listening to a Wild Turkey call, and if you guessed that a full-grown domestic turkey may drink 1 to 2 gallons of water per week, you’re a poultry expert!  But we’ve used the call of this non-aquatic bird to make the point that all birds need water.   In fact, birds are largely water; studies have measured birds’ body mass at 60 to 70 percent water.  Birds get water from obvious sources like ponds and streams but also from less obvious places, such as dew and the water contained in birds’ food.  In addition, birds conserve water in several ways.  First, like mammals, birds use their skin covering, behavior, and internal anatomy to reduce the water used to maintain a constant body temperature.  Second, like reptiles, birds excrete nitrogen waste in uric acid, a substance that requires little water.  And third, again like most reptiles, birds use a shell to maintain a watery environment for eggs laid on land or other relatively dry surfaces.

While the role of water is obvious for ducks, shorebirds, and other aquatic bird species, managing this fundamental substance is essential for all of our feathered friends.

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  And we close with some original music inspired by Wild Turkeys, “Turkey Tune,” composed for Virginia Water Radio by Torrin Hallett, a student at Oberlin College and Conservatory in Ohio.  Happy Thanksgiving!

MUSIC - ~24 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is a slightly revised repeat of Episode 137 (11-19-12), which has been archived.

The sounds of the Wild Turkey were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Thanks to Dr. Dean Stauffer of the Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment for his help with this episode.

“Turkey Tune” is copyright 2016 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  In 2016-17, Torrin is a fourth-year student at Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio, majoring in horn performance, music composition, and math major.  More information about Torrin is available at his Web site, http://www.torrinjhallett.com/.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.

PHOTOS
Male Wild Turkeys in Ohio during fall in 2001. Photo by Steve Maslowski, made available for public use the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 11-21-16.

Wild Turkey at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts, May 31, 2011. Photo by Matt Poole, made available for public use the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 11-21-16.

SOURCES

Used in Audio

H. I. Ellis and J. R. Jehl, Jr., “Total Body Water and Body Composition in Phalaropes and Other Birds,” Physiological Zoology, Vol. 64, No. 4 (1991), pages 973-984.

Richard W. Hill, Comparative Physiology of Animals: An Environmental Approach, Harper and Row, New York, N.Y., 1976.

National Research Council, Nutritional Requirements of Poultry: 9th Ed., National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 1994, page 16; available online at https://www.nap.edu/catalog/2114/nutrient-requirements-of-poultry-ninth-revised-edition-1994. (Table 1.1, “Water Consumption by Turkeys and Chickens,” notes that a “large white turkey female” at 20 weeks consumes an estimated 7040 ml water per week, or about 1.9 gallons [1 gallon = 3.785 liters]; this can vary considerably due to temperature, salt intake, etc.).

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries’ (VDGIF) “Wild Turkey Information” Web page http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/turkey/, and the VDGIF’s “Fish and Wildlife Information Service” Web page at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.

Joel Carl Welty, The Life of Birds, 2nd Ed., W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Penn., 1975.

For More Information about Birds

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird” Web site at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.net.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). Please see specifically the “Birds” subject category.

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia’s 2010 Science Standards of Learning (SOLs):

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.

Life Science Course
LS. 4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.