Monday, November 13, 2017

Episode 394 (11-13-17): For Veterans Day 2017 – The U.S. Army and Its Wide-ranging Water Connections


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:31).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-10-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 13, 2017.

SOUND - ~7 sec

This week, that sound of Black Hawk and Chinook helicopters opens our focus on the U.S. Army, the latest in a series of annual episodes in honor of Veterans Day.  Have a listen for about 25 seconds to the Army’s familiar anthem, played by the U.S. Army Concert Band.

MUSIC – ~26 sec

The U.S. Army began on June 14, 1775, as the Continental Army, formed by the Second Continental Congress to fight the Revolutionary War against Great Britain.  The army started with about 27,000 militia soldiers, but in 1776 the Continental Congress established a standing force separate from the state militias, which became the regular army.  Throughout its history, the Army has seen many significant expansions during wars and contractions during peacetime.  As of 2017, the Army was authorized for over 1 million active-duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, serving roles in combat but also in medicine, humanitarian relief, civil affairs, and other areas.  The Army has a large presence in Virginia, with several bases and other facilities.

Despite being the branch of the military services most thought-of as land-based, the Army’s never been far from the water.  Historically, army forts often were near rivers or other waterways—one Virginia example is Fort Monroe on the Chesapeake Bay beside Hampton, which was an Army installation from the early 1800s to 2011.  And as George Washington’s crossing of the Delaware River in 1776 reminds us, countless water bodies have been a barrier or a line of defense for U.S. soldiers.  Today, water transportation, navigation, and water supply remain key functions within the Army: the Maritime Division of the Transportation Corps provides vessels for moving people and materials; water-treatment and supply specialists serve both in military and humanitarian missions; and many water-related projects—both military and civilian—are conducted by the Corps of Engineers, established as a permanent Army corps in 1802.   Fort Monroe is now a National Monument owned by the Commonwealth; its presence on Virginia’s Chesapeake coastline symbolizes the U.S. Army’s long history of facing, using, and defending waterways.

Thanks to Army veterans and current personnel everywhere for their service and sacrifices, past, present, and future, and we close with a few more seconds of “The Army Song.”

MUSIC - ~16 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The helicopter sound was taken from the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System (DVIDS), “2-227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade helicopters [Black Hawk and Chinook] arrive at Katterbach Army Airfield in Ansbach, Bavaria, Germany,” video online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/561762/2-227th-aviation-regiment-1st-air-cavalry-brigade-helicopters-arrive-katterbach-army-airfield-ansbach-bavaria-germany.  Copyright information at the DVIDS sites states, “In general, all media on the site is produced by U.S. DoD or Federal Agencies, and is in the public domain, i.e., not protected by U.S. copyright; however, other restrictions might apply, such as, but not limited to, the right to enforce trademarks, and the right of privacy/right of publicity, any of which might restrict use of some of the media.”

The U.S. Army Concert Band’s recording of “The Army Song” was accessed at http://www.usarmyband.com/watch-listen/ceremonial-music-guide.html.  The Web site states that all music files on that page are free for download and duplication.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

Click here for a 96-second sampler of comments about Army activities and experiences. The comments were excerpted from interviews made available by the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System. The interview titles, dates, and online locations are as follows (listed in the order played in the sampler):
1. “Brig. Gen. Leela Gray Interview at 2017 AUSA conference,” Washington, D.C., 10/10/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/557733/brig-gen-leela-gray-interview-2017-ausa-conference.
2. “Lt. Gen. Ben Hodges JMTG-U interview,” Yavoriv, Ukraine, 3/22/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/515328/lt-gen-ben-hodges-jmtg-u-interview.
3. “VTARNG [Vermont Army National Guard] Zodiac Boat Training Exercise, Burlington, Vermont, 8/12/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/audio/49078/vtarng-zodiac-boat-training-exercise-audio.
4. “Hurricane Harvey—Capt. Brian McCauley and 2nd Lt.Stephanie Jasper (126th Brigade Engineer Battalion) Interview,” Beaumont, Texas, 9/9/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/549991/hurricane-harvey-capt-brian-mccauley-and-2nd-ltstephanie-jasper-126th-brigade-engineer-battalion-interview.
5. “U.S. Army Reserve Medical Team Provides Needed Healthcare After Hurricane Maria,” Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, 10/24/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/560354/us-army-reserve-medical-team-provides-needed-healthcare-after-hurricane-maria.
6. “HA/DR [Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief] Exercise at Yokohama North Dock,” Yokohama, Japan, 3/17/17, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/518765/ha-dr-exercise-yokohama-north-dock.
7. “U.S. Tanks and Heavy Armor Train in Romania,” Cincu, Romania, 7/29/16, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/477084/us-tanks-and-heavy-armor-train-romania.

