Monday, October 30, 2017

Episode 392 (10-30-17): Water's at the Heart of Blood


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:58).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-27-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 30, 2017.  For Halloween week, we repeat a 2014 episode focused on a vital, water-based fluid that’s a feature of many-a scary Halloween image or story.

SOUND - ~3 sec

Why is a human heartbeat a water story?   Have a listen for about 25 seconds to the following mystery sounds, and see if you can guess the heart-and-water connections they represent.  And here’s a hint: if you have the energy, you could follow many branches to this solution.

SOUNDS - ~23 sec

You’ve been listening to sounds from a platelets donation at the American Red Cross’ New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Virginia.  A blood-pressure measurement, a needle stick into an arm vein, and the machine separating blood components and recirculating fluid to the patient illustrate three connections between the human circulatory system and water.

First, the heart provides energy and a force—measured by blood pressure—to keep blood circulating around the body, like the sun’s energy powers evaporation and winds that help keep water circulating around the earth.  Second, arm veins are part of an intricately branched system of arteries, veins, and capillaries, resembling a watershed’s branching pattern as one travels uphill from ocean to river to headwater streams.   Humans have an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 miles of blood vessels, compared to Virginia’s approximately 100,000 miles of rivers and streams.  Finally, blood’s components are mostly water: plasma is a solution of water and many biochemicals, mixed with water-based red and white blood cells and with platelets.  As a result, blood in the human system has water’s physical and chemical properties for transporting materials and regulating heat, like water does within ecosystems.

Cells and transported substances make blood “thicker” than water, just as the saying goes.  But the water we borrow temporarily from the global water cycle is at the chemical and physical heart of blood and the circulatory system’s vital functions.

Thanks to staff at the New River Valley Donor Center for participating in this episode, and thanks to Soundbible.com for making the heartbeat sound available for public use.

SOUND - ~3 seconds

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is a revised repeat of Episode 236, 10-20-14, which has been archived.

The human heartbeat sound was recorded by Mike Koenig and made available (9/14/09 upload) online at the Soundbible.com Web site, http://soundbible.com/1001-Heartbeat.html, for public use under the Creative Commons license “Attribution 3.0”; for more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/; information on the Attribution License specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.

Other sounds heard in this episode were recorded at the American Red Cross New River Donor Center in Blacksburg, Virginia, during an October 19, 2014, platelet donation by Virginia Water Radio host Alan Raflo.  Thanks to the staff at the Donor Center for their help and for allowing the sound recording. For information about blood and platelet donations, please visit the American Red Cross’ “Donating Blood” Web site at http://www.redcrossblood.org/donating-blood.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS


Two photos above: Blood plasma (upper) and platelets (lower) from a platelet donation at the American Red Cross New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Va., in October 2014.

Dracula gives back at the New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Va., October 29, 2017.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Adrian Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2000.

Cleveland Clinic, “Heart & Blood Vessels: How Does Blood Travel Through Your Body,” online at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/heart-blood-vessels-blood-flow-body.

The Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Penn., “Blood Vessels,” online at https://www.fi.edu/heart/blood-vessels.

Leslie Mertz, The Circulatory System, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 2004.

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, “Smooth or Wiggly Blood Vessel Shape Reveals Disease,” 8/31/09, online at https://www.nibib.nih.gov/news-events/newsroom/smooth-or-wiggly-blood-vessel-shape-reveals-disease.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Draft 2016 305(b)/303(d) Water Quality Assessment Integrated Report,” Chapter 2: State Background Information; available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterQualityInformationTMDLs/WaterQualityAssessments/2016305b303dIntegratedReport.aspx.

For More Information about Blood and Circulatory Systems

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Blood Safety,” online at http://www.cdc.gov/bloodsafety/.

Idaho Public Television, “Blood: Facts,” online at http://idahoptv.org/sciencetrek/topics/blood/facts.cfm.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, “Facts About Blood and Blood Cells,” online at https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/patient-education/facts-about-blood-and-blood-cells.

U.S. National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Module, “Leukemia/Anatomy,” online at http://training.seer.cancer.gov/leukemia/anatomy/.

