Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Episode 500 (11-25-19): The Variety of Virginia's Water Story

Click to listen to episode (5:55)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-22-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 25, 2019.

This Thanksgiving week marks the 500th episode of Virginia Water Radio, which began nearly 10 years ago.  For that milestone, this episode revisits 10 previously featured mystery sounds or voices.  After each audio segment, I’ll identify a related aspect Virginia’s common wealth of water that this program has aimed to explore. Have a listen!

1. SOUND - ~3 sec – A chorus of Springs Peepers and an American Toad represents frogs, birds, and other audible aquatic life.

2. VOICE - ~4 sec - A call-out of aquatic plant names represents aquatic creatures or phenomena that don’t make sounds.

3. SOUND - ~5 sec - The James River at Richmond represents stories of Virginia’s waterways and other aquatic places.

4. SOUND - ~6 sec – Boats on the New River represent uses of waterways as well as waterway safety and stewardship.

5. VOICES - ~6 sec – A call-out of some of 2019’s tropical cyclone names represents weather and other water cycle events.

6. VOICES - ~7 sec – The opening of the Virginia General Assembly in 2017 represents governmental entities that affect water.

7. VOICE - ~6 sec – An excerpt from a promotion by WHRO radio in Norfolk for citizens to help measure the annual “king tide” represents citizen involvement with water resources.

8. SOUND - ~6 sec – A restored, 19th Century, water-driven mill wheel in Craig County represents water’s historical connections and influences.

9. SOUND - ~5 sec – A boiling tea kettle represents physical and chemical properties that make water a widespread and versatile substance.

10. SOUND and VOICE - ~7 sec – And a visit with a Virginia Tech graduate student represents the work of water scientists.


Virginia Water Radio looks forward to more exploration of all of these subject areas.   Likewise, we hope to continue finding water-related music, either by Virginians or about Virginia waters.  So we close this 500th episode with about 90 seconds of samples from musicians featured in many previous episodes: The Steel Wheels, Timothy Seaman, No Strings Attached, Torrin Hallett, Bob Gramann, Chamomile and Whiskey, and Kat Mills.  Thanks to those musicians and to all the other collaborators who have helped make this show possible, especially Patrick Fay, who helped create the show in 2010.  We hope they, and you, have liked the outcomes. Now here’s the music, and…

VOICES - ~3 sec – “Happy Thanksgiving!”

MUSIC - ~84 sec

The Steel Wheels – “Rain in the Valley” – ~7 sec – “There’s a rain comin’ down in the valley.”

Timothy Seaman – “Drive the Cold Winter Away” – ~11 sec – instrumental.

No Strings Attached – “Minor Meander” – ~11 sec – instrumental.

Torrin Hallett – “Geese Piece” – ~11 sec – instrumental.

Bob Gramann – “Pack of Neurons” – ~10 sec – “Well you’re nothin’ but a pack of neurons, in a shapely bag goo. All you thoughts and dreams, your hopes and schemes are electrochemical, too.”

Chamomile and Whiskey – ~11 sec - “Driving Rain” – ~sec – “Reflections in the window pane fallin’ in love, in the drivin’ rain.”

Kat Mills – “On a Ship” – ~23 sec – “We are riding on a ship.”


SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to the Virginia Water Resources Research Center for supporting this project; to Patrick Fay for helping create it in 2010; to George Wills for creating the show’s logo; to Torrin Hallett and Timothy Seaman for composing music especially for Virginia Water Radio; to Ben Cosgrove and Steward Scales for recording the music selections used (on alternating weeks) to open and close episodes; and to the many other people who have provided sounds, music, voices, images, information, ideas, and encouragement.

The sounds and voices heard in this episode were recorded as indicated below, in the order heard.  (Recordings were by Virginia Water Radio unless otherwise indicated.  The main episodes in which these sounds or voices were featured are included and hyperlinked to the respective episode post.  All locations are in Virginia.)

