Monday, November 27, 2017

Episode 396 (11-27-17): Getting Ready before the Temperature and Frozen Water Fall


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:02).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-24-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 27, 2017.

SOUNDS – ~4 sec

This week, that sound of sleet opens our annual episode on winter preparedness.

In 2017, winter comes to Virginia on December 21 at 11:28 a.m. That’s the Virginia time of the Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, when the hemisphere is at its maximum annual tilt away from the sun.  To help you be prepared for all that the Winter Solstice foretells, here are some tips from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management for staying safe from winter’s hazardous roads, power outages, and fire hazards.

*Get road conditions from the Virginia 511 telephone system, Web site, or mobile app.
*Have an emergency kit for your vehicle, including jumper cables, water, non-perishable food, blankets, a flashlight, and other items.
*Have a battery-powered or hand-cranked radio, especially one with a NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration] Weather Radio band.
*Get fireplaces, wood stoves, and chimneys inspected and cleaned.
*Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on every floor level, test them monthly, and replace the batteries every six months.
*If you use space heaters, plug them into wall outlets, not into extension cords; keep heaters at least three feet from other objects; and don’t leave heaters unattended.
*Generators, camp stoves, and charcoal-burning devices should be used outdoors only.
*Use flashlights, not candles, during power outages.
*And make a family emergency plan that includes a meeting place if your family can’t return home; an out-of-town emergency contact; and at least a three-day emergency supply of food, water, and medications.

More information on preparing for severe winter weather and other emergencies is available online at vaemergency.gov, and in the online show notes for this Water Radio episode.

Thanks to Freesound.org for the sleet sounds. Next time you hear those sounds for real, or perhaps these…

SOUND - ~ 6 sec - wind plus NOAA Weather Radio winter weather message excerpt

…here’s hoping that you can stay warm, dry, and safe.

We close with some music appropriate for the season about to arrive. Here’s part of “Winter’s Fall,” by the Blacksburg- and Roanoke, Va.,-based band, No Strings Attached.

MUSIC - ~24 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The sound of snow and sleet was recorded by user sanus-excipio (dated December 15, 2007), and made available for public use by Freesound.org, online at https://freesound.org/people/sanus_excipio/sounds/44921/, under the Creative Commons Attribution—Non-commercial 3.0 License.  For more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/; information on the Attribution—Non-Commercial License specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/.

The NOAA Weather Radio excerpt was recorded from the November 26, 2014 (7 a.m. EST) broadcast by the National Weather Service Forecast Office in Blacksburg, Va.

“Winter’s Fall,” from the 1999 album “In the Vinyl Tradition, Vol. II,” is copyright by No Strings Attached and Enessay Music, used with permission.  This selection was featured previously in Virginia Water Radio Episode 258, 3-23/15.  More information about No Strings Attached is available from their Web site, http://enessay.com.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES
Winter-weather preparedness poster from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, accessed online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/winter-weather/, 11/22/17.
Snow and cold temperatures at 7 a.m. in Blacksburg, Va., January 7, 2017.

EXTRA INFORMATION ON WINTER PREPAREDNESS AND SAFETY

Before A Winter Storm 

The recommendations below were taken from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “Nov. 29-Dec. 5 is Winter Preparedness Week,” 11/24/15, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/winter/winter-preparedness-week,” accessed 11/21/17.
 

Get a kit.
Basic emergency supplies include the following:
*Three days’ food that doesn’t need refrigeration or electricity to prepare it;
*Three days’ water (a gallon per person per day);
*A battery-powered and/or hand-crank radio with extra batteries;
*For businesses and offices, bottled water, food bars, and a radio or TV to hear local information about whether or not it is safe to travel;
*A power pack for recharging cell phones and other mobile devices. [Suggestions from the Department of Homeland Security for emergency kits for home and vehicle are online at https://www.ready.gov/build-a-kit.]

