Monday, September 25, 2017

Episode 387 (9-25-17): Anticipating Frost as Fall Arrives


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:44).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-22-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of September 25, 2017.

MUSIC – ~ 7 sec

This week, following the recent September 22 arrival of astronomical fall, we feature a fiddle tune named for a water-related weather event that will mark a meteorological fall turning point when it occurs across the Commonwealth in October or November.  Have a listen for about 25 seconds.

MUSIC - ~25 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “Cold Frosty Morn’,” performed here by the western Virginia band New Standard.  One of the eventual consequences of summer’s end is the end of the growing season, marked by the first significant freeze, when temperatures fall to about 28 degrees Fahrenheit or below.  That event, often called a “killing frost,” typically occurs in mid-to-late October in western Virginia, early-to-mid November east of the Blue Ridge, and mid-to-late November in some Virginia coastal areas.

Generally, frost forms when water vapor in the air contacts plants, windows, cars, or other solid objects at a temperature of 32 degrees or less.  Some specific kinds of frost include radiation frost, also called hoarfrost, occurring when surface objects are cooled by radiating their heat; advection frost, occurring when surfaces are cooled by winds; and rime, a dense type of frost that forms when supercooled liquid water in fog or clouds contacts solid surfaces, such as trees, radio towers, or ships on winter seas.

Frost seems far away on Virginia’s mild, late September days.   But to paraphrase a comment about truth from the poem “Birches,” by Robert Frost, frost-producing weather will soon break in with all of its matter-of-fact.

Thanks to New Standard for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “Cold Frosty Morn’.”

MUSIC - ~12 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The performance of “Cold Frosty Morn’” heard here is copyright by New Standard, from the 2016 album “Bluegrass,” used with permission. More information about New Standard is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

 
 
Maps showing frost/freeze dates in the continental United States, based on data from 1980 to 2010. Upper map: ranges of earliest dates of first 32°F freeze; middle map: range of median dates of first 32°F freeze; lower map: range of median dates of first 28°F freeze. Images from the National Weather Service/Northern Indiana Forecast Office, “Frost and Freeze Information,” online at http://www.weather.gov/iwx/fallfrostinfo.

SOURCES USED IN AUDIO AND OFFERING FOR MORE INFORMATION

Robert Frost, The Poetry of Robert Frost, Edward Connery Lathem, ed., Holt, Rineheart and Winston, New York, 1969.  The quote to which this episode refers, from “Birches” on page 121, is the following:
“But I was going to say when Truth broke in
With all her matter of fact about the ice storm….”

Kenneth G. Libbrecht/California Institute of Technology, “Guide to Frost,” online at http://www.its.caltech.edu/~atomic/snowcrystals/frost/frost.htm.

National Climatic Data Center, “Climatography of the U.S. No. 20, Supplement No. 1/Freeze/Frost Data,” online at http://www.crh.noaa.gov/Image/oun/climate/freeze/freezefrost.pdf.

National Weather Service, “Ice Storms,” online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/winter/ice-frost.shtml.

National Geographic Society, “Frost,” online at https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/frost/.

National Geographic Society, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” online at https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/rime-ancient-mariner/.

National Weather Service, Baltimore/Washington Forecast Office, “Watch/Warning/Advisory Definitions,” online at https://www.weather.gov/lwx/WarningsDefined.

Timeanddate.com, “Autumnal Equinox—Northern Hemisphere,” online at https://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/autumnal-equinox.html.

WeatherOnline, “Rime,” online at http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/reports/wxfacts/Rime.htm.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Science” and “Weather” subject categories.

Following are links to some other episodes on physical states of water and on some weather phenomena.
Clouds - Episode 377, 7/17/17.
Boiling point - Episode 250, 1/26/15.
Density - Episode 255, 3/2/15.
Fog - Episode 124, 8/20/12
Freezing point - Episode 249, 1/19/15.
Hail - Episode 362, 4/3/17
Ice on a pond - Episode 144, 1/14/13.
Snow and ice physics and chemistry - Episode 199, 2/3/14.
Winter precipitation – Episode 258, 3/23/15 (snd water supplies); Episode 300, 1/25/16 (snow terms).

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
1.7 – changes in temperature, light, and precipitation affect plants and animals, including humans.
2.7 – weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.5 – properties and characteristics of water.
6.6 – Properties of air (including pressure, temperature, and humidity) and structure/dynamics of earth’s atmosphere, including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.12 – weather and climate.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOL:

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Previous Episodes Designed Especially for Certain K-12 Grade Levels

Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Episode 386 (9-18-17): Water and History in Paint Bank, Va.