1 - Frog chorus, from Episode 206, 3-24-14, recorded on March 13, 2011, in Blacksburg (Spring Peepers) and March 29, 2010, in Blacksburg (American Toad).

2 - Aquatic plant call-out, from Episode 325, 7-18-16, by students at Achievable Dream High School in Newport News, recorded in July 2016 in Blacksburg, used with participants’ permission.

3 - James River at Richmond, from Episode 265, 5-11-15, recorded on February 17, 2014, at Brown’s Island by Michael Martz, used with permission.

4 - Boats, from Episode 111, 5-12-12, recorded on May 19, 2012, beside the New River.

5 - Tropical storm call-out, from Episode 474, 5-27-19, by Virginia Tech faculty, staff, and students, recorded on May 16-17, 2019, in Blacksburg, used with permission.

6 - General Assembly opening, from Episode 402, 1-8-18, excerpted from audio of the January 11, 2017, opening of the Virginia House of Delegates and Virginia Senate, accessed from the Virginia General Assembly’s session video-stream archives, online at http://virginia-house.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3 for the House of Delegates and online at http://virginia-senate.granicus.com/ViewPublisher.php?view_id=3 for the Senate.

7 - King Tide measurement promotional message, from Episode 441, 10-8-18, taken from a video produced by WHRO FM in Norfolk, used with permission.  The video (1 min./33 sec.) was accessed online at is available online at http://kingtide.whro.org/.

8 – Water-driven mill wheel, from Episode 386, 9-18-17, recorded on September 4, 2017, at Tingler’s Mill in Paint Bank (Craig County).

9 - Tea kettle of boiling water, from Episode 250, 1-26-15, recorded January 25, 2015, in Blacksburg.

10 - Tyler Weiglein, at the time a Virginia Tech graduate student, from Episode 312, 4-18-16, recorded April 13, 2016, in Blacksburg, used with permission.

11 - Happy Thanksgiving call-out, from Episode 189, 11-25-13, by friends of Virginia Water Radio, recorded November 24, 2013, in Blacksburg, used with permission.

The music heard in this episode, in the order heard, was as follows:

1 - “Rain in the Valley,” from the 2012 album, “Lay Down, Lay Low,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission.  More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/.  This music was most recently featured in Episode 455, 1-14-19.

2 - “Drive the Cold Winter Away” is a traditional tune performed by Timothy Seaman and Phillip Skeens on the 1998 album “Celebration of Centuries,” copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Mr. Seaman’s music is available online http://timothyseaman.com/. This music was most recently featured in Episode 344, 11-28-16.

3 - “Minor Meander,” from the 1999 album “In the Vinyl Tradition Volume II,” is copyright by No Strings Attached and Enessay Music, used with permission. More information about No Strings Attached is available online at http://enessay.com/index.html.  This music was featured in Episode 248, 1-12-15.

4 - “Geese Piece,” composed for Virginia Water Radio in September 2016, is copyright by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  More information about Torrin Hallett is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  This music was most recently featured in Episode 440, 10-1-18.

5 - “Pack of Neurons,” from the 2008 album “Mostly Live,” is copyright by Bob Gramann, used with permission.  More information about Bob Gramann is available online at http://www.bobgramann.com/.  This music was most recently featured in Episode 450, 12-10-18.

6 - “Driving Rain,” from the 2012 album “The Barn Sessions,” is copyright by Chamomile and Whiskey and by County Wide Records, used with permission.  More information about Chamomile and Whiskey is available online at http://www.chamomileandwhiskey.com/, and information about Charlottesville-based County Wide records is available online at http://countywidemusic.worldsecuresystems.com/.  This music was most recently featured in Episode 474, 5-27-19.

