Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Episode 474 (5-27-19): Andrea in May Announces Atlantic Tropical Storm Season 2019

Click to listen to episode (4:54).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).
Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-24-19.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 27, 2019.

MUSIC - ~ 9 sec

That music is part of “Driving Rain,” by the Nelson County- and Charlottesville, Va.-based band Chamomile and Whiskey.  It’s the backdrop this week for our annual call-out of the planned names of a bunch of soggy, windy, and generally unruly potential summer and fall visitors.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds, and see if you can guess what’s being named.

GUEST VOICES - ~29 sec – Andrea.  Barry.  Chantal.  Dorian.  Erin.  Fernand.  Gabrielle.  Humberto.  Imelda.  Jerry.  Karen.  Lorenzo.  Melissa.  Nestor; Olga.  Pablo.  Rebekah.  Sebastien.  Tanya.  Van.  Wendy.

If you guessed tropical storms or hurricanes, you’re right!  You heard the names planned for the 2019 Atlantic basin tropical storm season.  The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic tropical storm season runs officially from June 1 through November 30.  But tropical weather doesn’t always abide by the official dates.  For the past four years in the Atlantic basin, named storms have occurred before June 1: Hurricane Alex in mid-January 2016; Tropical Storm Arlene in April 2017; Subtropical Storm Alberto in late May 2018; and this year, Subtropical Storm Andrea, which developed on May 20.

Tropical storms and hurricanes are two categories of tropical cyclones—rotating storm systems that start in tropical or sub-tropical latitudes.  A tropical cyclone is called a tropical storm—and gets a name—when sustained wind speeds reach 39 miles per hour; at 74 miles per hour, a tropical cyclone is considered a hurricane.  Tropical depressions—with wind speeds below 39 miles per hour—don’t get names, but they can still bring heavy rainfall and flooding.  Hurricane-force storms are called simply tropical cyclones in some parts of the world and called typhoons in other parts.

[Editor's note on the audio: The audio states that tropical depressions don’t get names. That’s true for a system that never gets above tropical depression level.  But a tropical depression that previously was at tropical storm or hurricane wind speed will in fact have a name associated with it.]

Before a tropical system of any speed or name barges into the Old Dominion, here are some important preparedness steps you can take:
Make a written emergency plan, including an evacuation plan;
Assemble an emergency kit of food, water, and supplies:
Prepare your home for high winds: and
Establish ways to stay informed, especially if the power goes out.

Detailed safety tips for hurricanes and other severe weather are available from the “Safety” link at the National Weather Service Web site, www.weather.gov.  While the Weather Service’s “Hurricane Preparedness Week” for 2019 was May 5-11, right now is still a good time to start getting ready for the next tropical cyclone!

Thanks to 11 Virginia Tech faculty, staff, and students for lending their voices to this episode.  Thanks also to Chamomile and Whiskey for permission to this week’s music, and—while hoping this Atlantic tropical storm season doesn’t drive anyone too hard—we close with a few more seconds of “Driving Rain.”

MUSIC - ~ 12 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The 2019 Atlantic tropical cyclone names were called out by 11 Virginia Tech faculty, staff, and students on May 16-17, 2019.  Virginia Water Radio thanks those people for participating in this episode.

“Driving Rain,” from the 2012 album “The Barn Sessions,” is copyright by Chamomile and Whiskey and by County Wide Records, used with permission.  More information about Chamomile and Whiskey is available online at http://www.chamomileandwhiskey.com/, and information about Charlottesville-based County Wide records is available online at http://countywidemusic.worldsecuresystems.com/.  “Driving Rain” is also used in the following Virginia Water Radio episodes: 291 (11-23-15), 401 (1-1-18), and 451 (12-17-18).

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES

Names and tracks of Atlantic basin tropical cyclones (depressions, storms, and hurricanes) in 2018, according to the National Hurricane Center, online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/index.php?season=2018&basin=atl.



Tropical Depression Andrea in the Atlantic Ocean west of Florida, May 21, 2019. Photo from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Hurricane Center, accessed online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/gtwo.php?basin=atlc&fdays=2, 5/21/19, 10:40 a.m. EDT.

EXTRA INFORMATION

On Tropical Cyclone Preparedness

The following information is quoted from the National Weather Service’s “Hurricane Preparedness Week 2019” list of tips for each day of a week, online at http://www.weather.gov/wrn/hurricane-preparedness#prepweek.