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:45).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-15-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of September 18, 2017.

SOUND – ~6 sec

That’s the sound of Potts Creek, a Jackson River tributary, recorded in the Craig County, Virginia, community of Paint Bank on Labor Day 2017.  Faintly audible in that recording is this week’s mystery sound.  Have a closer listen for about 20 seconds, and see if you can guess what’s making the grinding sound, accompanied by water flowing and dripping.  And here’s a hint: what takes powerful water for a spin?

SOUNDS - ~19 sec

If you guessed a water-powered mill wheel, you’re right!  You heard the steel and wooden wheel of Tingler’s Mill, a restored grist mill that began operation in the 1860s, on a mill site that dates back to the 1780s.  Tingler’s Mill is one of many surviving structures or sites preserving Virginia’s early history of water power for processing agricultural goods and other activities.  Beside powering Tingler’s Mill and its predecessors, Potts Creek provided the source of Paint Bank’s name, due to iron-containing, reddish clay in the stream’s banks that was reportedly used by Native Americans and European settlers for paint, pottery, and bricks.  Iron and manganese mining joined milling and timbering as industries attracting business and people to the Paint Bank area, with some 2000 people living near Potts Creek in the early 1900s, and the area drawing military attention in the two world wars for its potential manganese reserves.

Paint Bank today benefits from being home to Tingler’s Mill, a combined general store and restaurant, a hotel, and a Virginia state fish hatchery; from being close to the Hanging Rock Raptor Observatory in West Virginia; and from being surrounded by western Virginia’s remarkable ridge-and-valley scenery.

We close with some music suitable to Paint Bank’s historic water-powered mill wheel: here’s part of “Millers Hill” by The Steel Wheels, from Harrisonburg, Va.

MUSIC - ~23 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The sounds of Potts Creek and Tingler’s Mill at Paint Bank, Va., were recorded on September 4, 2017.

“Millers Hill,” from the 2006 album “Blue Heaven,” is copyright by The Steel Wheels, used with permission.   More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

PHOTOS

Potts Creek in Paint Bank, Va., Sep. 4, 2017.
Tingler’s Mill restored wheel and building, Paint Bank, Va., Sep. 4, 2017.

View inside Tingler’s Mill building, Paint Bank, Va., Sep. 4. 2017.
Mountain ridge view (looking northwest) at Paint Bank, Va., Sep. 4, 2017.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT TINGLER’S MILL, PAINT BANK, AND CRAIG COUNTY


On Tingler’s Mill


“Tingler’s Mill has a long and varied history.  As a present day fixture in Paint Bank, its presence makes a grand statement about revitalization and historic preservation.  In the past, however, it was an important element of everyday life in the town of Paint Bank, Virginia, area farmers and residents as a source for grain and flour by grinding corn and wheat.

“The grist mills sits on Potts Creek, on property owned by Revolutionary War hero Colonel William Preston. Preston was given the land grants in 1780 for his service in the war. … [For more on William Preston, see Historic Smithfield Plantation, “Prestons—History,” online at https://www.smithfieldplantation.org/history.html.]

“While the unincoporated town was officially formed in 1851, the mill building itself was not built until 1863.”

Source: Quoted from “The Tale of Tingler’s Mill” sign on display on September 4, 2017, at the restored mill in Paint Bank.

On the Virginia State Fish Hatchery at Paint Bank

“The Paint Bank Trout Hatchery is another station that was taken over from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  It hatches and rears all three species of trout for stocking in Virginia waters, and it is a participating hatchery in the National Broodstock Program. Paint Bank fish are stocked in the Roanoke area, from Craig to Henry counties.”

Source: Quoted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “State Hatcheries,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/fishing/fish-stocking/state-hatcheries/.

On Craig County’s Origin

Craig County is a case study of how Virginia’s modern counties connect historically to one another.  The area of Craig County was originally part of Augusta County, then, in turn, part of Botetourt County, Roanoke County, Giles County, and Monroe County, West Va., which was part of Virginia prior to the Civil War.

Source: VaGenWeb.org, “Counties and Cities,” online at http://vagenweb.org/county2.htm.

SOURCES FOR AUDIO AND FOR MORE INFORMATION

Depot Lodge (in Paint Bank, Va.), online at https://www.depotlodge.com/,

Fredericksburg Area Tourism Department, “Walk Through History...Mill Sites and Water Power,” undated, online by Central Rappahannock Regional Library at http://www.librarypoint.org/walk_through_history_mill_sites_and_water_power.