7 - “On a Ship,” from the 2015 album “Silver,” is copyright by Kat Mills, used with permission.  Accompanists on the song are Ida Polys, vocals; Rachel Handman, violin; and Nicholas Polys, banjo.  More information about Kat Mills is available online at http://www.katmills.com/.  This music was most recently featured in Episode 418, 4-30-18.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode and episodes on alternating weeks.  More information about Stewart Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes episodes on alternating weeks.  More information about Ben Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Following are six images connected to some of the aspects of Virginia’s water resources mentioned in this episode.


Blue-winged Teal painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plates 313 [CCCXIII] and 228 [CCXXVIII], respectively), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York.  Photo taken December 10, 2017, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance.  Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.  For more on teal, please see Episode 398, 12-11-17.


Hollow trunk of an American Sycamore tree beside the New River in Radford, Va., October 4, 2009. For more on sycamores, please see Episode 176, 8-26-13.


Lake Drummond, located in the Virginia cities of Chesapeake and Suffolk within the Great Dismal Swamp, April 30, 2005. For more on the Dismal Swamp, please see Episode 479, 7-1-19.


Virginia Senate session in Richmond, January 31, 2018.   For more on the General Assembly, please see the most recent annual episode, Episode 454, 1-7-19.


Tingler’s Mill restored wheel and building in Paint Bank, Va. (Craig County), September 4, 2017. For more on Tingler’s Mill and the Paint Bank area, please see Episode 386, 9-18-17.


Boiling water at a Blacksburg residence, January 25, 2015.  For more on the properties of boiling, please see Episode 250, 1-26-15.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  Subject categories are the following:

Amphibians;
Birds;
Community/Organizations;
Energy;
Fish;
Groundwater;
History;
Insects;
Invertebrates Other Than Insects;
Mammals;
Overall Importance of Water;
Plants;
Recreation;
Reptiles;
Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water;
Science;
Water Quality, including Waste Management and Water/Wastewater Treatment;
Weather/Natural Disasters.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio/transcript or the information in the accompanying Show Notes—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Virginia natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, and cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystems.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
K.5 – water properties, including flowing, objects floating or sinking, and water occurring in different phases.
2.3 – properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
6.5 – properties and characteristics of water and its roles in the human and natural environment.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.6 – ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia, “with reference to the hydrologic cycle.”

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-3 Economics Theme
2.8 – natural, human, and capital resources.
3.8 – understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.4 – types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.

Government Course
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school. 

Monday, November 18, 2019

Episode 499 (11-18-19): A Report on Emerging Contaminants in Virginia

Click to listen to episode (4:29)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Image
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-15-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 18, 2019.

SOUNDS (CROWD NOISE) - ~ 4 seconds

This week, imagine you’re at a water conference among a crowd gathered for a panel discussion on this question: “What’s in the water about which we don’t know enough?”  Have a listen for about 15 seconds to some answers that that panel might give.

VOICES - ~15 sec – “Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, flame retardants, hormones, perfluorinated compounds, antibiotics, microplastics and microfibers, engineered nanomaterials.”

You’ve been listening to the names of seven categories of substances known collectively as “emerging contaminants,” or more precisely, “contaminants of emerging concern”--CECs for short.  According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, aquatic CECs are substances which have been found in surface waters or groundwater and which may have harmful effects on aquatic life or human health, but which are not currently regulated or routinely monitored.  Some CECs have only recently been detected in water bodies, while others have previously been known to occur but their presence or significance is only now becoming a concern.

The seven groups of CECs you heard called out are the subject of “Emerging Contaminants in the Waters of Virginia,” an October 2019 report by the Academic Advisory Committee to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.  The report was written by Kang Xia of Virginia Tech and published by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, which coordinates the Academic Advisory Committee.

Here are some important points from the report.

CECs can be found in water, sediments, aquatic organisms, and soils.

Major sources of these seven groups of CECs are wastewater, the biosolids remaining after wastewater treatment, animal manure, solid-waste landfills, and atmospheric deposition.