PHOTOS
Virginia National Guard helicopters leaving the Army Aviation Support Facility in Sandston, Virginia (Henrico County) on a disaster relief mission in Texas, 8/31/17.  Photo by Sgt. 1st Class Terra Gatti, made available by the Defense Video Imagery Distribution System, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/image/3725962/virginia-flight-crews-head-texas.
Virginia National Guard training on rail load and seaport operations during a drill weekend, June 9-11, 2017, at Fort Eustis, Virginia.  Photo by Cotton Puryear, courtesy of the 1173rd Transportation Company, made available by the Defense Video Imagery Distribution System, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/image/3503822/virginia-guard-transporters-train-rail-and-water-operations.
 
EXTRA FACTS ABOUT “THE ARMY SONG” 

From the U.S. Army Music Home Web site, “‘The Army Goes Rolling Along’—The Official Song of The United States Army,” online at http://www.music.army.mil/music/armysong/.


“The song was originally written by field artillery First Lieutenant [later Brigadier General] Edmund L. Gruber, while stationed in the Philippines in 1908 as the ‘Caisson Song.’  The original lyrics reflect routine activities in a horse-drawn field artillery battery.  The song was transformed into a march by John Philip Sousa in 1917 and renamed ‘The Field Artillery Song.’  It was adopted in 1956 as the official song of the Army and retitled, ‘The Army Goes Rolling Along.’”

For more on the history of the song, see F. Peter Wigginton, “A Soldier’s Song,” originally published in Soldiers Online, July 1994; excerpt available at the U.S. Army Music Home Web site, online at http://www.music.army.mil/music/armysong/soldierssong.asp.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Encyclopedia Britannica, “The United States Army,” last updated 11/7/17, online at https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-United-States-Army.

Fort Monroe Authority, online at http://www.fmauthority.com/.

Historical Office/Office of the Secretary of Defense, http://history.defense.gov/.

MilitaryBases.com, “Virginia Military Bases,” online at https://militarybases.com/virginia/.

Ryan Murphy, “Five years into its civilian life, Fort Monroe remains a work in progress,” [Newport News] Daily Press, 9/24/16, online at http://www.dailypress.com/news/hampton/dp-nws-hampton-fort-monroe-5-year-20160915-story.html.

National Park Service, “Fort Monroe National Monument,” online at https://www.nps.gov/fomr/index.htm.

National Park Service, “Washington Crossing State Park,” online at https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/delaware/was.htm.

Gary Sheftick, “Fort Monroe handoff to preserve history, military housing,” U.S. Army Web site, https://www.army.mil/article/39906/fort_monroe_handoff_to_preserve_history_military_housing.

U.S. Army, “Careers and Jobs,” online at https://www.goarmy.com/careers-and-jobs.html.

U.S. Army, “Army is hiring: Army increases end strength by 28,000 Soldiers,” 3/20/17, online at https://www.army.mil/article/184431/army_is_hiring_army_increases_end_strength_by_28000_soldiers.

U.S. Army, “History,” online at https://www.goarmy.com/about/what-is-the-army/history.html.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, “A Brief History,” online at http://www.usace.army.mil/About/History/Brief-History-of-the-Corps/Introduction/.

U.S. Army Music Home Web site, “‘The Army Goes Rolling Along’—The Official Song of The United States Army,” online at http://www.music.army.mil/music/armysong/.

U.S. Army Transportation Corps, “Watercraft Categories, Watercraft Units and Equipment,” online at http://www.transportation.army.mil/maritime/watercraft.html; and “Maritime Qualification Division,” online at http://www.transportation.army.mil/maritime/mqd.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES
All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Community/Organizations and the History subject categories

Following are links to previous Veterans Day episodes on branches of the military:
Episode 187, 11/11/13 – all five branches;
Episode 239, 11/10/14 – U.S. Coast Guard;
Episode 289, 11/9/15 – U.S. Navy;
Episode 341, 11/7/16 – U.S. Air Force.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
2.5 – why U.S. citizens celebrate major holidays, including Veterans Day.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.9 – how national events affected Virginia and its citizens.

United States History: 1865-to-Present Course
USII.8 – economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world after World War II, , including role of U.S. military.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Virginia and United States History Course
VUS.13 – U.S. foreign policy since World War II, including the role of the military.

Government Course
GOVT. 12 – role of the United States in a changing world, including responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, November 6, 2017

Episode 393 (11-6-17): The Flu and Water


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:43).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-3-17.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 6, 2017.

This week, we feature a medical mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 35 seconds, and see if you can guess what kind of seasonal, precautionary procedure is taking place.  And here’s a hint: thinking feverishly could influence your answer.

