Monday, July 30, 2018

Episode 431 (7-30-18); A Frog Level Foray


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:49)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-27-18.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of July 30, 2018.

This week, we explore a formerly hoppin’ southwestern Virginia crossroads whose two-word name tells a tale of landscape, water, and seasonal aquatic creatures.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to these mystery sounds, and see if you can guess this crossroads’ name.  The sounds are your hint to the first word of the name, and here’s a hint for the second word: water on it doesn’t flow downhill, and people on it tell the truth.

SOUNDS - ~12 sec

If you guessed Frog Level, you’re a Virginia geography expert!  Along U.S. Business Route 19 in Tazewell County lies a large, flat, seasonally wet area that attracts lots of loud amphibians in spring and summer.  Just uphill from that area, where Route 19, U.S. Route 460, and State Route 16 all meet, the Frog Level gas station plus store and tavern was a popular spot for gathering, socializing, and politicking from 1932 to 2007.  The colorful history of the business even included the creation by bar regulars of the Frog Level Yacht Club, with t-shirts that joked about refueling schooner vessels. In 2009, the historic building was moved about two miles to a spot adjacent to Tazewell’s Crab Orchard Museum.

Tazewell County is by no means the only locality to claim an area called Frog Level.  That water feature-and-creature-based name also is found, for example, in Caroline County, Virginia; in Waynesville, North Carolina; in Carter County, Tennessee; and in Fayette County, Alabama.  In Caroline County, the Frog Level Volunteer Fire Department has held an annual festival and parade since 1969.  In the North Carolina and Alabama cases, the name was applied to low, flat areas where the first railroad tracks were laid.  And in Tennessee, Frog Level is a remote, mountainous area of streams, waterfalls, bogs, and—one can presume—seasonally breeding and calling frogs.

Other wildlife-based names also add a natural-resource perspective to Virginia’s geography and history.   The Commonwealth is home to Buffalo Gap, Clam, Dolphin, Ducks Store, Possum Trot, and many others.  But, at least from a water perspective, creature place names don’t get much more descriptive or fun than Frog Level.

SOUND - ~4 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.   For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The frog sounds heard in this episode—all recorded by Virginia Water Radio in Blacksburg, Va.—were Gray Tree Frog, Green Frog, and Spring Peeper, recorded on May 13, 2013 (first sounds) and Green Frogs, recorded on August 1, 2016 (closing sound).

Virginia Water Radio thanks Jess Jones, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, for suggesting and helping with this episode.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

PHOTOS

Wetland area at Frog Level in Tazewell County, Va., July 13, 2018.


Frog Level sign at U.S. Route 19, U.S. Route 460, and State Routh 16 intersection in Tazewell County, Va., July 13, 2018.


Remains at the former site of the Frog Level store in Tazewell County, Va., July 13, 2018.


Former Frog Level store building at a site adjacent to the Crab Orchard Museum on U.S. Routes 19-460 in Tazewell County, Va., July 13, 2018.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

City of Fayette, Alabama, “A Brief History of Fayette,” online at http://fayetteal.org/about/.

Crab Orchard Museum, online at https://www.craborchardmuseum.com/.

Frog Level Farm, Aylett, Va. (King William County), online (via Facebook) at https://www.facebook.com/pages/Frog-Level-Farm/161088237254620.

Frog Level Volunteer Fire Department (Caroline County), online (via Facebook) at https://www.facebook.com/Frog-Level-Volunteer-Fire-Department-152122678162630/.

Historic Frog Level Merchants Association, “Historic Background of Waynesville [Haywood County, N.C.] & Frog Level History,” online at http://www.historicfroglevel.com/frog-level-history/.

Kevin Kittredge, Fans of Frog Level Service Station preserve Tazewell County icon by moving it a hop, skip and jump away, Roanoke Times, 3/26/11.

Bill Lohmann, Welcome to Frog Level, a short hop to good living, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10/28/15.