Make a plan.
Everyone needs an emergency plan:
*Decide who your out-of-town emergency contact will be;
*Where will you meet up with family members if you can’t return home?
*Get an emergency plan worksheet at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/make-emergency-plan/.

Stay informed.
Before, during and after a winter storm, you should do the following:
*Listen to local media for information and instructions from emergency officials;
*Be aware of winter storm watches and warnings and road conditions;
*Get where you need to go before the weather gets bad;
*Get road-condition information by calling 511, checking www.511Virginia.org, or using the 511 mobile app.

Download the Ready Virginia app, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/ready-virginia-mobile-app/.
The Free app for iPhone® and Android™ features the following:
*Location-specific weather watches and warnings issued by the National Weather Service;
*“I'm Safe!” notification that allows users to quickly send a text message to let family and friends know they are safe;
*A customizable family emergency plan that can be easily shared;
*A checklist for gathering emergency supplies.

During A Winter Storm

The recommendations below are from the National Weather Service, “What To Do If You're Caught in a Winter Storm,” online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/winter/during.shtml; accessed 11/21/17.

Outside
*Find Shelter: Try to stay dry and cover all exposed body parts.
*When there is no shelter nearby: Build a lean-to, windbreak or snow cave for protection from the wind. Build a fire for heat and to attract attention. Place rocks around the fire to absorb and reflect heat.
*Melt Snow for Drinking Water: Eating unmelted snow will lower your body temperature.
*Exercise: From time to time, move arms, legs, fingers and toes vigorously to keep blood circulating and to keep warm. Avoid overexertion such as shoveling heavy snow, pushing a car or walking in deep snow if you are not in good health. The strain from the cold and the hard labor may cause a heart attack. Sweating could lead to a chill and hypothermia.

In Vehicles
If you must drive during a storm, take the following precautions:
*Slow down! Even if the roads just look wet they could still be slick. More than 6,000 fatalities occur on the roadways each year due to weather conditions.
*Make sure your vehicle is completely clear of ice or snow before starting the trip. Flying snow from cars causes accidents.
*Let someone know where you are going and what route you will take. If something happens, this person will know where to start a search.
*Don't leave the house without the following: a fully charged mobile phone charger and an emergency supplies kit in your car. [Suggestions for a vehicle kit are online at https://www.ready.gov/build-a-kit.]
*If you are driving and begin to skid, remain calm, ease your foot off the gas and turn your wheels in the direction you want the front of the car to go. If you have an anti-lock braking system (ABS), apply steady pressure to the brake pedal. Never pump the brakes on an ABS equipped vehicle.
*If you are having trouble seeing due to weather conditions, pull over to the side of the road and stop your car until visibility improves. Turn off your lights and use your parking break when stopped so that another car won't mistakenly follow your tail/brake lights and end up hitting you.

If your car gets stuck during a storm:
*Stay in the vehicle! If you leave your vehicle, you will become disoriented quickly in wind-driven snow and cold.
*Run the motor about 10 minutes each hour for heat. While running the motor, open the window a little for fresh air to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning. Clear snow from the exhaust pipe to avoid gas poisoning.
*Be visible to rescuers. Turn on the dome light at night when running the engine. Tie a bright colored cloth, preferably red, to your antenna or door. After snow stops falling, raise the hood to indicate you need help.

Inside
*Stay Inside.
*When using heat from a fire place, wood stove, space heater, etc., use fire safeguards and properly ventilate.
*If you have a gas furnace, make sure it is not blocked by a snowdrift as soon as it's safe to go out. If you have an upstairs gas furnace which vents out the roof, you may need to turn off the upstairs unit until the snow melts off your roof.
If your heat goes out:
*Close off unneeded rooms to avoid wasting heat.
*Stuff towels or rags in cracks under doors.
*Close blinds or curtains to keep in some heat.
*Eat and drink. Food provides the body with energy for producing its own heat. Drinks lots of water and other non-caffeinated, non-alcholohic drinks to prevent dehydration. Cold air is very dry.
*Wear layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing. Remove layers to avoid overheating, perspiration and subsequent chill.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Deborah Byrd, “December solstice 2017 is the 21st,” EarthSky, online at http://earthsky.org/earth/everything-you-need-to-know-december-solstice.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, “Build a Kit,” online at https://www.ready.gov/build-a-kit; and “Car Safety,” online at https://www.ready.gov/car.