SOUNDS - ~36 sec

If you guessed, a flu shot, you’re right!  You heard an influenza vaccination being given in October 2017 at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.  Flu season arrives every year with colder weather, bringing the potential to cause fever, body aches, and other symptoms, some quite serious or even fatal.  The flu affects millions of people in the United States each year, and health agencies like the Virginia Department of Health encourage vaccination for everyone older than six months, with some exceptions.

But what does the flu have to do with water?  Consider these three connections.

First, drinking plenty of fluids is a commonly prescribed treatment for flu sufferers in order to help prevent dehydration resulting from increased body temperature and other responses to the viral infection.  Infants, children, and the elderly are particularly at risk for dehydration.

Second, the flu virus is transmitted between humans by respiratory droplets, and researchers have found that transmission is affected by air temperature and humidity. Specifically, transmission occurs more easily in cold, dry air, such as is typically found during fall and winter in temperate areas like Virginia.

Third, waterfowl and shorebirds are among the various kinds of birds that harbor avian flu viruses, and water contaminated with aquatic birds’ waste can potentially harbor avian flu for some time.  Understanding the factors related to the occurrence and transmission of avian viruses—including the role of contaminated water—is important in monitoring avian flu and its potential to spread to other birds, mammals, or humans.

Flu season is upon us, and national Influenza Vaccination Week is Dec. 3-9, 2017.  So if you hear this…

SOUND ~3 sec – “Are you here for a flu shot?”

…now you’ll have not only a health connection for the flu, but some hydrological ones, too.

Thanks to staff of Kroger Pharmacy and Hokie Wellness for lending their voices to this episode.

We close with a few seconds of music for, or rather, against the flu.  Here’s part of “Shots,” written by Wilson Stern and performed in a 2014, flu-shot-promoting video by the University of Florida’s Student Health Care Center.

MUSIC - ~27 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The audio excerpt of “Shots,” copyright by Wilson Stern, was taken from the 2014 video “Flu Shots,” copyright by the University of Florida; used with permission of Wilson Stern and the University of Florida’s Division of Media Properties.  The 2 min./4 sec. video is available online at http://shcc.ufl.edu/services/primary-care/flu/flu-shots-music-video-lyrics/.   More information about Wilson Stern and the group Hail! Cassius Neptune is available online at http://www.hailcassiusneptune.com/.

The influenza vaccination heard in this episode was performed October 24, 2017, at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, by staff of Kroger Pharmacies (online at https://www.kroger.com/topic/flu-shot-feeding-america), assisted by staff from Virginia Tech’s Hokie Wellness program (online at https://www.hokiewellness.vt.edu/).  Virginia Water Radio thanks those staff people for their willingness to be recorded.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Colorized, negative-stained transmission electron microscopic image of influenza virus particles, or “virions.”   Public domain photo taken in 1973 by Dr. F. A. Murphy, accessed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Image Library, online at https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=10072.
Centers for Disease Control and Protection weekly map of flu activity, as of 10/28/17.  Map accessed online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/usmap.htm, 11/6/17.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) chart of laboratory work on flu viruses with data for 2016-17.   Image accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/freeresources/graphics/infographics.htm.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT TYPES AND NAMES OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES


From Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), “Types of Influenza Viruses,” September 27, 2017, online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/viruses/types.htm.

“There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D.   Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease almost every winter in the United States.  The emergence of a new and very different influenza A virus to infect people can cause an influenza pandemic.   Influenza type C infections generally cause a mild respiratory illness and are not thought to cause epidemics.  Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.

”Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N).  There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes. (H1 through H18 and N1 through N11 respectively.)

“Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into different strains.   Current sub-types of influenza A viruses found in people are influenza A (H1N1) and influenza A (H3N2) viruses.  In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged to cause illness in people.  This virus was very different from the human influenza A (H1N1) viruses circulating at that time.   The new virus caused the first influenza pandemic in more than 40 years.  That virus (often called “2009 H1N1”) has now replaced the H1N1 virus that was previously circulating in humans.

“Influenza B viruses are not divided into sub-types, but can be further broken down into lineages and strains.  Currently circulating influenza B viruses belong to one of two lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria.

“CDC follows an internationally accepted naming convention for influenza viruses.  This convention was accepted by WHO [World Health Organization] in 1979 and published in February 1980 in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58(4):585-591 (1980) (see A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses: a WHO Memorandum[854 KB, 7 pages]).  The approach uses the following components:
*the antigenic type (e.g., A, B, C);
*the host of origin (e.g., swine, equine, chicken, etc.; for human-origin viruses, no host of origin designation is given);
*geographical origin (e.g., Denver, Taiwan, etc.);
*strain number (e.g., 15, 7, etc.);
*year of isolation (e.g., 57, 2009, etc.);
*for influenza A viruses, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigen description in parentheses (e.g., (H1N1).
[Examples:]
A/duck/Alberta/35/76 (H1N1) for a virus from duck origin;
A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) for a virus from human origin.

“Influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and one or two influenza B viruses (depending on the vaccine) are included in each year’s influenza vaccine.”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
“Information on Avian Influenza,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/;
“Flu,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/index.htm;
“Flu Activity and Surveillance,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivitysurv.htm;
“The Flu: Caring for Someone Sick at Home,” online (as PDF) at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pdf/freeresources/general/influenza_flu_homecare_guide.pdf;
“National Influeza Vaccination Week,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/nivw/index.htm;
“National Vaccination Week 2016 Key Messages,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/resource-center/nivw/nivw-key-points.htm);
“Other Types of Flu,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/other_flu.htm (information on flu in bats, birds, dogs, swine, and other animals).

Antonia E. Dalziel et al., “Persistence of Low Pathogenic Influenza A Virus in Water: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Meta-Analysis,” PLOS One, 10/13/16, online at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161929.

Christina Faust et al., “Filter-feeding bivalves can remove avian influenza viruses from water and reduce infectivity,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 8/5/09, online at http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1673/3727.

Anice C. Lowen and John Steel, “Roles of Humidity and Temperature in Shaping Influenza Seasonality,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 88/No. 14, July 2014, pages 7692-7695; online at http://jvi.asm.org/content/88/14/7692.full (subscription may be required for access at this site).

Anice C. Lowen et al., “Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature,” PLOS, 10/19/07, online at http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151.

Poultry World, Bird flu can survive 150 days in water, 6/10/09.

Public Library of Science, “Higher indoor humidity inactivates flu virus particles,” Science Daily, 2/27/13, online at https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227183456.htm.

David Robson, The Real Reason Germs Spread in Winter, BBC Future, 10/19/15.

Jeffery K. Taugenberger and David M. Morens, “1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12/No. 1, January 2006, online at https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/1/05-0979_article.

U.S. EPA, Pandemic Influenza Fact Sheet for the Water Sector, 2009.

Virginia Department of Health, “Epidemiology Fact Sheets/Influenza,” September 2013, online at http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/epidemiology-fact-sheets/influenza/.

World Health Organization, “Avian Influenza: Food Safety Issues” (undated), online at http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/zoonose/avian/en/index1.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Science subject category.

Following are links to other episodes focusing on human biology or health:
Episode 93, 12-19-11 – water in the human nervous system;
Episode 287, 10-26-15 – water and the human skeleton;
Episode 392, 10-30-17 – water and the human circulatory system.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10- impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.4 – life functions (including metabolism and homeostasis) in different organism groups, including human health, anatomy, and body systems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.18 - cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249, 1-19-15 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade;
Episode 332, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 30, 2017

Episode 392 (10-30-17): Water's at the Heart of Blood


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:58).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-27-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 30, 2017.  For Halloween week, we repeat a 2014 episode focused on a vital, water-based fluid that’s a feature of many-a scary Halloween image or story.

SOUND - ~3 sec

Why is a human heartbeat a water story?   Have a listen for about 25 seconds to the following mystery sounds, and see if you can guess the heart-and-water connections they represent.  And here’s a hint: if you have the energy, you could follow many branches to this solution.

SOUNDS - ~23 sec

You’ve been listening to sounds from a platelets donation at the American Red Cross’ New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Virginia.  A blood-pressure measurement, a needle stick into an arm vein, and the machine separating blood components and recirculating fluid to the patient illustrate three connections between the human circulatory system and water.

First, the heart provides energy and a force—measured by blood pressure—to keep blood circulating around the body, like the sun’s energy powers evaporation and winds that help keep water circulating around the earth.  Second, arm veins are part of an intricately branched system of arteries, veins, and capillaries, resembling a watershed’s branching pattern as one travels uphill from ocean to river to headwater streams.   Humans have an estimated 60,000 to 100,000 miles of blood vessels, compared to Virginia’s approximately 100,000 miles of rivers and streams.  Finally, blood’s components are mostly water: plasma is a solution of water and many biochemicals, mixed with water-based red and white blood cells and with platelets.  As a result, blood in the human system has water’s physical and chemical properties for transporting materials and regulating heat, like water does within ecosystems.

Cells and transported substances make blood “thicker” than water, just as the saying goes.  But the water we borrow temporarily from the global water cycle is at the chemical and physical heart of blood and the circulatory system’s vital functions.

Thanks to staff at the New River Valley Donor Center for participating in this episode, and thanks to Soundbible.com for making the heartbeat sound available for public use.

SOUND - ~3 seconds

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is a revised repeat of Episode 236, 10-20-14, which has been archived.