These groups of CECs can include many individual substances; for example, over 3000 substances are currently known in the perfluorinated compounds group.  The large number of substances presents analytical and monitoring challenges.

Antibiotics have been reported from water, groundwater, and drinking water in Virginia, potentially contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance, and the World Health Organization has called antibiotic resistance one of the most important global health challenges of the 21st Century.

Microplastics—either those used in many items such as textiles and personal care products, or those resulting from disintegration of plastic debris—are found in many aquatic environments and organisms, but relatively research has been done on their occurrence in Virginia.

And, overall, despite the valuable contributions of this new report, much is still unknown about the occurrence of CECs in Virginia and the risks they may pose.

The report is available through the Virginia Water Center’s Web site at vwrrc.vt.edu.

Thanks to several Virginia Tech colleagues for lending their voices to this episode.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The emerging contaminant category names were spoken by six faculty and staff members in the Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to those colleagues for participating in this episode.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGE

Figure 1 from “Emerging Contaminants in the Waters of Virginia—2019 Report of the Academic Advisory Committee for Virginia Department of Environmental Quality,” by Kang Xia, published by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, Va. (SR63-2019), October 2019.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE WATER QUALITY ACADEMIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE

The following information is from the Virginia Water Resources Research Center Web site, online at https://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/water-quality-academic-advisory-committee/.

The Virginia General Assembly in the 1997 Water Quality Monitoring, Information, and Restoration Act (WQMIR) directed the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to develop EPA-required 303(d) and 305(b) [water-quality] reports in consultation with experts from the state’s universities.  To meet the WQMIR academic consultation requirements, the DEQ asked the Virginia Water Resources Research Center (VWRRC) to organize and coordinate a Water Quality Academic Advisory Committee (WQAAC) to serve as an independent advisory body to the DEQ.  The WQAAC reviews and evaluates the scientific merits of the DEQ’s existing and evolving water quality assessment procedures for the 305(b) and 303 (d) reports.

As of November 2019, members of the committee are from University of Virginia, VCU, Virginia Tech, William and Mary/VIMS, and Resources for the Future.  Besides the recent report on emerging contaminants covered in this episode of Virginia Water Radio, other major topics addressed by the committee have been aquatic life use assessment protocols and freshwater nutrient criteria.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, “Flame Retardants,” online at https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/flame_retardants/index.cfm.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service, “What are microplastics?” as of 6/25/18, online at https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/microplastics.html.

PBS NewsHour, Why overuse of antibiotics is a massive, ‘staggering’ problem in health care, 11/14/19 (6 min./11 sec. video with transcript).

Reuters/New York Times, Antibiotic-Resistant Infections Killing Twice as Many Americans as Once Thought, 11/14/19.

U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, “Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972) or the Clean Water Act (CWA),” online at https://www.boem.gov/Environmental-Stewardship/Environmental-Assessment/CWA/index.aspx.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance/2019 AR Report,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/DrugResistance/Biggest-Threats.html.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Contaminants of Emerging Concern including Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products,” online at https://www.epa.gov/wqc/contaminants-emerging-concern-including-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products.

U.S. EPA, “Learn about Effluent Guidelines,” online at https://www.epa.gov/eg/learn-about-effluent-guidelines#pollutant.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “Emerging Contaminants,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/mission-areas/water-resources/science/emerging-contaminants?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects.  (This is a detailed Web site with links to research publications, videos, data sources, and related topics.)

USGS/Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, “Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Environment,” online at https://toxics.usgs.gov/investigations/cec/index.php.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/ConnectWithDEQ/EnvironmentalInformation/PFAS.aspx.

Virginia Water Resources Research Center, “Water Quality Academic Advisory Committee,” online at https://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/water-quality-academic-advisory-committee/.