Casey Higgins, “Virginia’s Watermills,” 9/12/16, online by Virginia Tourism Corporation at https://blog.virginia.org/2014/10/virginias-watermills/.

Gwen Johnson, “Down Home in Paint Bank,” Cooperative Living, September 2005, online at http://www.co-opliving.com/coopliving/issues/2005/september%202005/downhome.htm.

Paint Bank General Store, online at https://www.paintbankgeneralstore.com/; and Swinging Bridge Restaurant (part of the Paint Bank General Store), online at https://www.theswingingbridge.com/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “State Hatcheries,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/fishing/fish-stocking/state-hatcheries/.

Visit Craig County, “Paint Bank,” online at http://visitcraigcountyva.com/paint-bank/.

Visit Southern West Virginia, Hanging Rock Raptor Observatory, August 12, 2012, online at https://visitwv.com/hanging-rock-raptor-observatory/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “History” subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on Virginia geography (including, in some cases, the role of water-related geographic features in Virginia’s history).
A Walk across Virginia – Episode 110, 5/14/12.
Exploration of the Chesapeake Bay – Episode 140, 12/10/12.
Geography in general – Episode 265, 5/11/15.
Water and settlement of Roanoke – Episode 181, 9/30/13.
Water and the Civil War – Episode 101, 3/5/12; Episode 104 – 3/26/12; Episode 164, 6/3/13; Episode 201, 2/17/14; Episode 223, 7/21/14; Episode 318, 5/30/16.
Water and the Revolutionary War – Episode 103, 3/19/12; Episode 168 – 7/1/13; Episode 273 – 7/6/15.
Water origins of Virginia Declaration signers – Episode 220, 6/30/14.
Watersheds – Episode 156, 4/8/13; Episode 209, 4/14/14; Episode 251, 2/2/15.
Virginia's Western or Alleghany Highlands | EP379 – 7/31/17.

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.11 – sources of energy.
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.5 – properties and characteristics of water.

Physical Science Course
PS.6 – energy forms, transfer, and transformations.

Earth Science Course
ES.6 – renewable vs. non-renewable resources (including energy resources).
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, dependence on water resources, and identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Physics Course
PH.7 – energy transfer, transformations, and capacity to do work.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.2 – physical geography and native peoples of Virginia past and present.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.5 – factors that shaped colonial America and conditions in the colonies, including how people interacted with the environment to produce goods and service.

World Geography Course
WG.3 - how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Monday, September 11, 2017

Episode 385 (9-11-17): Storm Surge in Irma and Other Tropical Cyclones


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:42).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-8-17.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of September 11, 2017.

MUSIC and SOUND – ~14 sec

That’s a stark message from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, about storm surge.   The September 10, 2017, arrival of Hurricane Irma’s center in Florida made this a good week to revisit the subject of storm surge, which was also the topic of episodes on Superstorm Sandy in 2012 and Hurricane Matthew in 2016.

NOAA defines storm surge as the “abnormal rise in seawater level during a storm, measured as the height of the water above the normal…tide, and caused primarily by a storm’s winds pushing water onshore.”  Along with extremely high winds and heavy rainfall, storm surge is expected to be one of Irma’s most severe impacts in Florida and possibly elsewhere, both in coastal communities and along inland waterways.  On September 8, the National Weather Service’s Miami Forecast Office predicted “life-threatening” storm surge for parts of its coverage area.

For an introduction to storm surge potential and how residents can prepare for future events, have a listen for about two minutes to excerpts from, first, a 2013 National Hurricane Center [NHC] video, and second, a 2010 Virginia Department of Emergency Management [VDEM] video, including a list of Virginia areas most vulnerable to storm-surge flooding.

SOUND/VOICE – NHC ~39 sec

SOUND/VOICE – VDEM ~64 sec

As the second except noted, storm-surge information is available online from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management.  Here’s hoping for the best for people and places in the path of Irma and any future tropical cyclone.

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is an updated version of Episode 337, 10-10-16 (Hurricane Matthew storm surge) and Episode 134, 10-29-12 (Hurricane/Superstorm Sandy storm surge).