The human heartbeat sound was recorded by Mike Koenig and made available (9/14/09 upload) online at the Soundbible.com Web site, http://soundbible.com/1001-Heartbeat.html, for public use under the Creative Commons license “Attribution 3.0”; for more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/; information on the Attribution License specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.

Other sounds heard in this episode were recorded at the American Red Cross New River Donor Center in Blacksburg, Virginia, during an October 19, 2014, platelet donation by Virginia Water Radio host Alan Raflo.  Thanks to the staff at the Donor Center for their help and for allowing the sound recording. For information about blood and platelet donations, please visit the American Red Cross’ “Donating Blood” Web site at http://www.redcrossblood.org/donating-blood.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS


Two photos above: Blood plasma (upper) and platelets (lower) from a platelet donation at the American Red Cross New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Va., in October 2014.

Dracula gives back at the New River Valley Donor Center in Blacksburg, Va., October 29, 2017.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Adrian Bejan, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2000.

Cleveland Clinic, “Heart & Blood Vessels: How Does Blood Travel Through Your Body,” online at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/heart-blood-vessels-blood-flow-body.

The Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Penn., “Blood Vessels,” online at https://www.fi.edu/heart/blood-vessels.

Leslie Mertz, The Circulatory System, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 2004.

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, “Smooth or Wiggly Blood Vessel Shape Reveals Disease,” 8/31/09, online at https://www.nibib.nih.gov/news-events/newsroom/smooth-or-wiggly-blood-vessel-shape-reveals-disease.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Draft 2016 305(b)/303(d) Water Quality Assessment Integrated Report,” Chapter 2: State Background Information; available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterQualityInformationTMDLs/WaterQualityAssessments/2016305b303dIntegratedReport.aspx.

For More Information about Blood and Circulatory Systems

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Blood Safety,” online at http://www.cdc.gov/bloodsafety/.

Idaho Public Television, “Blood: Facts,” online at http://idahoptv.org/sciencetrek/topics/blood/facts.cfm.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, “Facts About Blood and Blood Cells,” online at https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/patient-education/facts-about-blood-and-blood-cells.

U.S. National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Module, “Leukemia/Anatomy,” online at http://training.seer.cancer.gov/leukemia/anatomy/.

U.S. National Institutes of Health/National Library of Medicine, “Blood, Heart and Circulation,” online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bloodheartandcirculation.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Science” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes focusing on human biology:
Episode 93, 12/19/11 – water in the human nervous system.
Episode 287, 10/26/15 – water and the human skeleton.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
3.9 – Water cycle, including sources of water, energy driving water cycle, water essential for living things, and water limitations and conservation.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.3 – cellular organization, including cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.2 – water chemistry and its impact on life processes.
BIO.4 – life functions (including metabolism and homeostasis) in different organism groups, including human health, anatomy, and body systems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOL:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 23, 2017

Episode 391 (10-23-17): American Coot


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:39).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-20-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 23, 2017.

This week, we feature a feathered, floating mystery sound.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds, and see if you can guess what’s making these clucks, clacks, and cackles.  And here’s a rhyming hint: it sounds nothing like a flute; dives for a root or a shoot; acts towards other birds a bit like a brute; and has a name completing this rhyme, to boot!

SOUNDS - ~11 sec

If you guessed an American Coot, you’re right!  The American Coot is the only North American species of several coots found around the world.   It’s categorized in the family of rails, gallinules, and coots, and it’s considered the most abundant and most aquatic member of that family in North America.

Watery habitats, clucking calls, and an appearance described as chicken-like help give coots the nickname of “Mud Hen.”  In Virginia, the American Coot occurs in almost all counties, in a variety of freshwater habitats in the summer and in both freshwater and saltwater during the winter.  During migration and in winter, coots can be seen in large flocks, and such groupings are called various interesting names, including a “raft,” “codgery,” or “commotion.”  Coots are poor flyers and require long running and splashing take-offs, lending them another nickname of “spatterers.”  In the water, though, coots are skillful swimmers and divers, feeding on aquatic plants and algae and on small animal prey acquired from the surface or underwater; they’re also known to steal plants brought to the surface by diving ducks.  Coots may feed on certain crops, earning them a reputation in some areas as an agricultural pest.

Not beautiful, not a songster, a food thief saddled with a funny name—coots aren’t well-loved or widely respected.  But they’re an ecologically well-adapated and widespread component of many North American aquatic habitats.  And as Cornell University’s “All About Birds” Web site notes, “The waterborne American Coot is one good reminder that not everything that floats is a duck.”

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and we let the American Coot have the last call.