Kang Xia, “Emerging Contaminants in the Waters of Virginia—2019 Report of the Academic Advisory Committee for Virginia Department of Environmental Quality,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, Va., SR63-2019, October 2019, available online (as a PDF) at https://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/SR63-2019_Emerging-Contaminants-in-the-Waters-of-Virginia.pdf.  An overview of the report is available from the Virginia Water Center in “WQAAC Reports on Emerging Contaminants and Aquatic Life Assessment Protocol,” 10/16/19, online at https://www.vwrrc.vt.edu/2019/10/16/wqaac-reports-on-emerging-contaminants-and-aquatic-life-assessment-protocol/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Science,” and “Water Quality” subject categories.

Following is a link to another episode related to pharmaceuticals in water.

Episode 417, 4-23-18.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Virginia natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, and cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystems.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia, “with reference to the hydrologic cycle.”
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.2 – water chemistry and its impact on life processes.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Chemistry Course
CH.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
CH.6 – chemical properties in organic chemistry and biochemistry.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Episode 498 (11-11-19): : Music in Honor of Veterans Day and Our Armed Forces’ Connections to Virginia’s Waters

Click to listen to episode (5:04)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-8-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 11, 2019.  This is a revised repeat of a Veterans Day episode from November 2013.

MUSIC – ~4 sec – instrumental

That opening flourish of “Armed Forces Medley,” by the U.S. Army Ceremonial Band, opens an episode in recognition of Veterans Day on November 11.  This year marks the 100th anniversary of President Woodrow Wilson’s November 1919 proclamation of the first annual commemoration of “Armistice Day,” the end of World War I on November 11, 1918.  Wilson’s proclamation, along with state observances, started an annual tradition that became a national legal holiday in 1938 and, in 1954, was designated by Congress as Veterans Day.

In this episode of Virginia Water Radio, we first honor U.S. military service members with excerpts from the anthems of all five branches of the armed forces, and then we note some connections between Virginia’s water resources and the nation’s military.  Have a listen for about 90 seconds to the anthem excerpts, all from the Army Ceremonial Band’s version of “Armed Forces Medley.”

MUSIC - ~1 min/26 sec – instrumental

You heard parts of the Coast Guard anthem “Semper Paratus” [“Always Ready”], “The Air Force Song,” the Navy anthem “Anchors Aweigh,” “The Marines Hymn,” and “The Army Goes Rolling Along.”

Since the Revolutionary War, Virginia’s coastal location and water-rich geography have made the Commonwealth a site for military bases, ship-building, training, research, and other activities now reaching across all five service branches.   Today, Virginia is home to over two dozen active military bases or other facilities.  Operations on, across, or over water are part of the mission of every armed service, and, in Virginia, water is part of the setting for many military facilities, from Navy, Coast Guard, and joint-force bases in the Hampton Roads region; to the Marines’ base along Quantico Creek and the Potomac River; to the Radford Army Ammunition Plant along the New River in southwestern Virginia.

On Veterans Day and all year round, thanks to all U.S. service members, past and present.  Thanks also to the U.S. Army Ceremonial Band for making this week’s music available for public use, and we close with the ending flourish of “Armed Forces Medley.”

MUSIC - ~9 sec – instrumental

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.   For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.   In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 187, 11-11-13.

The version of “Armed Forces Medley” heard here was performed by the United States Army Ceremonial Band, accessed at the “Ceremonial Music Guide” page, online at https://www.usarmyband.com/watch-listen/ceremonial-music-guide.html, 11-6-19.  That page states, “All music files on this page are free for download and duplication.”

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

The U.S. Army Ceremonial Band, undated photo. Photo accessed at the band’s Web site at https://www.usarmyband.com/ceremonial-band/the-us-army-ceremonial-band.html, 11/12/19.



The two photos above are from the November 11, 2019, Veterans Day service at the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Lee in Prince George County, Virginia.  Photos by Stephen Baker, provided online by the Defense Visual Information Distribution Service (DVIDS), at https://www.dvidshub.net/; the specific URL for the images above was https://www.dvidshub.net/search/?filter%5Btype%5D=image&filter%5Bbranch%5D=Army&filter%5Bstate%5D=Virginia&view=grid&filter[date]=20191111-undefinedundefined, as of 11/12/19. The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement. (Information on use of these public domain images is available online at https://www.dvidshub.net/about/copyright.)