U.S. National Institutes of Health/National Library of Medicine, “Blood, Heart and Circulation,” online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bloodheartandcirculation.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Science” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes focusing on human biology:
Episode 93, 12/19/11 – water in the human nervous system.
Episode 287, 10/26/15 – water and the human skeleton.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.3 – cellular organization, including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.2 – water chemistry and its impact on life processes.
BIO.4 – life functions (including metabolism and homeostasis) in different organism groups, including human health, anatomy, and body systems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOL:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 23, 2017

Episode 391 (10-23-17): American Coot


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:39).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-20-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 23, 2017.

This week, we feature a feathered, floating mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds, and see if you can guess what’s making these clucks, clacks, and cackles.  And here’s a rhyming hint: it sounds nothing like a flute; dives for a root or a shoot; acts towards other birds a bit like a brute; and has a name completing this rhyme, to boot!

SOUNDS - ~11 sec

If you guessed an American Coot, you’re right!  The American Coot is the only North American species of several coots found around the world.   It’s categorized in the family of rails, gallinules, and coots, and it’s considered the most abundant and most aquatic member of that family in North America.

Watery habitats, clucking calls, and an appearance described as chicken-like help give coots the nickname of “Mud Hen.”  In Virginia, the American Coot occurs in almost all counties, in a variety of freshwater habitats in the summer and in both freshwater and saltwater during the winter.  During migration and in winter, coots can be seen in large flocks, and such groupings are called various interesting names, including a “raft,” “codgery,” or “commotion.”  Coots are poor flyers and require long running and splashing take-offs, lending them another nickname of “spatterers.”  In the water, though, coots are skillful swimmers and divers, feeding on aquatic plants and algae and on small animal prey acquired from the surface or underwater; they’re also known to steal plants brought to the surface by diving ducks.  Coots may feed on certain crops, earning them a reputation in some areas as an agricultural pest.

Not beautiful, not a songster, a food thief saddled with a funny name—coots aren’t well-loved or widely respected.  But they’re an ecologically well-adapated and widespread component of many North American aquatic habitats.  And as Cornell University’s “All About Birds” Web site notes, “The waterborne American Coot is one good reminder that not everything that floats is a duck.”

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and we let the American Coot have the last call.

SOUND - ~4 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The sounds of the American Coot were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

American Coot painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plate CCXXXIX [239]), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York. Photo taken October 20, 2017, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries. Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance. Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.
A flock--or raft, codgery, commotion, or several other names--of American Coots, photographed in Alaska. Photo by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, made available for public use by the Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 10-19-17; URL for specific image was http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/natdiglib/id/3975/rec/1.
Seasonal county distribution of American Coot in Virginia as of August 2005, according to the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Map accessed online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?Menu=_.Occurrence&bova=040113&version=17458.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT AMERICAN COOTS


The scientific name of the American Coot is Fulica americana.

Here are some points about the American Coot, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/American Coot,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040113&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17458.

Physical Description

“Length = 15 inches; slatey with dark, small head and neck, brown-black back, small whitish bill and frontal shield, white undertail and on trailing edge of wings; feet are green and lobed.”

Reproduction

“The breeding season in Virginia is May-September. …Breeding behavior very territorial… Year-round defense is well documented in coots.”

Diet

“Consists primarily of aquatic vegetation (often pirates plants such as wild celery from foraging ducks) such as algae, potamogetons, water milfoil, burreed, and chara.  Will also feed on fish, tadpoles, crustaceans, snails, worms, insects, and eggs from other marsh nesting birds.  Coots pirate food from other species, especially waterfowl, but are also victims of piracy. … They are also commensal feeders picking up leftovers from other species such as dabbling ducks.”

Nesting

“This species tends to nest in a shallow platform of dead leaves and stems of marsh plants moored to clump of reeds or cattails….  [B]oth parents incubate, brood, and feed young (male may take on greater brooding duties); parents often chauffeur young on their back.”

Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations

“Predators include bald eagle and young may fall prey to turtles, bass and water snakes.”

Habitat

“Freshwater marshes, ponds, wet meadows, lakes, reservoirs, sewage lagoons, marshy borders of creeks and rivers with abundant emergent vegetation.  Winter in ice-free fresh and brackish marshes along the coast.”

Animal or Plant Associations

“Cover vegetation may include cattail, softstem, bulrush, hardstem, sedge, willow, burreed.  Known to occupy habitats that may otherwise be occupied by waterfowl.”