U.S. Fire Administration, “Fire Prevention and Public Education,” online at https://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Fires,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/fires/.

VDEM, “Make an Car Emergency Kit,” 1 min./31 sec. video, online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPgvWgtiWHI.

VDEM, “Prepare and Recover,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/.  This is the Commonwealth of Virginia’s central source of information on preparedness for all types of emergencies and disasters.

VDEM, Winter Weather,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/stayinformed/winter.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “Virginia Traffic Information,” online at http://www.511virginia.org/.

For More Information on Winter Weather Preparedness

American Red Cross, “Winter Storm Safety,” online at http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/winter-storm; or contact your local Red Cross chapter.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Snowstorms and Extreme Cold,” online at http://www.ready.gov/winter-weather.

National Weather Service, “Weather and Water Events Preparedness Calendar,” online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/severeweather/severewxcal.shtml.  This page lists events nationwide, by state.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) “Weather Radio All Hazards” network, online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/.

U.S. Department of Energy, “Portable Heaters,” online at http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/portable-heaters.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper posts on weather, available online at http://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/category/weather/.  The posts—mostly about Virginia but about other areas in some cases—cover primarily severe-weather events, precipitation and drought, and tropical storms during the June-November Atlantic tropical storm season.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See specifically the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Following are links to previous episodes on winter-weather preparedness:
Episode 344, 11-28-16, Winter Preparedness and Safety, Featuring “Drive the Cold Winter Away” by Timothy Seaman.
Episode 292, 11-30-15, “Winter is Coming” by The Steel Wheels Gives the Cue for Winter Preparedness and Safety in 2015-16.
Episode 253, 2-16-15, “Cold World” by Kat Mills, for Winter Preparedness and Safety (repeating Episode 242, 12-1-14).
Episode 190, 12-2-13, Cold Winds Return and So Does Winter Weather Preparedness Week in Virginia.
Episode 139, 12-3-12, Winter Weather Preparedness.

Following are links to some episodes on winter weather in general:
Episode 300, 1-25-16, Winter Word Whirlwind.
Episode 258, 3-23-15, “Winter’s Fall,” by No Strings Attached, for Spring’s Arrival and the Water that Winter Left Behind (on recharge of groundwater and surface water supplies in winter).
Episode 249, 1/19/15, At the Freezing Point (on water’s properties at cold temperatures).
Episode 199, 2/3/14, Snow and Ice Follow Physics and Chemistry.
Episode 144 1/14/13, Ice on the Pond.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia’s 2013 Music Standards of Learning (SOLs) at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature, including daily, seasonal, and lunar changes.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
6.6 – properties of air and structure of Earth’s atmosphere; including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.12 – weather and climate.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, November 20, 2017

Episode 395 (11-20-17): Thanks for the Water - Thanksgiving 2017 Edition


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:06).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-17-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 20, 2017.

This week, to celebrate Thanksgiving, we hear from a series of guest voices, all naming something about water for which they’re thankful.   Have a listen for about 70 seconds to their choices, accompanied by “Bass Fisherman’s Reel,” by Williamburg musician Timothy Seaman.