The sources of the audio in this episode are the following:
Excerpt 1 - “NOAA Storm Surge PSA,” 2010, accessed at https://vimeo.com/13463438;
Excerpt 2 - “NHC Hurricane Preparedness Videos – Day 2: Storm Surge,”May 15, 2013, online at You Tube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=84VFVZS04hM;
Excerpt 3 – Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “Virginia Hurricane Evacuation: Storm Surge” (2 minutes, 48 seconds), August 26, 2010, accessed at http://emupdate.tumblr.com/post/87828131235.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

From the National Hurricane Center, http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/graphics_at1.shtml?cone#contents, 9/8/17, 10 a.m.
From the Miami/South Florida National Weather Service Forecast Office, online at http://www.weather.gov/mfl/, 9/8/17, 10:30 a.m. EDT.
Hurricanes Irma (center), Jose (right), and Katia (left), as of Sept. 8, 2017, 9:15 a.m. EDT (1315Z or UTC). Photo from NOAA, http://www.goes.noaa.gov/browsh.html, accessed on 9/8/17, 10 a.m. EDT.
SOURCES

Used for Audio

Jim Morekis, CEMA: Irma impact on Savannah could include Category 3 or 4 winds, possible storm surge over 10 feet, Connect Savannah [Ga.], 9/6/17.

National Hurricane Center, “Hurricane Irma Public Advisory, 9/8/17, 2 p.m. EDT,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2017/IRMA.shtml?.

National Hurricane Center, “Storm Surge Overview,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/surge/.  Among other items, this page includes an explanation of the factors that lead to storm surge, photographs and graphics, and two short videos.  Information on storm-surge potential and probabilities are also part of National Hurricane Center updates and advisories on any tropical storm.

National Hurricane Center, “Storm Surge Resources,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/surge/resources.php.  This site includes several videos, including the ones excerpted for this episode.

National Weather Service, “Hurricane Sandy – October 29, 2012,” online at http://www.weather.gov/okx/HurricaneSandy.

Bo Peterson, U.S. Geological Survey deploys computer-trackable storm surge sensors in South Carolina, The Post and Courier [Charleston, S.C.], 9/8/17.

PBS NewsHour, “Nearly 2 million warned to flee destructive Hurricane Matthew in the U.S.,” 10/6/16, online at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/nearly-2-million-warned-flee-destructive-hurricane-matthew-u-s/.  The video includes an interview with then Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Director Craig Fugate in which he discussed the dangers of storm surge flooding along coastlines and inland.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management storm surge items, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/?s=storm+surge.

For More Information about Tropical Storms and Severe Weather Preparedness
American Red Cross, “Hurricane Safety,” online at http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/hurricane.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), “Hurricanes,” online at http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center, “Atlantic Hurricane Outlook and Summary Archive,” http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/outlooks/hurricane-archive.shtml.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “Hurricanes,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/readyvirginia/stayinformed/hurricanes.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management, “Know Your Zone,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/hurricane-evacuation-zone-lookup/.  This site allows citizens to know whether or not they are in a zone most at risk from an approaching tropical storm, when emergency managers may be calling for evacuations or other actions.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “VDOT and Emergency Response” (including hurricane evacuation information), online at http://www.virginiadot.org/about/emer_response.asp.

Virginia Water Central News Grouper posts on news, events, and information resources about hurricanes and other tropical storms, online at https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=hurricane.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Weather subject category.

The following previous episodes also focus on severe weather.

Floods
Episode 86, 10/31/11 (Historic-record water level marker dedication at New River).
Episode 192, 12/16/13 (Nelson County in 1969).
Episode 272, 6/29/15 (Madison County in 1995).
Episode 328, 8/8/16 (flash flooding).

Storm surge
Episode 134, 10/29/12 (from Superstorm Sandy).
Episode 337 – 10/10/16 (from Hurricane Matthew).

Tornadoes
Episode 342, 11/14/16 (research via virtual reality).
Episode 358, 3/6/17 (preparedness).

Tropical Storms
Episode 163, 5/27/13 (annual season-preview episode).
Episode 215, 5/26/14 (annual season-preview episode).
Episode 266, 5/18/15 (annual season-preview episode).
Episode 317, 5/23/16 (annual season-preview episode).
Episode 330, 8/22/16 (mid-season outlook).
Episode 345, 12/5/16 (season-review episode).
Episode 369, 5/22/17 (annual season-preview episode).

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
5.6 – characteristics of the ocean environment.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.6 – structure and dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.

Life Science Course
LS. 10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones.
ES.11 – origin, evolution, and dynamics of the atmosphere, including human influences on climate.
ES.12 – weather and climate.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.4 - types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Episode 384 (9-4-17): The Water Work of Drones


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:33).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-1-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of September 4, 2017.

SOUND – ~ 5 sec

This week, that sound of construction of a tall, netted facility on the Virginia Tech campus sets the stage for a flying mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds, and see if you know the commonly used term for aerial devices poineered by the military but which now have rapidly expanding civilian uses, including many uses related to water.