SOURCES

Used in Audio

John James Audubon, “American Coot,” from Birds of America (1827-1838), Plate 239, accessed at the Audubon Web site, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/american-coot.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. American Coot entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/American_Coot/id.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Coot,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/coot.

Larry Jordan, The Birders Report, “American Coots Take Off” (December 11, 2012), online at https://thebirdersreport.com/wild-birds/american-coots-take-off.

Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md. (2006).

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, N.Y., 2001.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/McNary National Wildlife Refuge (Washington), “American Coots” (as of April 2015), online at https://www.fws.gov/refuge/McNary/Wildlife_Habitat/Coots.html.

Valerie Van Way, “Approaches to Coot Management in California,” Proceedings of the Twelfth Vertebrate Pest Conference, March 1986, online at http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=vpc12.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/American Coot,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040113&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17458.

For More Information about Birds in Virginia or Elsewhere

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site at http://www.xeno-canto.org/. The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Birds subject category.

Episode 165, 6/10/13 gives an overview of the bird family of rails, gallinules, and coots in Virginia.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 English SOLs:

Reading Theme
8.4, 9.3, 10.3, 11.3, and 12.3 – knowledge of word origins, analogies, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development within authentic texts.

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Episode 390 (10-16-17): History on the York River, Featuring “The Surrender of Cornwallis” by Bobby Horton


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:21).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-16-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 19, 2017.

MUSIC – ~12 sec

This week, in an updated episode from 2012, we feature music to commemorate a turning point in history that occurred beside Virginia’s York River on October 19th, 1781.  Have a listen for about a minute.

MUSIC - ~59 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “The Surrender of Cornwallis,” performed by Bobby Horton on the 2008 album “Homespun Songs of the Patriots in the American Revolution.”  Yorktown was established on the York River in 1691, following habitation of the area by Native Americans for many centuries.  By the time of the Revolutionary War, Yorktown was a busy port.  In 1781, Charles Cornwallis led Great Britain’s southern army to Yorktown to establish a stronghold where the army could be reinforced or, if necessary, evacuated by the British navy. I nstead, the British troops became trapped when American forces under George Washington and French forces marched to Yorktown from New York, and French warships blockaded the lower Chesapeake Bay after defeating British ships in the September 5 “Battle of the Capes,” on the Bay between Virginia’s Cape Henry and Cape Charles.  A three-week siege of Yorktown ended with Cornwallis’ surrender on October 19, helping lead to the end of the war in 1783.

The battle severely damaged Yorktown, which was again damaged in the War of 1812 and the Civil War, and Yorktown never regained its former prominence as a port.  But since the 1930s, historic preservation, research, and interpretation efforts—including the opening in 2017 of the American Revolution Museum at Yorktown—have made this small, 300-year-old, Virginia riverside town an American Revolution destination.

Thanks to Bobby Horton for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “The Surrender of Cornwallis.”

MUSIC - ~ 10 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is a updated repeat of Episode 103 (3-9-12), which has been archived.

“Homespun Songs of the Patriots in the American Revolution” and its version of “The Surrender of Cornwallis” are copyright by Bobby Horton, used with permission.  “The Surrender of Cornwallis” is also heard (along with two other musical selections) in Episode 229, 9-1-14, on National Park Service units.  More information about Mr. Horton is available online at http://bobbyhorton.com/; information about “Homespun Songs of the Patriots in the American Revolution” is available online at https://www.bobbyhorton.com/music/homespun-songs-patriots/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS
The York River, with Yorktown in the background, June 27, 2017.   U.S. Geological Survey public domain photo by Hayley Austin, accessed online at https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/york-river-york-county-virginia.
Victory Monument and a Slippery Elm tree at Yorktown Battlefied/Colonial National Historical Park.  Photo by Linda Williams for the National Park Service, accessed online at https://www.nps.gov/york/planyourvisit/hours.htm.

The Moore House at Yorktown, the location where the terms of the British army surrender were negotiated among the Americans, British, and French on October 18, 1781.  National Park Service photo, accessed at https://www.nps.gov/york/learn/historyculture/moore-house.htm.
Surrender Field at the Yorktown Battlefied/Colonial National Historic Park, the site where Charles Cornwallis’ British army surrendered on October 19, 1781.  National Park Service photo, accessed at https://www.nps.gov/colo/learn/photosmultimedia/photogallery.htm (“Yorktown Battlefield” tab).