SOUND - ~4 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463.  Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The sounds of the American Coot were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

American Coot painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plate CCXXXIX [239]), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York. Photo taken October 20, 2017, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries. Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance. Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.
A flock--or raft, codgery, commotion, or several other names--of American Coots, photographed in Alaska. Photo by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, made available for public use by the Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 10-19-17; URL for specific image was http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/natdiglib/id/3975/rec/1.
Seasonal county distribution of American Coot in Virginia as of August 2005, according to the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Map accessed online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?Menu=_.Occurrence&bova=040113&version=17458.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT AMERICAN COOTS


The scientific name of the American Coot is Fulica americana.

Here are some points about the American Coot, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/American Coot,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040113&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17458.

Physical Description

“Length = 15 inches; slatey with dark, small head and neck, brown-black back, small whitish bill and frontal shield, white undertail and on trailing edge of wings; feet are green and lobed.”

Reproduction

“The breeding season in Virginia is May-September. …Breeding behavior very territorial… Year-round defense is well documented in coots.”

Diet

“Consists primarily of aquatic vegetation (often pirates plants such as wild celery from foraging ducks) such as algae, potamogetons, water milfoil, burreed, and chara.  Will also feed on fish, tadpoles, crustaceans, snails, worms, insects, and eggs from other marsh nesting birds.  Coots pirate food from other species, especially waterfowl, but are also victims of piracy. … They are also commensal feeders picking up leftovers from other species such as dabbling ducks.”

Nesting

“This species tends to nest in a shallow platform of dead leaves and stems of marsh plants moored to clump of reeds or cattails….  [B]oth parents incubate, brood, and feed young (male may take on greater brooding duties); parents often chauffeur young on their back.”

Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations

“Predators include bald eagle and young may fall prey to turtles, bass and water snakes.”

Habitat

“Freshwater marshes, ponds, wet meadows, lakes, reservoirs, sewage lagoons, marshy borders of creeks and rivers with abundant emergent vegetation.  Winter in ice-free fresh and brackish marshes along the coast.”

Animal or Plant Associations

“Cover vegetation may include cattail, softstem, bulrush, hardstem, sedge, willow, burreed.  Known to occupy habitats that may otherwise be occupied by waterfowl.”

SOURCES

Used in Audio

John James Audubon, “American Coot,” from Birds of America (1827-1838), Plate 239, accessed at the Audubon Web site, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/american-coot.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. American Coot entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/American_Coot/id.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Coot,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/coot.

Larry Jordan, The Birders Report, “American Coots Take Off” (December 11, 2012), online at https://thebirdersreport.com/wild-birds/american-coots-take-off.

Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md. (2006).

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, N.Y., 2001.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/McNary National Wildlife Refuge (Washington), “American Coots” (as of April 2015), online at https://www.fws.gov/refuge/McNary/Wildlife_Habitat/Coots.html.

Valerie Van Way, “Approaches to Coot Management in California,” Proceedings of the Twelfth Vertebrate Pest Conference, March 1986, online at http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=vpc12.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/American Coot,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040113&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17458.

For More Information about Birds in Virginia or Elsewhere

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at http://ebird.org/content/ebird/.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site at http://www.xeno-canto.org/. The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Birds subject category.

Episode 165, 6/10/13 gives an overview of the bird family of rails, gallinules, and coots in Virginia.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 English SOLs:

Reading Theme
8.4, 9.3, 10.3, 11.3, and 12.3 – knowledge of word origins, analogies, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development within authentic texts.

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.

Biology Course
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Episode 390 (10-16-17): History on the York River, Featuring “The Surrender of Cornwallis” by Bobby Horton


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:21).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-16-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 19, 2017.

MUSIC – ~12 sec

This week, in an updated episode from 2012, we feature music to commemorate a turning point in history that occurred beside Virginia’s York River on October 19th, 1781.  Have a listen for about a minute.

MUSIC - ~59 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “The Surrender of Cornwallis,” performed by Bobby Horton on the 2008 album “Homespun Songs of the Patriots in the American Revolution.”  Yorktown was established on the York River in 1691, following habitation of the area by Native Americans for many centuries.  By the time of the Revolutionary War, Yorktown was a busy port.  In 1781, Charles Cornwallis led Great Britain’s southern army to Yorktown to establish a stronghold where the army could be reinforced or, if necessary, evacuated by the British navy. I nstead, the British troops became trapped when American forces under George Washington and French forces marched to Yorktown from New York, and French warships blockaded the lower Chesapeake Bay after defeating British ships in the September 5 “Battle of the Capes,” on the Bay between Virginia’s Cape Henry and Cape Charles.  A three-week siege of Yorktown ended with Cornwallis’ surrender on October 19, helping lead to the end of the war in 1783.

The battle severely damaged Yorktown, which was again damaged in the War of 1812 and the Civil War, and Yorktown never regained its former prominence as a port.  But since the 1930s, historic preservation, research, and interpretation efforts—including the opening in 2017 of the American Revolution Museum at Yorktown—have made this small, 300-year-old, Virginia riverside town an American Revolution destination.