VOICES and MUSIC - ~72 sec
~When I think of water, I think of life. I love the quote by Benjamin Franklin: “When the well is dry, [we will] know the worth of water.”
~I am thankful for the life water makes possible, including the life-enhancing connections it creates between people and communities.
~I’m thankful that I get to do water quality and water education as part of my job.
~The right to water is important for health, recreation, and agriculture.
~I’m thankful for the water that carries my kayak.
~For paddling a placid, calm stretch of river, knowing that at the end of that placid stretch, there will be a beautiful little waterfall.
~For the river by my house.
~For frogs calling in the rain.
~Photosynthesis and plant growth.
~Summer rain, thunderstorms, clouds, and swimming.
~The brilliant fall colors that a wetter autumn brings.
~Wetlands.
~The rich diversity of living things that water supports.
~Water is the most important product of the forest.
~Hey, I’m thankful that I finally got my well fixed. It’s pretty hard to live without water, and it’s pretty good water.

Thanks to these Virginians for reminding us of the diversity, utility, necessity, and vitality of our common wealth of water.

In recognition of the atmospheric source of all these water values, we close with a few seconds of “Flying Cloud Reel,” by the Blacksburg- and Roanoke-based band No Strings Attached.  Thanks to them and to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music. Happy Thanksgiving!

MUSIC - ~10 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.   Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Voices were recorded by Virginia Water Radio on November 15-16, 2017, in Blacksburg with faculty and staff of the Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment; used with permission.  Virginia Water Radio thanks these co-workers for their participation.

“Flying Cloud Reel,” by No Strings Attached, is from the 1999 album “In the Vinyl Tradition—Volume I,” from Enessay Music, used with permission.  This music was also used in Episode 315, 5-9-16, on sandpipers.  More information about No Strings Attached is available online at http://www.enessay.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

PHOTOS

Here’s a photographic sample of some of the water resources for which Virginians can be thankful.

Snow in Blacksburg, Va., December 30, 2016.
Rainbow over Blacksburg, Va., March 21, 2017.
Shooting Star and Bishop’s Cap wildflowers beside a small stream in Blacksburg, Va., April 28, 2017.
Clouds over Blacksburg, Va., July 1, 2017.
Thompson Creek from U.S. Route 39 in Bath County, Va., July 22, 2017.

SOURCE USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION


Scott Cleary, “The Ethos Aquatic: Benjamin Franklin and the Art of Swimming,” Early American Literature, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2011, accessed at the Project MUSE Web site of Johns Hopkins University, online at https://muse.jhu.edu/article/421116/summary.  The Franklin quote in this episode is from Poor Richard’s Almanac in 1746.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Overall Importance of Water” subject category.

Following are links to previous episodes for Thanksgiving.
Episode 189, 11/25/13 – another series of guest voices with thanks for aspects of water.
Episode 291, 11/23/15 – recognizing various kinds of music related to water.
Episode 343, 11/21/16 – on the Wild Turkey.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 English SOLs:

Reading Theme
8.4, 9.3, 10.3, 11.3, and 12.3 – knowledge of word origins, analogies, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development within authentic texts.

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.6 – renewable vs. non-renewable resources (including energy resources).

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Grades K-6 Economics Theme
2.8 – natural and capital resources described.
3.8 – understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.4 - types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade; Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, November 13, 2017

Episode 394 (11-13-17): For Veterans Day 2017 – The U.S. Army and Its Wide-ranging Water Connections


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:31).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-10-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 13, 2017.

SOUND - ~7 sec

This week, that sound of Black Hawk and Chinook helicopters opens our focus on the U.S. Army, the latest in a series of annual episodes in honor of Veterans Day.  Have a listen for about 25 seconds to the Army’s familiar anthem, played by the U.S. Army Concert Band.

MUSIC – ~26 sec

The U.S. Army began on June 14, 1775, as the Continental Army, formed by the Second Continental Congress to fight the Revolutionary War against Great Britain.  The army started with about 27,000 militia soldiers, but in 1776 the Continental Congress established a standing force separate from the state militias, which became the regular army.  Throughout its history, the Army has seen many significant expansions during wars and contractions during peacetime.  As of 2017, the Army was authorized for over 1 million active-duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, serving roles in combat but also in medicine, humanitarian relief, civil affairs, and other areas.  The Army has a large presence in Virginia, with several bases and other facilities.