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT VETERANS DAY

The information below is quotes from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, “History of Veterans Day,” online at https://www.va.gov/opa/vetsday/vetdayhistory.asp, as of 11/8/19.

“World War I—known at the time as ‘The Great War’—officially ended when the Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919, in the Palace of Versailles outside the town of Versailles, France.  However, fighting ceased seven months earlier when an armistice, or temporary cessation of hostilities, between the Allied nations and Germany went into effect on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.  For that reason, November 11, 1918, is generally regarded as the end of ‘the war to end all wars.’

“…In November 1919, [U.S.] President [Woodrow] Wilson proclaimed November 11 as the first commemoration of Armistice Day with the following words: ‘To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nations…’  The original concept for the celebration was for a day observed with parades and public meetings and a brief suspension of business beginning at 11:00 a.m.

“The United States Congress officially recognized the end of World War I when it passed a concurrent resolution on June 4, 1926, with these words:
Whereas the 11th of November 1918, marked the cessation of the most destructive, sanguinary, and far reaching war in human annals and the resumption by the people of the United States of peaceful relations with other nations, which we hope may never again be severed, and

Whereas it is fitting that the recurring anniversary of this date should be commemorated with thanksgiving and prayer and exercises designed to perpetuate peace through good will and mutual understanding between nations; and

Whereas the legislatures of twenty-seven of our States have already declared November 11 to be a legal holiday,

Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), that the President of the United States is requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the officials to display the flag of the United States on all Government buildings on November 11 and inviting the people of the United States to observe the day in schools and churches, or other suitable places, with appropriate ceremonies of friendly relations with all other peoples.

“An Act [of Congress] (52 Stat. 351; 5 U. S. Code, Sec. 87a) approved May 13, 1938, made the 11th of November in each year a legal holiday—a day to be dedicated to the cause of world peace and to be thereafter celebrated and known as ‘Armistice Day.’ Armistice Day was primarily a day set aside to honor veterans of World War I, but in 1954, after World War II had required the greatest mobilization of soldiers, sailors, Marines, and airmen in the Nation’s history, [and] after American forces had fought aggression in Korea, the 83rd Congress, at the urging of the veterans service organizations, amended the Act of 1938 by striking out the word ‘Armistice’ and inserting in its place the word ‘Veterans.’ With the approval of this legislation (Public Law 380) on June 1, 1954, November 11th became a day to honor American veterans of all wars.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

U.S. Army/Army Bands, “‘The Army Goes Rolling Along,’ The Official Song of The United States Army,” online at https://www.bands.army.mil/music/armysong/.

Joint Base Langley-Eustis, online at https://www.jble.af.mil/.

Military.com, “Virginia Military Bases,” http://militarybases.com/virginia/.

PBS, “National Memorial Day Concert/Salute to the Services,” online at https://www.pbs.org/national-memorial-day-concert/features/salute-to-services/.

U.S. Army Center of Military History, online at https://history.army.mil/index.html.

U.S. Coast Guard, online at https://www.uscg.mil//; and U.S. Coast Guard/Historian’s Office, online at https://www.history.uscg.mil/.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, “History of Veterans Day,” online at https://www.va.gov/opa/vetsday/vetdayhistory.asp.

U.S. Marine Corps/History Division, https://www.usmcu.edu/Research/History-Division/.

U.S. Marine Corps/Marines Band, “The Marines’ Hymn,” online at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/about/library-and-archives/the-marines-hymn/.

U.S. Navy/Commander, Navy Installations Command, “Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story,” online at https://www.cnic.navy.mil/regions/cnrma/installations/jeb_little_creek_fort_story.html.