Thanks to Bobby Horton for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “The Surrender of Cornwallis.”

MUSIC - ~ 10 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode is a updated repeat of Episode 103 (3-9-12), which has been archived.

“Homespun Songs of the Patriots in the American Revolution” and its version of “The Surrender of Cornwallis” are copyright by Bobby Horton, used with permission.  “The Surrender of Cornwallis” is also heard (along with two other musical selections) in Episode 229, 9-1-14, on National Park Service units.  More information about Mr. Horton is available online at http://bobbyhorton.com/; information about “Homespun Songs of the Patriots in the American Revolution” is available online at https://www.bobbyhorton.com/music/homespun-songs-patriots/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS
The York River, with Yorktown in the background, June 27, 2017.   U.S. Geological Survey public domain photo by Hayley Austin, accessed online at https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/york-river-york-county-virginia.
Victory Monument and a Slippery Elm tree at Yorktown Battlefied/Colonial National Historical Park.  Photo by Linda Williams for the National Park Service, accessed online at https://www.nps.gov/york/planyourvisit/hours.htm.

The Moore House at Yorktown, the location where the terms of the British army surrender were negotiated among the Americans, British, and French on October 18, 1781.  National Park Service photo, accessed at https://www.nps.gov/york/learn/historyculture/moore-house.htm.
Surrender Field at the Yorktown Battlefied/Colonial National Historic Park, the site where Charles Cornwallis’ British army surrendered on October 19, 1781.  National Park Service photo, accessed at https://www.nps.gov/colo/learn/photosmultimedia/photogallery.htm (“Yorktown Battlefield” tab).

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Census Viewer, “Yorktown, Virginia, Population,” online at http://censusviewer.com/city/VA/Yorktown.

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Siege of Yorktown,”, online at https://www.britannica.com/event/Siege-of-Yorktown.

Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation/Jamestown and American Revolution Settlement Museum at Yorktown, “Grand Opening Celebration of the American Revolution Museum at Yorktown March 23-April 4, 2017,” online at https://www.historyisfun.org/grandopening/.

National Park Service, “Colonial National Historic Park Photo Gallery, online at https://www.nps.gov/colo/learn/photosmultimedia/photogallery.htm.

National Park Service, “Yorktown Battlefield—Part of Colonial National Historial Park,” online at https://www.nps.gov/york/index.htm.

National Park Service, “Yorktown Battlefield/Battle of the Capes” (updated 2/26/15), online at https://www.nps.gov/york/learn/historyculture/battle-of-the-capes.htm.

National Park Service, “Yorktown Victory Monument,” online at https://www.nps.gov/york/learn/historyculture/vicmon.htm.

Russell S. Perkins, “Yorktown Campaign,” The Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington, online at http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/yorktown-campaign/, accessed 10/10/17.

York County, Va., Department of Community Services/Division of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, “Visit Yorktown Virginia,” online at http://www.visityorktown.org/.

Yorktown Preservation Society, “Yorktown Timeline,” online at http://ypsva.org/yorktown-timeline/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the History subject category.

Other episodes featuring music about rivers and other water bodies in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars are the following:
Revolutionary War – Episode 168, 7/1/13; EP220 – 6/30/14; Episode 273, 7/6/15; EP331 – 8/29/16;
Civil War – Episode 101, 3/5/12; Episode 104, 3/26/12; Episode 164, 6/3/13; EP201 – 2/17/14.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.5 – role of Virginia in the American Revolution.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.
USI.6 – causes, people, and results of the American Revolution.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.

Monday, October 9, 2017

Episode 389 (10-9-17): Fire Prevention Week Helps Fight Fires with Education and Preparedness


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:31).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, an image, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 10-6-17.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of October 9, 2017.

This week, we feature a series of safety-oriented mystery sounds.   Have a listen for about 25 seconds, and see if you can guess the dangerous phenomenon for which water is the usual remedy.

SOUNDS - ~25 sec

If you guessed fire, you’re right!   You heard a home smoke alarm, a dormitory fire alarm, and a fire-hydrant pressure test.  All are aspects of the constant and complicated challenge of preventing fires or protecting people and property when fires do occur.

Fire safety by individuals, families, businesses, and communities is the focus Fire Prevention Week, which in 2017 runs October 8-14. Sponsored annually since 1922 by the National Fire Protection Association, or NFPA, the observance always includes October 9, the date when the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 did most of its damage.  NFPA sets a central theme for each year—this year it’s “Every Second Counts: Plan 2 Ways Out”—and provides many educational items, particularly for school children.