Mark W. Peacock, “Appalachian Treks/Frog Level,” 8/24/14 (describing an area in “a remote corner of Carter County, Tenn.), online at http://appalachiantreks.blogspot.com/2014/08/frog-level.html,

Joe Tennis, Hopping Along: Work under way to restore Frog Level store, Bristol Herald-Courier, 6/3/10

Virginia Tourism Corporation, “Frog Level Fire Department Festival and Parade,” online at https://www.virginia.org/listings/Events/FrogLevelVolunteerFireDepartmentFallFestivalandParade/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Amphibians” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on Virginia geography 
Episode 110, 5/14/12 – A Walk across Virginia.
Episode 140, 12/10/12 – Exploration of the Chesapeake Bay.
Episode 181, 9/30/13 – Water and settlement of Roanoke.
Episode 265, 5/11/15 – A Water-based Look at Geography.
Episode 156, 4/8/13 – A Watersheds Lesson.
Episode 209, 4/14/14 – One Big Blue Ridge Helps Create Three Big Virginia Rivers.
Episode 251, 2/2/15 – A Musical Tour of Rivers and Watersheds.
Episode 379, 7/31/17 – Water at the Heart of Virginia's Western Highlands.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, July 23, 2018

Episode 430 (7-23-18): What Calls from a Marsh?


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:44)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-20-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of July 23, 2018.

MUSIC – ~14 sec

This week, that excerpt of “Great Blue Heron,” composed by Phil Skeens and performed by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., opens an episode on birds found in Virginia’s marshes.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds to some sounds you might hear while visiting a Tidewater area marsh.

SOUNDS - 31 sec

You heard a Great Blue Heron, a Wood Duck, a Northern Harrier (formerly known as Marsh Hawk), a Least Bittern, a Common Moorhen, and a Marsh Wren.  Those species represent some of the different groups of birds that inhabit freshwater or saltwater marshes in Virginia’s Coastal Plain, either as summer breeders, winter residents, or migrants.

Many birds occurring in Tidewater’s marshes also occur in other kinds of wetlands in other parts of Virginia.  Marshes and other wetlands provide birds with key habitat features, particularly food from plants and many kinds of vertebrate and invertebrate animals; shelter and nesting areas within vegetation; and a watery buffer against land-based predators.  These habitat values lead to use by a large variety of birds; for example, well over 200 species have been observed in Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, a 485-acre tidal freshwater wetland along the Potomac River in Fairfax County.

For wading herons, dabbling or diving ducks, preying hawks, perching wrens, and many other feathered actors, Virginia’s marshes and other wetlands are essential natural stages.

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  Thanks also to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music.  And we let a Marsh Wren have the closing notes.

SOUND - ~ 4 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.   In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is the second of two in July 2018 on marshes.  The first of the series is Episode 429, 7-16-18.

“Great Blue Heron,” from the 2004 album “Virginia Wildlife,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman, Phil Skeens, and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  Mr. Seaman’s Web site is http://www.timothyseaman.com/.

The sounds of Great Blue Heron, Wood Duck, Northern Harrier, Least Bittern, Common Moorhen, and Marsh Wren were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES


A Great Blue Heron and other birds in a marsh at Wachapreague, Va. (Accomack County), October 5, 2007.


Marsh Wren painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (Plate 100), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York.  Photo taken July 23, 2018, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance.   Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.

Friends of Dyke Marsh, “Birds of Dyke Marsh,” online at https://www.fodm.org/marsh_life/bird_list.html.

Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay-3rd Edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. See particularly Chapter 7, “Wetlands,” p. 201, including “Birds of the Wetlands,” p. 227; and “Birds—Species List and Seasonal Occurrence,” p. 307.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2001.

Robert E. Stewart, “Technical Aspects of Wetlands—Wetlands as Bird Habitat,” U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2425, online at https://water.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/birdhabitat.html.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/.  The following hyperlinks go to information on the species mentioned in this episode: Great Blue Heron; Wood Duck; Northern Harrier; Least Bittern; Common Moorhen; Marsh Wren.

For More Information about Marshes or Other Wetlands

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Wetlands,” online at http://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/issue/wetlands.

L. M. Cowardin, et al. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979, online at https://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/wetlands/index_html.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Section 404 of the Clean Water Act: How Wetlands are Defined and Identified,” online at https://www.epa.gov/cwa-404/section-404-clean-water-act-how-wetlands-are-defined-and-identified; “Wetlands Protection and Restoration,” online at https://www.epa.gov/wetlands; and “Wetlands Classification and Types,” online at https://www.epa.gov/wetlands/wetlands-classification-and-types (this site’s information on marshes is at https://www.epa.gov/wetlands/classification-and-types-wetlands#marshes).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “National Wetlands Inventory,” online at https://www.fws.gov/wetlands/index.html.