SOUND - ~16 sec

If you guessed drones, you’re right! You heard sounds of a drone, or unmanned aerial vehicle, flying and recording video over the Clinch River in Kyles Ford, Tennessee, on August 29, 2017.  The Virginia Tech Conservation Management Institute conducted the flight to help determine the effectiveness of such vehicles for mapping and monitoring shallow-water habitats.  That’s just one of many drone applications being investigated at Virginia Tech, where a new 80-foot tall, netted, enclosed area will allow experimental drone flights but avoid the permitting and safety issues of open-air flights.

Well-known for military uses and more recently for their potential commercial uses, drones that are equipped for high-resolution imaging and environmental monitoring are being investigated and used around the world for a variety of applications to water and other natural resources.   Here are six examples: assessing flood conditions and impacts, as done in Houston recently during Hurricane Harvey; mapping coastal erosion; identifying oil and gas pipeline leaks; monitoring sea mammal populations; detecting changes to coral reefs; and monitoring atmospheric conditions in oceans from the tropics to the Arctic.

Subject to FAA [Federal Aviation Administration] restrictions on heights and flight areas, drones are likely to play an increasing role in mapping, monitoring, and experimentation in the air spaces above water.

Thanks to the Virginia Tech Conservation Management Institute for providing sounds from the Clinch River drone flight.

SOUND - ~7 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.   In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES
Drone research facility under construction on the Virginia Tech Campus in Blacksburg, August 30, 2017 (upper photo) and September 29, 2017 (lower photo).  The sound heard in the audio of this episode was of drilling holes for placing poles like those shown in the photos.

Clinch River at Kyles Ford, Tenn., as photographed on August 29, 2017, during an unmanned aerial vehicle (drone) flight conducted by the Conservation Management Institute in Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Photo courtesy of Daniel Cross, used with permission.

Photos and descriptions of the two types of unmanned aerial systems (drones) currently used by the Conservation Management Institute in Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment (CNRE).  Image from “CNRE Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Capabilities—Summer 2017,” courtesy of Scott Klopfer, used with permission.


SOURCES USED IN AUDIO AND FOR MORE INFORMATION

Renee Cho, How drones are advancing scientific research, Phys.org, June 19, 2017.

Jacob Demmitt, Drone research takes off at Virginia Tech, Roanoke Times, 4/2/14.

Jacob Demmitt, New drone cage in Blacksburg to be a playground for researchers pushing the limits, Roanoke Times, 8/22/17.

Tamara Dietrich, VIMS uses drones to find, study algal blooms, [Newport News] Daily Press, 9/2/17.

Lawrence Hammack, Funding approved to plan “Drone Zone” in former Covington school building, Roanoke Times, 8/29/17.  This article is regarding a planned drone research and recreational facility in Covington, Va., along with a study for the feasibility of developing an Alleghany Highlands Drone Zone.

Brian Handwerk, 5 Surprising Drone Uses (Besides Amazon Delivery), National Geographic online, 12/2/13.

Joey Holleman, New Technology: Driving Advances in Coastal Science, Coastal Heritage (from South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium), Spring 2017 (Vol. 30, No. 2).

Bart Jansen, Drones prove useful to Harvey recovery with restrictions, USA Today, 8/31/17.

Virginia Tech Conservation Management Institute, “UAS Operations for Natural Resource Applications,” online at https://cmi.vt.edu/Projects/Geospatial/UASinfo.html.

Virginia Tech Department of Mechanical Engineering/Unmanned Systems Laboratory, online at http://www.me.vt.edu/research/laboratories/unmanned-systems-lab/.

Virginia Tech Facilities Department, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Netted Facility, online at https://www.facilities.vt.edu/planning-construction/campus-construction-projects/active-projects/uav-netted-facility.html.

Matt Wright, Local company sending drones to Texas disaster zone, Fox 8 TV-Cleveland, Ohio, 8/28/17.


RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Science subject category.

A previous episode focusing on the Clinch River is Episode 184, 10/21/13.

STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.5 – properties and characteristics of water.
6.6 – Properties of air (including pressure, temperature, and humidity) and structure/dynamics of earth’s atmosphere, including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.2 - understanding scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History: 1865-to-Present Course
USII.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship; including b) analyzing geographic information for patterns and trends in history.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical anlaysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical anlaysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.

Government Course
GOVT.1 – skills for historical thinking, geographical anlaysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship.
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.