Despite being the branch of the military services most thought-of as land-based, the Army’s never been far from the water.  Historically, army forts often were near rivers or other waterways—one Virginia example is Fort Monroe on the Chesapeake Bay beside Hampton, which was an Army installation from the early 1800s to 2011.  And as George Washington’s crossing of the Delaware River in 1776 reminds us, countless water bodies have been a barrier or a line of defense for U.S. soldiers.  Today, water transportation, navigation, and water supply remain key functions within the Army: the Maritime Division of the Transportation Corps provides vessels for moving people and materials; water-treatment and supply specialists serve both in military and humanitarian missions; and many water-related projects—both military and civilian—are conducted by the Corps of Engineers, established as a permanent Army corps in 1802.   Fort Monroe is now a National Monument owned by the Commonwealth; its presence on Virginia’s Chesapeake coastline symbolizes the U.S. Army’s long history of facing, using, and defending waterways.

Thanks to Army veterans and current personnel everywhere for their service and sacrifices, past, present, and future, and we close with a few more seconds of “The Army Song.”

MUSIC - ~16 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The helicopter sound was taken from the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System (DVIDS), “2-227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade helicopters [Black Hawk and Chinook] arrive at Katterbach Army Airfield in Ansbach, Bavaria, Germany,” video online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/561762/2-227th-aviation-regiment-1st-air-cavalry-brigade-helicopters-arrive-katterbach-army-airfield-ansbach-bavaria-germany.  Copyright information at the DVIDS sites states, “In general, all media on the site is produced by U.S. DoD or Federal Agencies, and is in the public domain, i.e., not protected by U.S. copyright; however, other restrictions might apply, such as, but not limited to, the right to enforce trademarks, and the right of privacy/right of publicity, any of which might restrict use of some of the media.”

The U.S. Army Concert Band’s recording of “The Army Song” was accessed at http://www.usarmyband.com/watch-listen/ceremonial-music-guide.html.  The Web site states that all music files on that page are free for download and duplication.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

Click here for a 96-second sampler of comments about Army activities and experiences. The comments were excerpted from interviews made available by the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System. The interview titles, dates, and online locations are as follows (listed in the order played in the sampler):
1. “Brig. Gen. Leela Gray Interview at 2017 AUSA conference,” Washington, D.C., 10/10/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/557733/brig-gen-leela-gray-interview-2017-ausa-conference.
2. “Lt. Gen. Ben Hodges JMTG-U interview,” Yavoriv, Ukraine, 3/22/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/515328/lt-gen-ben-hodges-jmtg-u-interview.
3. “VTARNG [Vermont Army National Guard] Zodiac Boat Training Exercise, Burlington, Vermont, 8/12/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/audio/49078/vtarng-zodiac-boat-training-exercise-audio.
4. “Hurricane Harvey—Capt. Brian McCauley and 2nd Lt.Stephanie Jasper (126th Brigade Engineer Battalion) Interview,” Beaumont, Texas, 9/9/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/549991/hurricane-harvey-capt-brian-mccauley-and-2nd-ltstephanie-jasper-126th-brigade-engineer-battalion-interview.
5. “U.S. Army Reserve Medical Team Provides Needed Healthcare After Hurricane Maria,” Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, 10/24/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/560354/us-army-reserve-medical-team-provides-needed-healthcare-after-hurricane-maria.
6. “HA/DR [Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief] Exercise at Yokohama North Dock,” Yokohama, Japan, 3/17/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/518765/ha-dr-exercise-yokohama-north-dock.
7. “U.S. Tanks and Heavy Armor Train in Romania,” Cincu, Romania, 7/29/16, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/477084/us-tanks-and-heavy-armor-train-romania.