U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Why are wetlands and aquatic habitats important?” online at http://water.usgs.gov/edu/qa-around-wetlands.html.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “The Natural Communities of Virginia—Classification of Ecological Community Groups,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/natural_communities/nctoc.shtml.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Wetland and Stream Protection,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WetlandsStreams.aspx.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), Virginia Wetlands Report, online at http://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/wetlandreports/index.php.

For More Information about Birds

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/.

Virginia Society of Ornithology: online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” and the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject categories.

Following are links to some other episodes on wetlands.
Episode 269, 6/8/15 – What Are the “Waters of the United States?”
Episode 327, 8/1/16 – A Wetland Walk on a Midsummer Morning.
Episode 380, 8/7/17 – Natural Gas Pipelines, Water Resources, and the Clean Water Act.
Episode 429, 7/16/18 – A Marsh Introduction, Featuring “The Prettiest Marsh” by Teresa Whitaker

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme
2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – All include “Current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

World Geography Course
WG.4 - types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, July 16, 2018

Episode 429 (7-16-18): A Marsh Introduction, Featuring “The Prettiest Marsh” by Teresa Whitaker


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:46).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-13-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of July 16, 2018.

MUSIC – ~12 sec

This week, that music opens a repeat of a July 2013 episode on marshes, a kind of habitat found around the Chesapeake Bay and in many other areas where water and land meet.  This week’s episode is the first of a two-part series this month on marshes.  Have another listen to the music for about 50 more seconds.

MUSIC – ~ 47 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “The Prettiest Marsh,” by Teresa Whitaker on “Singing the Chesapeake,” a 2012 songbook and album from Finding Home Productions.  The Chesapeake region has many marshes, ranging from freshwater ones along tidal sections of rivers to grass-dominated salt marshes along the Bay shorelines.

Marshes are an example of wetlands, a diverse group of habitats where saturation by water largely determines the soils and living things found there.  Besides marshes, several other kinds of wetlands occur throughout Virginia, including bogs, fens, pocosins, seeps, and swamps.  Topography, climate, water level and timing, and water chemistry all influence the variety and amounts of living things one finds in marshes or other wetlands.  And in any wetlands, you’ll find specially adapted plants and—as Ms. Whitaker sang about—a lot of animals that creep, crawl, whirr, and croak.

Thanks to Teresa Whitaker and to Frank Schwartz for permission to use this week’s music. We close this week’s episode, and leave a hint about the next marsh episode, with a few more seconds of “The Prettiest Marsh.”

MUSIC - ~15 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.   For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is the first of two in July 2018 on marshes.  The second of the series is Episode 430, 7-23-18.

This episode revises and replaces Episode 169, 7-18-13, which has been archived.  Minni Gupta wrote most of the script for that episode in the fall 2010 semester as a Virginia Tech English Department intern at the Virginia Water Resources Research Center.

“The Prettiest Marsh” and “Singing the Chesapeake” are copyright by Teresa Whitaker and Frank Schwartz, used with permission.  More information about Ms. Whitaker and Mr. Schwartz is available online at https://www.facebook.com/Teresa-Whitaker-Frank-Schwartz-162112866077/.  “Singing the Chesapeake” is songbook and album collection of songs by Tom Wisner, Mark Wisner, and Teresa Whitaker, published by Finding Home Productions, online at www.findinghomeproductions.com.   More information about Mr. Wisner is available from the Smithsonian Folkways “Artist Spotlight” at http://www.folkways.si.edu/explore_folkways/tom_wisner.aspx; and from the following obituary: Thomas A. Wisner, 79: 'Bard of the Chesapeake' sang about the bay he loved, Washington Post, 4/4/10.  “The Prettiest Marsh” was previously recorded by Ms. Whitaker on “We’ve Got to Come Full Circle: Chesapeake Song and Story for Young Hearts,” a 1984 album with Mr. Wisner on Smithsonian’s Folkways Records (http://www.folkways.si.edu/index.aspx).

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

PHOTOS
Marsh in Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia Beach, Va., February 2011. Photo made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library,  online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12023/rec/1, accessed 7-16-18.

  
 Marsh in Eastern Shore National Wildlife Refuge in Northampton County, Va., October 7, 2007.