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Census Viewer, “Yorktown, Virginia, Population,” online at http://censusviewer.com/city/VA/Yorktown.

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Siege of Yorktown,”, online at https://www.britannica.com/event/Siege-of-Yorktown.

Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation/Jamestown and American Revolution Settlement Museum at Yorktown, “Grand Opening Celebration of the American Revolution Museum at Yorktown March 23-April 4, 2017,” online at https://www.historyisfun.org/grandopening/.

National Park Service, “Colonial National Historic Park Photo Gallery, online at https://www.nps.gov/colo/learn/photosmultimedia/photogallery.htm.

National Park Service, “Yorktown Battlefield—Part of Colonial National Historial Park,” online at https://www.nps.gov/york/index.htm.

National Park Service, “Yorktown Battlefield/Battle of the Capes” (updated 2/26/15), online at https://www.nps.gov/york/learn/historyculture/battle-of-the-capes.htm.

National Park Service, “Yorktown Victory Monument,” online at https://www.nps.gov/york/learn/historyculture/vicmon.htm.

Russell S. Perkins, “Yorktown Campaign,” The Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington, online at http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/yorktown-campaign/, accessed 10/10/17.

York County, Va., Department of Community Services/Division of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, “Visit Yorktown Virginia,” online at http://www.visityorktown.org/.

Yorktown Preservation Society, “Yorktown Timeline,” online at http://ypsva.org/yorktown-timeline/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the History subject category.

Other episodes featuring music about rivers and other water bodies in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars are the following:
Revolutionary War – Episode 168, 7/1/13; EP220 – 6/30/14; Episode 273, 7/6/15; EP331 – 8/29/16;
Civil War – Episode 101, 3/5/12; Episode 104, 3/26/12; Episode 164, 6/3/13; EP201 – 2/17/14.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.5 – role of Virginia in the American Revolution.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.
USI.6 – causes, people, and results of the American Revolution.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 9, 2017

Episode 389 (10-9-17): Fire Prevention Week Helps Fight Fires with Education and Preparedness


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:31).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, an image, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-6-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 9, 2017.

This week, we feature a series of safety-oriented mystery sounds.   Have a listen for about 25 seconds, and see if you can guess the dangerous phenomenon for which water is the usual remedy.

SOUNDS - ~25 sec

If you guessed fire, you’re right!   You heard a home smoke alarm, a dormitory fire alarm, and a fire-hydrant pressure test.  All are aspects of the constant and complicated challenge of preventing fires or protecting people and property when fires do occur.

Fire safety by individuals, families, businesses, and communities is the focus Fire Prevention Week, which in 2017 runs October 8-14. Sponsored annually since 1922 by the National Fire Protection Association, or NFPA, the observance always includes October 9, the date when the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 did most of its damage.  NFPA sets a central theme for each year—this year it’s “Every Second Counts: Plan 2 Ways Out”—and provides many educational items, particularly for school children.

One of the learning tools this year is a fire-safety quiz; here are five key messages from that quiz: *From 2010 to 2014, 84 percent of fire deaths in the U.S. occurred in one-family or two-family homes;
*Unattended cooking is the leading cause of home fires;
*Once a home smoke alarm sounds, there may be less than two minutes to escape;
*A home fire-escape plan should include working smoke alarms, two ways out of each room, and an outside meeting place; and
*During a fire in a typical building, react immediately, get ouside, and stay outside.

The quiz and other educational resources are available online at nfpa.org; resources particularly for pre-K to grade 5 children are available at sparkyschoolhouse.org.

During Fire Prevention Week and all year round, education and preparedness can help reduce the times we hear this sound:

SOUND – ~ 7 sec - fire engine siren and horn

Thanks to Freesound.org for the dormitory alarm and fire engine sounds. We close with about 25 seconds of music to remind children of what to do in a house fire.  Here’s part of “Little Rosalie,” by SteveSongs, courtesy of the National Fire Protection Association.

MUSIC - ~28 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The hydrant pressure-test sound was recorded on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg on March 10, 2017.  Thanks to the Virginia Tech Facilities Department and to Liberty Fire Solutions of Salem, Va., for allowing Virginia Water Radio to record and photograph the testing and for providing  information about the test.  See the Images section below for a photo and more information.