U.S. Navy/Naval History and Heritage Command, “Hampton Roads Naval Museum,” online at http://www.history.navy.mil/museums/hrnm/index.html.

U.S. Secretary of Defense/Historical Office, online at https://history.defense.gov/DOD-History/Pentagon/History/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” and “History” subject categories.

Following are links to previous Veterans Day episodes on each of the five U.S. service branches.

Episode 239, 11-10-14 – Coast Guard.
Episode 289, 11-9-15 – Navy.
Episode 341, 11-7-16 – Air Force.
Episode 394, 11-13-17 – Army.
Episode 446, 11-12-18 – Marine Corps.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
2.5 – why U.S. citizens celebrate major holidays, including Veterans Day.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.9 – how national events affected Virginia and its citizens.

United States History: 1865-to-Present Course
USII.8 – economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world after World War II, , including role of U.S. military.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Virginia and United States History Course
VUS.13 – U.S. foreign policy since World War II, including the role of the military.

Government Course
GOVT. 12 – role of the United States in a changing world, including responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Episode 497 (11-4-19): “Connecting the Drops” Delivers Water Information to Colorado Communities

Click to listen to episode (5:26)

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-1-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 4, 2019.  This week we present another of our occasional episodes on water-related radio programs outside of Virginia.

SOUND – ~19 sec – from “The Fork Not Taken,” May 10, 2019 - “For most of the 19th Century, dam construction was the dominant solution for most of the water issues in the United States.” Historical recording: “The river had to be regulated, controlled at a year-round flow. No more floods, no more droughts.”

That historical perspective on dams in the United States is from an episode in the “Connecting the Drops” program from Water Education Colorado, in partnership with Rocky Mountain Community Radio stations.  Water Education Colorado was formed in 2002 and was known until 2017 as the Colorado Foundation for Water Education.  According to its Web site, the organization is, quote, “on a mission to promote a better understanding of Colorado’s water resources and issues by providing balanced and accurate information, education, and leadership.”  The organization’s activities include a compilation of water news headlines, a magazine, a series of citizen’s guides to water topics, a number of special programs and events, and, since 2013, the “Connecting the Drops” radio program.  Done in collaboration with community radio stations across Colorado, the episodes range from about 4 to 8 minutes, and the topics range from bacteria in waterways, to climate change effects on ski resorts, to forecasting water availability.  Let’s have a listen for about two minutes to excerpts from four episodes: on grease in wastewater, wastewater recycling in beer brewing, aquatic nuisance species, and monitoring for lead in school water systems.

SOUNDS - ~1 min/55 sec

From “When Not to Flush,” April 4, 2019, ~34 sec – “The sound and smell of bacon frying is a pretty common occurrence in households on weekend mornings.  Now imagine this happening in millions of households around the state and then imagine the cumulative effect of all those greasy frying pans getting washed.  It’s something Liam Cavanaugh, director of operations for Metro Wastewater Reclamation District thinks about frequently. ‘If you think about 2 million people worth of wastewater, that’s a lot of wastewater and so if every household is dumping their bacon grease down the drain on Sunday morning, that can cause a lot of problems in the piping systems and here at the treatment facility.’

From “Beverages Brewed with Reclaimed Wastewater Advance Reuse,” November 7, 2018, ~23 sec. – “Colorado is known for its adventurous and innovative microbrew industry.  But, the beer served in October at the Recycled Water Fest, southeast of Denver, takes that reputation to a whole new level.  This beer, and the wine on offer, [were] made with water taken from a wastewater treatment plant.

From “Searching for Aquatic Nuisance Species,” October 15, 2017, ~22 sec. – “Colorado Parks and Wildlife define an aquatic nuisance species, or ANS, as [the following]: ‘An aquatic nuisance species is a non-native species that has been introduced to a new location, has no predators, and has harmful impacts on our natural resources and the human use of those resources.’”