Marsh at Eyre Hall near Cheriton, Va. (Northampton County), October 6, 2007.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay-3rd Edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Section 404 of the Clean Water Act: How Wetlands are Defined and Identified,” online at https://www.epa.gov/cwa-404/section-404-clean-water-act-how-wetlands-are-defined-and-identified; “Wetlands Protection and Restoration,” online at https://www.epa.gov/wetlands; and “Wetlands Classification and Types, online at https://www.epa.gov/wetlands/wetlands-classification-and-types (this site’s information on marshes is at https://www.epa.gov/wetlands/classification-and-types-wetlands#marshes).

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “The Natural Communities of Virginia—Classification of Ecological Community Groups,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/natural_communities/nctoc.shtml.

For More Information about Marshes and Other Wetlands
Chesapeake Bay Program, “Wetlands,” online at http://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/issue/wetlands.

L. M. Cowardin et al., Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979, online at https://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/wetlands/index_html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “National Wetlands Inventory,” online at https://www.fws.gov/wetlands/index.html.

U.S. Geological Survey, “Water Science School/Why are wetlands and aquatic habitats important?” online at http://water.usgs.gov/edu/qa-around-wetlands.html.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), Virginia Wetlands Report, online at http://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/wetlandreports/index.php

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Wetland and Stream Protection,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WetlandsStreams.aspx.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on wetlands.
Episode 269, 6/8/15 – What Are the “Waters of the United States?”
Episode 327, 8/1/16 – A Wetland Walk on a Midsummer Morning.
Episode 380, 8/7/17 – Natural Gas Pipelines, Water Resources, and the Clean Water Act.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.6 - ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

World Geography Course
WG.4 - types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, July 9, 2018

Episode 428 (7-9-18): Introducing the Jackson River


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:45).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-6-18.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of July 9, 2018.

MUSIC – ~8 sec

This week, that excerpt of “Heartbeat,” by the Harrisonburg, Va.-based group, The Steel Wheels, from their 2017 album “Wild as We Came Here,” opens the last of a series of episodes on three relatively small Virginia rivers.  The series highlights waterways that are less widely known than big rivers like the James, Potomac, and Shenandoah, but which still contribute in big ways to Virginia’s common wealth of water, aquatic life, scenic beauty, and human activity.

SOUND – ~11 sec

That’s the sound of the Jackson River, at a public boat launch in Covington, Va., on June 3, 2017.  Described as “the jewel of Virginia’s Alleghany Mountains,” by the Alleghany Highlands Chamber of Commerce, the Jackson River starts from headwaters near the Highland County town of Monterey.  Flowing between mountain ridges, past two state wildlife management areas, and through national forest, the upper Jackson is a scenic trout-fishing river.

Just upstream of Covington, the river becomes Lake Moomaw, a flood-control and recreation reservoir formed by the Army Corps of Engineers’ Gathright Dam.  Cold, high-oxygen tailwaters below the dam provide other popular fishing areas, but certain stretches have been the subject of dispute over recreational use, stemming from claims that colonial-era King’s Grants give the grantees ownership of the riverbed.

Besides being a valuable fishery, the Jackson has been a key water resource in the history, industrial development, and present-day economies of Covington, including its paper-making industry, Alleghany County, and the towns of Clifton Forge and Iron Gate.  And at its most downstream point, the Jackson is connected to what’s perhaps Virginia’s most important river: the confluence of the Jackson with the Cowpasture River in Botetourt County forms the James River.

Thanks to The Steel Wheels for permission to use this week’s music, and in honor of the wild, vital, and persistent nature of the Jackson River and other flowing waters, we close with a few more seconds of “Heartbeat.”

MUSIC – ~17 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Heartbeat,” by The Steel Wheels, is from the 2017 album “Wild As We Came Here,” used with permission.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/.

The sound of the Jackson River was recorded by Virginia Water Radio on June 3, 2017, at the public boat launch beside the Route 18 bridge in Covington, Va.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Jackson River in Covington, Va., June 5, 2017.


Confluence of the Jackson River (left background) and the Cowpasture River (right background) to form the James River in Botetourt County, Va., July 19, 2009.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT THE JACKSON RIVER

On the Jackson River Fishery

From the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Jackson River,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/waterbody/jackson-river/.