The Dormitory fire alarm sound (dated May 13, 2008) was recorded by user user guitarguy1985 and made available for public use by Freesound.org, online at https://freesound.org/people/guitarguy1985/sounds/53448/, under the Creative Commons 0 License (no copyright). The fire engine sound (dated April 6, 2016) was recorded by user logancircle2 and made available for public use by Freesound.org, online at https://freesound.org/people/logancircle2/sounds/342182/, also under the Creative Commons 0 License. For more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see http://creativecommons.org/; information on the 0 License specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0.

“Little Rosalie” is copyright by SteveSongs (Steve Roslonek) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), used with permission of the NFPA. The full 5 min./1 sec. video is available at the NFPA’s “Sparky School House” Web site, online at http://sparkyschoolhouse.org/. More information about SteveSongs is available online at http://www.stevesongs.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES
Fire-hydrant pressure testing by a staff member of the Virginia Tech Facilities Department on the campus in Blacksburg, March 10, 2017. The test was to see whether sprinklers in a nearby building would have enough pressure to function in the case of the hydrant being used fully during a fire.
The National Fire Protection Association’s logo for Fire Prevention Week in 2017, available online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Campaigns/Fire-Prevention-Week/Promoting-FPW/Campaign-logo, ©NFPA.
 
 
 
Three photos above: historic fire-fighting equipment on display at the Blacksburg, Va., Volunteer Fire Department’s Prices Fork Road station, October 7, 2017.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA):
“About Fire Prevention Week,” online at http://www.nfpa.org/public-education/campaigns/fire-prevention-week/about-fire-prevention-week;
“Public Education,” online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education (this pages offers links to many public education tools, such as safety tip sheets, school lesson plans, and information targeted to specific kinds of buildings);
“Promoting Fire Prevention Week,” online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Campaigns/Fire-Prevention-Week/Promoting-FPW;
“Sparky School House,” online at http://sparkyschoolhouse.org/;
“Teaching Fire Prevention Week,” online at online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Campaigns/Fire-Prevention-Week/Teaching-FPW.
NPFA You Tube channel, online at https://www.youtube.com/user/nfpadotorg.

Virginia Department of Fire Programs, online at https://www.vafire.com/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Weather/Natural Disasters subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on safety issues.
Boating safety – Episode 270, 6/15/15 (Operation Dry Water and Boating Under the Influence).
Episode 370, 5/29/17
(Safe Boating Week).
Dock safety – Episode 131, 10/8/12.
Earthquake drills – Episode 388, 10/2/17.
Flash flooding – Episode 328, 8/8/16.
Storm surge – Episode 385 – 9/11/17.
Tornado preparedness – Episode 358, 3/6/17.
Tropical storm preparedness – Episode 369, 5/22/17.
Weather watch/warning messages – Episode 106, 4/9/12.
Winter preparedness – Episode 344, 11/28/16.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10 - impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
K.10 – good citizenship.
1.10 – good citizenship.
2.11 – good citizenship.
3.11 – good citizenship.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – skills for responsible citizenship.

World Geography Course
WG.1 – skills for responsible citizenship.

Government Course
GOVT.1 – skills for responsible citizenship.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 2, 2017

Episode 388 (10-2-17): The Great ShakeOut Earthquake Drill


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:57).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, an image, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-29-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 2, 2017.

This week, we feature a potentially very destructive mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds and see if you can guess what natural event is causing this rumbling and rattling.

SOUND – ~ 16 sec

If you guessed an earthquake, you’re right!  You heard part of a Federal Emergency Management Agency public service video on earthquake preparedness.  Whether centered under continents or oceans, earthquakes can have obvious impacts on lands and buildings, and their water impacts can include damage to water infrastructure, effects on groundwater, changes to streamflows, and tsunamis.

As of September 28, 2017, 333 earthquakes had been recorded in Virginia and surrounding states since 1900, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.   Seven Virginia events had been recorded in 2017, most recently on September 13 near Pearisburg in Giles County.  The most powerful recent Virginia quake was the 5.8 magnitude event centered in Mineral, in Louisa County, on August 23, 2011.  Beyond the Commonwealth, the September 19, 2017, quake centered near Mexico City, of magnitude 7.1, had devastating impacts, including over 300 fatalities.