PHOTOS
Virginia National Guard helicopters leaving the Army Aviation Support Facility in Sandston, Virginia (Henrico County) on a disaster relief mission in Texas, 8/31/17.  Photo by Sgt. 1st Class Terra Gatti, made available by the Defense Video Imagery Distribution System, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/image/3725962/virginia-flight-crews-head-texas.
Virginia National Guard training on rail load and seaport operations during a drill weekend, June 9-11, 2017, at Fort Eustis, Virginia.  Photo by Cotton Puryear, courtesy of the 1173rd Transportation Company, made available by the Defense Video Imagery Distribution System, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/image/3503822/virginia-guard-transporters-train-rail-and-water-operations.
 
EXTRA FACTS ABOUT “THE ARMY SONG” 

From the U.S. Army Music Home Web site, “‘The Army Goes Rolling Along’—The Official Song of The United States Army,” online at http://www.music.army.mil/music/armysong/.


“The song was originally written by field artillery First Lieutenant [later Brigadier General] Edmund L. Gruber, while stationed in the Philippines in 1908 as the ‘Caisson Song.’  The original lyrics reflect routine activities in a horse-drawn field artillery battery.  The song was transformed into a march by John Philip Sousa in 1917 and renamed ‘The Field Artillery Song.’  It was adopted in 1956 as the official song of the Army and retitled, ‘The Army Goes Rolling Along.’”

For more on the history of the song, see F. Peter Wigginton, “A Soldier’s Song,” originally published in Soldiers Online, July 1994; excerpt available at the U.S. Army Music Home Web site, online at http://www.music.army.mil/music/armysong/soldierssong.asp.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Encyclopedia Britannica, “The United States Army,” last updated 11/7/17, online at https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-United-States-Army.

Fort Monroe Authority, online at http://www.fmauthority.com/.

Historical Office/Office of the Secretary of Defense, http://history.defense.gov/.

MilitaryBases.com, “Virginia Military Bases,” online at https://militarybases.com/virginia/.

Ryan Murphy, “Five years into its civilian life, Fort Monroe remains a work in progress,” [Newport News] Daily Press, 9/24/16, online at http://www.dailypress.com/news/hampton/dp-nws-hampton-fort-monroe-5-year-20160915-story.html.

National Park Service, “Fort Monroe National Monument,” online at https://www.nps.gov/fomr/index.htm.

National Park Service, “Washington Crossing State Park,” online at https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/delaware/was.htm.

Gary Sheftick, “Fort Monroe handoff to preserve history, military housing,” U.S. Army Web site, https://www.army.mil/article/39906/fort_monroe_handoff_to_preserve_history_military_housing.

U.S. Army, “Careers and Jobs,” online at https://www.goarmy.com/careers-and-jobs.html.

U.S. Army, “Army is hiring: Army increases end strength by 28,000 Soldiers,” 3/20/17, online at https://www.army.mil/article/184431/army_is_hiring_army_increases_end_strength_by_28000_soldiers.

U.S. Army, “History,” online at https://www.goarmy.com/about/what-is-the-army/history.html.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, “A Brief History,” online at http://www.usace.army.mil/About/History/Brief-History-of-the-Corps/Introduction/.

U.S. Army Music Home Web site, “‘The Army Goes Rolling Along’—The Official Song of The United States Army,” online at http://www.music.army.mil/music/armysong/.

U.S. Army Transportation Corps, “Watercraft Categories, Watercraft Units and Equipment,” online at http://www.transportation.army.mil/maritime/watercraft.html; and “Maritime Qualification Division,” online at http://www.transportation.army.mil/maritime/mqd.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES
All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Community/Organizations and the History subject categories

Following are links to previous Veterans Day episodes on branches of the military:
Episode 187, 11/11/13 – all five branches;
Episode 239, 11/10/14 – U.S. Coast Guard;
Episode 289, 11/9/15 – U.S. Navy;
Episode 341, 11/7/16 – U.S. Air Force.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
2.5 – why U.S. citizens celebrate major holidays, including Veterans Day.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.9 – how national events affected Virginia and its citizens.