“The Jackson is an excellent smallmouth bass, rock bass, rainbow trout, and brown trout fishery above Lake Moomaw.  Below Gathright Dam, six public areas provide access to 18 miles of legally navigable water to Covington.  Riverfront land owners have brought successful civil trespass claims against anglers fishing in the two portions of the river highlighted on the map [online at the Web site listed above].  In light of these court actions, anglers may find it advisable to seek the permission of the riverfront property owners.

“Wild rainbow trout, wild brown trout, smallmouth bass, rock bass (redeye), and redbreast sunfish populate the tailwater below the dam….

“Large, lake-run rainbow trout can be caught in the Jackson River above Lake Moomaw during the winter and spring.  Much of this stretch is privately owned, so be sure you are fishing on National Forest property or have landowner permission.  The Jackson River, through Hidden Valley, provides ample trout fishing opportunities, especially a three-mile reach of special regulation water above the Muddy Run swinging bridge.

“[The] Jackson River, downstream of in Covington, affords good angling for smallmouth bass, redbreast sunfish, and rock bass.
Watercraft launch facilities are being planned at several locations along the lower Jackson River.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Alleghany County, Va., “Annual Drinking Water Quality Report - 2016” online (as PDF) at http://www.co.alleghany.va.us/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Covington-2016.pdf.

Alleghany Highlands Chamber of Commerce and Tourism, “Alleghany Highlands Blueway/Explore the Blueway,” online at http://www.alleghanyhighlandsblueway.com/explore-the-blueway; and “Outdoor Recreation,” online at http://www.visitalleghanyhighlands.com/outdoor-recreation.

[Town of] Clifton Forge, Va., “History,” online at https://www.cliftonforgeva.gov/about/history/; and “Clifton Forge Water Treatment Plant,” online at https://www.cliftonforgeva.gov/town-departments/water-plant/.

[City of] Covington, Va., “History,” online at http://www.covington.va.us/about-covington/history/; and “Water Plant,” online at http://www.covington.va.us/city-government/city-departments/water-plant/.

Elizabeth A. Murphy and Kurt Stephenson, “Inland Recreational Fishing Rights in Virginia: Implications of the Virginia Supreme Court Case Kraft v. Burr,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center Special Report SR13-1999, Blacksburg, Va., online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49459.

No Depression—The Journal of Roots Music, “The Steel Wheels—Wild as We Came Here” album review by J. McSpadden, 5/11/17, online at http://nodepression.com/album-review/steel-wheels-release-best-album-their-career.

PorterBriggs.com, “Covington: The Life of an American Mill Town,” online at http://porterbriggs.com/16420-2/.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, “Gathright Dam and Lake Moomaw,” online at http://www.nao.usace.army.mil/About/Projects/Gathright-Moomaw/.

Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Virginia Water Central News Grouper” posts on stream rights and the Jackson River, online at https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=Jackson+River. To start, see “Another Chapter in Virginia Streams and Kings Grants: April 2016 Lawsuit by Craig County Property Owners over Stream Navigability Determinations by Va. Marine Resources Commission in March 2015.

Virginia Atlas and Gazetteer, DeLorme, Yarmouth, Me., 2000.

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, “Virginia’s Major Watersheds,” online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil-and-water/wsheds.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Jackson River,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/waterbody/jackson-river/; and “Jackson River Tailwater Fishery Report April 2015,” by Stephen J. Resser, online (as PDF) at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/Jackson-River-Tailwater-Report-2015.pdf.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.

The other two episodes in the summer 2018 series on relatively small Virginia rivers are the following:
Episode 426, 6/25/18 - on the Big Otter River.
Episode 425, 6/18/18 - on the South Fork Holston River.

Following are links to other episodes on Virginia waters in the James River watershed.
Episode 87, 11/7/11 – the falls of the James River in Richmond.
Episode 164, 6/3/13 – Civil War attempts to capture Richmond.
Episode 201, 2/17/14 – Abraham Lincoln and the James River.
Episode 265, 5/11/15 – an introduction to geography, using the James River.
Episode 273, 7/6/15 – the Virginia Peninsula, between the James and York rivers.
Episode 334, 9/19/16 – a Virginia rivers quiz.
Episode 373, 6/19/17 – the James River Batteau Festival.
Episode 379,  7/31/17 – Virginia's Western or Alleghany Highlands.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.9 – adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.

World Geography Course
WG.3 – how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.5 – regions of United States and Canada.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.