With all of this in mind, thousands of citizens—in schools, businesses, local governments, and many other organizations—are participating in the Great Southeast ShakeOut earthquake drill on October 19, 2017.  The Southeast ShakeOut covers Virginia and seven other states from Delaware to Florida, plus the District of Columbia.  It’s part of the international Great ShakeOut, which as of September 29 had over 21 million participants registered.  Here’s a 60-second announcement on the drill from the Great ShakeOut Web site.

VOICE and SOUNDS - ~57 sec

As noted in the announcement, emergency preparedness experts recommend that the best response to an earthquake is drop, cover, and hold on; that is, drop to the floor, take cover under a sturdy table or other object, and hold onto the object until the shaking stops.   If no sturdy object is available, crouch away from windows beside an interior wall, and cover your head and neck with your arms.   Don’t try to run to another room or outdoors.   If you’re already outdoors, move away from buildings, street lights, and utility poles and lines, and once in the open, drop and cover.

The Great ShakeOut on October 19 is your chance to practice these techniques and to learn more about what to do before, during, and after an earthquake.  You can find information online at shakeout.org.

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode updates and replaces Episode 132, 10-15-12.

The shaking/rumbling sounds were taken from a Ready.gov/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) public service announcement video online via You Tube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkwBZrejsSs.

The earthquake safety audio was made available for public use at the Great ShakeOut Earthquake Drills Web site, online at https://www.shakeout.org/drill/broadcast/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGE
Location of earthquakes in Virginia and nearby states from 1900 to September 28, 2017. Map from the U.S. Geological Survey, “Earthquake Hazard Program—Information by Region: Virginia,” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/byregion/virginia.php, accessed on 9/28/17, 4:15 p.m. EDT.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT EARTHQUAKE SAFETY

The following information is quoted from the Federal Emergency Mangement Agency (FEMA), “Earthquakes,” online at https://www.ready.gov/earthquakes.

Before An Earthquake

Before an earthquake occurs, secure items that could fall or move and cause injuries or damage (e.g., bookshelves, mirrors, light fixtures, televisions, computers, hot water heaters.  Move beds away from windows and secure any hanging items over beds, couches, cribs or other places people sit or lie.

Practice how to Drop, Cover, and Hold On!  Plan and practice how to drop to the ground; cover your head and neck with your arms; ...if a safer place is nearby that you can get to without exposing yourself to flying debris, crawl to it; and hold on to maintain cover.

To react quickly you must practice often.  You may only have seconds to protect yourself in an earthquake.

Store critical supplies (e.g., water, medication) and documents.

Plan how you will communicate with family members, including multiple methods by making a family emergency communication plan.

Consult a structural engineer to evaluate your home and ask about updates to strengthen areas that would be weak during an earthquake.  When choosing your home or business to rent or buy, check if the building is earthquake resistant per local building codes.

During An Earthquake

If you are inside a building:

Drop down onto your hands and knees so the earthquake doesn’t knock you down. Drop to the ground (before the earthquake drops you!)

Cover your head and neck with your arms to protect yourself from falling debris.

If you are in danger from falling objects, and you can move safely, crawl for additional cover under a sturdy desk or table.

If no sturdy shelter is nearby, crawl away from windows, next to an interior wall. Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as light fixtures or furniture.

Hold on to any sturdy covering so you can move with it until the shaking stops.

Stay where you are until the shaking stops.  Do not run outside.  Do not get in a doorway as this does not provide protection from falling or flying objects, and you may not be able to remain standing.

If getting safely to the floor to take cover won’t be possible:

If getting safely to the floor will be difficult, actions before an earthquake to secure or remove items that can fall or become projectiles should be a priority to create spaces.

The Earthquake Country Alliance advises getting as low as possible to the floor.  People who use wheelchairs or other mobility devices should lock their wheels, bend over, and remain seated until the shaking stops.  Protect your head and neck with your arms, a pillow, a book, or whatever is available.

If you are in bed when you feel the shaking:

Stay there and cover your head and neck with a pillow.  At night, hazards and debris are difficult to see and avoid; attempts to move in the dark result in more injuries than remaining in bed.

If you are outside when you feel the shaking:
Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.  Once in the open, “Drop, Cover, and Hold On.”  Stay there until the shaking stops.

If you are in a moving vehicle when you feel the shaking:

It is difficult to control a vehicle during the shaking.  If you are in a moving vehicle, stop as quickly and safely as possible and stay in the vehicle.  Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.  Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that the earthquake may have damaged.