One of the learning tools this year is a fire-safety quiz; here are five key messages from that quiz: *From 2010 to 2014, 84 percent of fire deaths in the U.S. occurred in one-family or two-family homes;
*Unattended cooking is the leading cause of home fires;
*Once a home smoke alarm sounds, there may be less than two minutes to escape;
*A home fire-escape plan should include working smoke alarms, two ways out of each room, and an outside meeting place; and
*During a fire in a typical building, react immediately, get ouside, and stay outside.

The quiz and other educational resources are available online at nfpa.org; resources particularly for pre-K to grade 5 children are available at sparkyschoolhouse.org.

During Fire Prevention Week and all year round, education and preparedness can help reduce the times we hear this sound:

SOUND – ~ 7 sec - fire engine siren and horn

Thanks to Freesound.org for the dormitory alarm and fire engine sounds. We close with about 25 seconds of music to remind children of what to do in a house fire.  Here’s part of “Little Rosalie,” by SteveSongs, courtesy of the National Fire Protection Association.

MUSIC - ~28 sec

SHIP’S BELL

For more Virginia water sounds, music, and information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call us at (540) 231-5463. Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close the show. In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The hydrant pressure-test sound was recording on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg on March 10, 2017.  Thanks to the Virginia Tech Facilities Department and to Liberty Fire Solutions of Salem, Va., for allowing Virginia Water Radio to record and photograph the testing and for providing  information about the test.  See the Images section below for a photo and more information.

The Dormitory fire alarm sound (dated May 13, 2008) was recorded by user user guitarguy1985 and made available for public use by Freesound.org, online at https://freesound.org/people/guitarguy1985/sounds/53448/, under the Creative Commons 0 License (no copyright). The fire engine sound (dated April 6, 2016) was recorded by user logancircle2 and made available for public use by Freesound.org, online at https://freesound.org/people/logancircle2/sounds/342182/, also under the Creative Commons 0 License. For more information on Creative Commons licenses, please see http://creativecommons.org/; information on the 0 License specifically is online at https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0.

“Little Rosalie” is copyright by SteveSongs (Steve Roslonek) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), used with permission of the NFPA. The full 5 min./1 sec. video is available at the NFPA’s “Sparky School House” Web site, online at http://sparkyschoolhouse.org/. More information about SteveSongs is available online at http://www.stevesongs.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES
Fire-hydrant pressure testing by a staff member of the Virginia Tech Facilities Department on the campus in Blacksburg, March 10, 2017. The test was to see whether sprinklers in a nearby building would have enough pressure to function in the case of the hydrant being used fully during a fire.
The National Fire Protection Association’s logo for Fire Prevention Week in 2017, available online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Campaigns/Fire-Prevention-Week/Promoting-FPW/Campaign-logo, ©NFPA.
 
 
 
Three photos above: historic fire-fighting equipment on display at the Blacksburg, Va., Volunteer Fire Department’s Prices Fork Road station, October 7, 2017.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA):
“About Fire Prevention Week,” online at http://www.nfpa.org/public-education/campaigns/fire-prevention-week/about-fire-prevention-week;
“Public Education,” online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education (this pages offers links to many public education tools, such as safety tip sheets, school lesson plans, and information targeted to specific kinds of buildings);
“Promoting Fire Prevention Week,” online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Campaigns/Fire-Prevention-Week/Promoting-FPW;
“Sparky School House,” online at http://sparkyschoolhouse.org/;
“Teaching Fire Prevention Week,” online at online at http://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Campaigns/Fire-Prevention-Week/Teaching-FPW.
NPFA You Tube channel, online at https://www.youtube.com/user/nfpadotorg.

Virginia Department of Fire Programs, online at https://www.vafire.com/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the Weather/Natural Disasters subject category.

Following are links to some other episodes on safety issues.
Boating safety – Episode 270, 6/15/15 (Operation Dry Water and Boating Under the Influence).
Episode 370, 5/29/17
(Safe Boating Week).
Dock safety – Episode 131, 10/8/12.
Earthquake drills – Episode 388, 10/2/17.
Flash flooding – Episode 328, 8/8/16.
Storm surge – Episode 385 – 9/11/17.
Tornado preparedness – Episode 358, 3/6/17.
Tropical storm preparedness – Episode 369, 5/22/17.
Weather watch/warning messages – Episode 106, 4/9/12.
Winter preparedness – Episode 344, 11/28/16.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs:

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10 - impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
K.10 – good citizenship.
1.10 – good citizenship.
2.11 – good citizenship.
3.11 – good citizenship.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.1 – skills for responsible citizenship.

World Geography Course
WG.1 – skills for responsible citizenship.

Government Course
GOVT.1 – skills for responsible citizenship.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to previous Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 249 (1-19-15) - on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 250 (1-26-15) - on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade;
Episode 255 (3-2-15) - on density, for 5th and 6th grade;
Episode 282 (9-21-15) - on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) - on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.