United States History: 1865-to-Present Course
USII.8 – economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world after World War II, , including role of U.S. military.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Virginia and United States History Course
VUS.13 – U.S. foreign policy since World War II, including the role of the military.

Government Course
GOVT. 12 – role of the United States in a changing world, including responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, November 6, 2017

Episode 393 (11-6-17): The Flu and Water


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:43).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-3-17.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 6, 2017.

This week, we feature a medical mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds, and see if you can guess what kind of seasonal, precautionary procedure is taking place.  And here’s a hint: thinking feverishly could influence your answer.

SOUNDS - ~36 sec

If you guessed, a flu shot, you’re right!  You heard an influenza vaccination being given in October 2017 at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.  Flu season arrives every year with colder weather, bringing the potential to cause fever, body aches, and other symptoms, some quite serious or even fatal.  The flu affects millions of people in the United States each year, and health agencies like the Virginia Department of Health encourage vaccination for everyone older than six months, with some exceptions.

But what does the flu have to do with water?  Consider these three connections.

First, drinking plenty of fluids is a commonly prescribed treatment for flu sufferers in order to help prevent dehydration resulting from increased body temperature and other responses to the viral infection.  Infants, children, and the elderly are particularly at risk for dehydration.

Second, the flu virus is transmitted between humans by respiratory droplets, and researchers have found that transmission is affected by air temperature and humidity. Specifically, transmission occurs more easily in cold, dry air, such as is typically found during fall and winter in temperate areas like Virginia.

Third, waterfowl and shorebirds are among the various kinds of birds that harbor avian flu viruses, and water contaminated with aquatic birds’ waste can potentially harbor avian flu for some time.  Understanding the factors related to the occurrence and transmission of avian viruses—including the role of contaminated water—is important in monitoring avian flu and its potential to spread to other birds, mammals, or humans.

Flu season is upon us, and national Influenza Vaccination Week is Dec. 3-9, 2017.  So if you hear this…

SOUND ~3 sec – “Are you here for a flu shot?”

…now you’ll have not only a health connection for the flu, but some hydrological ones, too.

Thanks to staff of Kroger Pharmacy and Hokie Wellness for lending their voices to this episode.

We close with a few seconds of music for, or rather, against the flu.  Here’s part of “Shots,” written by Wilson Stern and performed in a 2014, flu-shot-promoting video by the University of Florida’s Student Health Care Center.

MUSIC - ~27 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The audio excerpt of “Shots,” copyright by Wilson Stern, was taken from the 2014 video “Flu Shots,” copyright by the University of Florida; used with permission of Wilson Stern and the University of Florida’s Division of Media Properties.  The 2 min./4 sec. video is available online at http://shcc.ufl.edu/services/primary-care/flu/flu-shots-music-video-lyrics/.   More information about Wilson Stern and the group Hail! Cassius Neptune is available online at http://www.hailcassiusneptune.com/.

The influenza vaccination heard in this episode was performed October 24, 2017, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, by staff of Kroger Pharmacies (online at https://www.kroger.com/topic/flu-shot-feeding-america), assisted by staff from Virginia Tech’s Hokie Wellness program (online at https://www.hokiewellness.vt.edu/).  Virginia Water Radio thanks those staff people for their willingness to be recorded.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Colorized, negative-stained transmission electron microscopic image of influenza virus particles, or “virions.”   Public domain photo taken in 1973 by Dr. F. A. Murphy, accessed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Image Library, online at https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=10072.
Centers for Disease Control and Protection weekly map of flu activity, as of 10/28/17.  Map accessed online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/usmap.htm, 11/6/17.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) chart of laboratory work on flu viruses with data for 2016-17.   Image accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/freeresources/graphics/infographics.htm.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT TYPES AND NAMES OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES


From Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), “Types of Influenza Viruses,” September 27, 2017, online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/types.htm.

“There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D.   Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease almost every winter in the United States.  The emergence of a new and very different influenza A virus to infect people can cause an influenza pandemic.   Influenza type C infections generally cause a mild respiratory illness and are not thought to cause epidemics.  Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.

”Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N).  There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes. (H1 through H18 and N1 through N11 respectively.)

“Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into different strains.   Current sub-types of influenza A viruses found in people are influenza A (H1N1) and influenza A (H3N2) viruses.  In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged to cause illness in people.  This virus was very different from the human influenza A (H1N1) viruses circulating at that time.   The new virus caused the first influenza pandemic in more than 40 years.  That virus (often called “2009 H1N1”) has now replaced the H1N1 virus that was previously circulating in humans.

“Influenza B viruses are not divided into sub-types, but can be further broken down into lineages and strains.  Currently circulating influenza B viruses belong to one of two lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria.

“CDC follows an internationally accepted naming convention for influenza viruses.  This convention was accepted by WHO [World Health Organization] in 1979 and published in February 1980 in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58(4):585-591 (1980) (see A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO Memorandum[854 KB, 7 pages]).  The approach uses the following components:
*the antigenic type (e.g., A, B, C);
*the host of origin (e.g., swine, equine, chicken, etc.; for human-origin viruses, no host of origin designation is given);
*geographical origin (e.g., Denver, Taiwan, etc.);
*strain number (e.g., 15, 7, etc.);
*year of isolation (e.g., 57, 2009, etc.);
*for influenza A viruses, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigen description in parentheses (e.g., (H1N1).
[Examples:]
A/duck/Alberta/35/76 (H1N1) for a virus from duck origin;
A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) for a virus from human origin.

“Influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and one or two influenza B viruses (depending on the vaccine) are included in each year’s influenza vaccine.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
“Information on Avian Influenza,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/;
“Flu,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/index.htm;
“Flu Activity and Surveillance,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivitysurv.htm;
“The Flu: Caring for Someone Sick at Home,” online (as PDF) at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/general/influenza_flu_homecare_guide.pdf;
“National Influeza Vaccination Week,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/nivw/index.htm;
“National Vaccination Week 2016 Key Messages,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/nivw/nivw-key-points.htm);
“Other Types of Flu,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/other_flu.htm (information on flu in bats, birds, dogs, swine, and other animals).

Antonia E. Dalziel et al., “Persistence of Low Pathogenic Influenza A Virus in Water: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis,” PLOS One, 10/13/16, online at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161929.

Christina Faust et al., “Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 8/5/09, online at http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1673/3727.

Anice C. Lowen and John Steel, “Roles of Humidity and Temperature in Shaping Influenza Seasonality,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 88/No. 14, July 2014, pages 7692-7695; online at http://jvi.asm.org/content/88/14/7692.full (subscription may be required for access at this site).

Anice C. Lowen et al., “Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature,” PLOS, 10/19/07, online at http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151.

Poultry World, Bird flu can survive 150 days in water, 6/10/09.

Public Library of Science, “Higher indoor humidity inactivates flu virus particles,” Science Daily, 2/27/13, online at https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227183456.htm.

David Robson, The Real Reason Germs Spread in Winter, BBC Future, 10/19/15.

Jeffery K. Taugenberger and David M. Morens, “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12/No. 1, January 2006, online at https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/05-0979_article.

U.S. EPA, Pandemic Influenza Fact Sheet for the Water Sector, 2009.

Virginia Department of Health, “Epidemiology Fact Sheets/Influenza,” September 2013, online at http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/epidemiology-fact-sheets/influenza/.

World Health Organization, “Avian Influenza: Food Safety Issues” (undated), online at http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/zoonose/avian/en/index1.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Science subject category.

Following are links to other episodes focusing on human biology or health:
Episode 93, 12-19-11 – water in the human nervous system;
Episode 287, 10-26-15 – water and the human skeleton;
Episode 392, 10-30-17 – water and the human circulatory system.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10- impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.4 – life functions (including metabolism and homeostasis) in different organism groups, including human health, anatomy, and body systems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249, 1-19-15 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.