After an Earthquake

When the shaking stops, look around.  If the building is damaged and there is a clear path to safety, leave the building and go to an open space away from damaged areas.

If you are trapped, do not move about or kick up dust.

If you have a cell phone with you, use it to call or text for help.

Tap on a pipe or wall or use a whistle, if you have one, so that rescuers can locate you.

Once safe, monitor local news reports via battery operated radio, TV, social media, and cell phone text alerts for emergency information and instructions.

Check for injuries and provide assistance if you have training.  Assist with rescues if you can do so safely.

If you are near the coast, learn about tsunamis in your area.  If you are in an area that may have tsunamis, when the shaking stops, walk inland and to higher ground immediately.  Monitor official reports for more information on the area’s tsunami evacuation plans.

Use extreme caution during post-disaster clean-up of buildings and around debris.  Do not attempt to remove heavy debris by yourself.  Wear protective clothing, including a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, work gloves, and sturdy, thick-soled shoes during clean-up.

Be prepared to “Drop, Cover, and Hold on” in the likely event of aftershocks.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Reven Blau, Rescuers continue searching for survivors of devastating earthquake in Mexico as death toll reaches 320, New York Daily News, 9/25/17.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), “Earthquakes,” online at http://www.ready.gov/earthquakes.

Great ShakeOut Earthquake Drills, online at https://www.shakeout.org/.  Recommended steps to take during an earthquake are online at https://www.shakeout.org/dropcoverholdon/.

Great Southeast ShakeOut, online at https://www.shakeout.org/southeast/.  This Web site lists the drills registered in the District of Columbia and eight Middle Atlantic/southeastern states--Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia--at https://www.shakeout.org/southeast/participants.php?start=All.

International Tsunami Information Center, “How do earthquakes generate tsunamis,” online at http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1158&Itemid=2026.

David R. Montgomery and Michael Manga, “Streamflow and Water Well Responses to Earthquakes,” Science, Vol. 300/Issue 5628, June 27, 2003, pages 2047-2049.

Jessica Robertson, “One Year Anniversary: Magnitude 5.8 Virginia Earthquake,” U.S. Geological Survey report on the August 23, 2011, earthquake centered in Mineral, Virginia, available online at http://www.usgs.gov/blogs/features/usgs_top_story/one-year-anniversary-magnitude-5-8-virginia-earthquake/.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “Determining the Depth of an Earthquake,” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/determining_depth.php.

USGS, “Earthquake Hazards Program,” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/; and “Information by Region—Virginia,” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/byregion/virginia.php.

USGS, “Earthquake Topics,” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/.

USGS, “Groundwater Effects from Earthquakes” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/groundwater.php.

USGS, “Magnitude 7.1 Earthquake in Mexico; The USGS has up-to-date details on the September 19, 2017 event,” online at https://www.usgs.gov/news/magnitude-71-earthquake-mexico.

USGS, “The Science of Earthquakes,” online at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/eqscience.php.

Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, “Earthquakes,” online at https://www.dmme.virginia.gov/dgmr/earthquakes.shtml; and “Major Earthquake 2011--August 23, 2011 1:51pm; 5.8 Magnitude Earthquake, Louisa County, Virginia,” online at https://www.dmme.virginia.gov/dgmr/earthquake2011.shtml.

Chi-yuen Wang and Michael Manga, “Earthquakes and Water,” Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer Science and Business Media, New York, 2014; available online (as a PDF) at http://seismo.berkeley.edu/~manga/wangandmanga2014.pdf.

Derek Watkins and Jeremy White, “Mexico City Was Built on an Ancient Lake Bed; That Makes Earthquakes Much Worse,” New York Times, 9/22/17.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).   See particularly the “Science” and “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject categories.

Following are links to other episodes on related to earthquakes.
Episode 133, 10/22/12 – Earthquake research on Virginia rivers.
Episode 203, 3/3/14 – The rock cycle (including a sound representation of seismic activity from the Virginia Tech Museum of Geological Sciences).

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
5.6 – characteristics of the ocean environment (ecological, geological, and physical).
5.7 – constant change of Earth’s surface (including weathering and erosion, and plate tectonics).

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Life Science Course
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.

Earth Science Course

ES.7 – geologic processes, including plate tectonics.
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Physics Course
PH.4 – applications of physics to the real word, including roles of science and technology.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (on various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.