From “Monitoring for Lead in Schools,” May 5, 2017, ~32 sec. – “Water is so good for health, Jefferson County’s Stober Elementary strives to make it the favorite drink.  Fourth grader Aram says it’s perfect after exercise.  ‘When I play capture the flag I get a really quick drink.’ He heads to his favorite water fountain.  ‘Tastes really good. And, tastes cold.’  The water’s good in another way, because this Denver Metro school district has been testing every single sink and fountain for the heavy metal known as lead.  After all, excess lead can damage health. [Mike VanDyke, Colorado Chief of Environmental Epidemiology:] ‘Typically the levels that we see are really related to cognitive problems later in life, [such as] kids not learning as well, kids not being able to pay attention as well at school.’”

From Denver, Boulder, and other places in Colorado, “Connecting the Drops” is providing the Centennial State’s nearly six million citizens with a wide-ranging and engaging source of water information.  In the process, the program is offering a variety of western water perspectives to the rest of the country, too.

Thanks to the Water Education Colorado staff for permission to use excerpts from “Connecting the Drops.”  More information about that program and the organization’s other work is available online at watereducationcolorado.org.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Connecting the Drops” excerpts were provided courtesy of Caitlin Coleman, Headwaters editor and communications specialist at Water Education Colorado, used with permission.  Contact Water Education Colorado at 1600 Downing Street, Suite 200, Denver, CO 80218; phone: (303) 377-4433; home page https://www.watereducationcolorado.org/.  Below are hyperlinks to the episodes excerpted in this week’s audio.  As of November 1, 2019, all episodes since July 2015 are available online at https://www.watereducationcolorado.org/publications-and-radio/radio/.

The Fork Not Taken, May 10, 2019 (8 min./3 sec.).
What Not to Flush, April 4, 2019 (6 min./3 sec.).
Beverages Brewed with Reclaimed Wastewater Advance Reuse, November 7, 2018 (5 min./46 sec.).
Searching for Aquatic Nuisance Species, October 15, 2017 (6 min./25 sec.).
Monitoring for Lead in Schools, May 5, 2017 (4 min./2 sec.).

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode of Virginia Water Radio.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

The following images accompany episodes of “Connecting the Drops” on Water Education Colorado’s Web site at https://www.watereducationcolorado.org/publications-and-radio/radio/.  All are used here with permission of Water Education Colorado.


Original caption: “Water is discharged into the South Platte River near Denver, having been treated at the Metro Wastewater plant.” From episode “What Not to Flush,” April 4, 2019.


Original caption: “At the Blue is the New Green: Recycled Water Fest, Lucus Restrepo becomes one of the few bartenders in the nation to serve beer and wine made with recycled water.” From episode “Beverages Brewed with Reclaimed Wastewater Advance Reuse,” November 7, 2018.


Sampling a Colorado water body to monitor for invasive non-native mussels. From episode “Searching for Aquatic Nuisance Species,” October 15, 2017. 

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Colorado Official State Web Portal, online at https://www.colorado.gov/state-information; and “State Name and Nicknames,” online at https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/archives/state-name-and-nicknames.

Rocky Mountain Community Radio, online at https://rockymtnradio.wordpress.com/.

U.S. Census Bureau, “Quick Facts Colorado,” online at https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/CO. The Census Bureau’s July 1, 2018, population estimate for Colorado was 5.695 million.

Water Education Colorado, online at https://www.watereducationcolorado.org/. 

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES


All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

Following are link to other episodes on natural resources education programs outside of Virginia.

Episode 440, 10-1-18
– on e-Bird at Cornell University in New York.
Episode 471, 5-6-19 – on the “Water Rocks!” program at Iowa State University.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, and cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Virginia watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course

LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

United States History: 1865-to-Present Course
USII.9 – domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.3 – how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.5 – regions of United States and Canada.

Government Course
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels. 

Episode 250, 1-26-15
– on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.
Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school.