Day 1 - Determine your risk.
Find out today what types of wind and water hazards could happen where you live, and then start preparing now for how to handle them. Hurricanes are not just a coastal problem. Their impacts can be felt hundreds of miles inland. It’s easy to forget what a hurricane is capable of doing.

Day 2 - Develop an evacuation plan.
The first thing you need to do is find out if you live in a storm surge hurricane evacuation zone or if you’re in a home that would be unsafe during a hurricane. If you are, figure out where you’d go and how you’d get there if told to evacuate. You do not need to travel hundreds of miles. Identify someone, perhaps a friend or relative who doesn’t live in a zone or unsafe home, and work it out with them to use their home as your evacuation destination. Be sure to account for your pets, as most local shelters do not permit them. Put the plan in writing for you and those you care about.

Day 3 - Assemble disaster supplies.
You’re going to need supplies not just to get through the storm but for the potentially lengthy and unpleasant aftermath. Have enough non-perishable food, water and medicine to last each person in your family a minimum of one week. Electricity and water could be out for at least that long. You’ll need extra cash, a battery-powered radio and flashlights. Many of us have cell phones, and they all run on batteries. You’re going to need a portable, crank, or solar-powered USB charger.

Day 4 - Secure an insurance check-up.
Call your insurance company or agent and ask for an insurance check-up to make sure you have enough homeowners insurance to repair or even replace your home. Don’t forget coverage for your car or boat. Remember, standard homeowners insurance doesn’t cover flooding. Whether you’re a homeowner or renter, you’ll need a separate policy for it, and it’s available through your company, agent or the National Flood Insurance Program at www.floodsmart.gov. Act now as flood insurance requires a 30-day waiting period.

Day 5 - Strengthen your home.
If you plan to ride out the storm in your home, make sure it is in good repair and up to local hurricane building code specifications. Many of these retrofits do not cost much or take as long to do as you may think. Have the proper plywood, steel or aluminum panels to board up the windows and doors. Remember, the garage door is the most vulnerable part of the home, so it must be able to withstand the winds.

Day 6 - Check on your neighbor.
Many Americans rely on their neighbors after a disaster, but there are also many ways you can help your neighbors before a hurricane approaches. Learn about all the different actions you and your neighbors can take to prepare and recover from the hazards associated with hurricanes.

Day 7 - Complete your written hurricane plan.
The time to prepare for a hurricane is before the season begins, when you have the time and are not under pressure. If you wait until a hurricane is on your doorstep, the odds are that you will be under duress and will make the wrong decisions. Take the time now to write down your hurricane plan. Know where you will ride out the storm and get your supplies now. You don’t want to be standing in long lines when a hurricane warning is issued. Those supplies that you need will probably be sold out by the time you reach the front of the line. Being prepared, before a hurricane threatens, makes you resilient to the hurricane impacts of wind and water. It will mean the difference between your being a hurricane victim and a hurricane survivor.

On Tropical Cyclone Names

The following information is quoted from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Tropical Cyclone Names,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames.shtml.

“Since 1953, Atlantic tropical storms had been named from lists originated by the National Hurricane Center. They are now maintained and updated through a strict procedure by an international committee of the World Meteorological Organization [online at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/].

“[Six lists] are used in rotation and re-cycled every six years, i.e., the 2019 list will be used again in 2025. The only time that there is a change in the list is if a storm is so deadly or costly that the future use of its name on a different storm would be inappropriate for reasons of sensitivity. If that occurs, then at an annual meeting by the WMO committee (called primarily to discuss many other issues) the offending name is stricken from the list and another name is selected to replace it. Several names have been retired since the lists were created. [More information on the history of naming tropical cyclones and retired names is available online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames_history.shtml.]

“If a storm forms in the off-season, it will take the next name in the list based on the current calendar date. For example, if a tropical cyclone formed on December 28th, it would take the name from the previous season's list of names. If a storm formed in February, it would be named from the subsequent season's list of names.  In the event that more than twenty-one named tropical cyclones occur in the Atlantic basin in a season, additional storms will take names from the Greek alphabet.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), “NASA Provides in-Depth Analysis of Unusual Tropical Storm Alex,” 1/15/16, online at http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/alex-atlantic-ocean.

National Hurricane Center (NHC):
Main Web page, online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/. This site provides bulletins, maps, and other information on tropical storms as they are occurring.
“Glossary,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutgloss.shtml. This site includes the wind-scale designations for tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane.
“Hurricane Preparedness Week,” online at https://www.weather.gov/wrn/hurricane-preparedness#prepweek.
“NHC Data Archive,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/.
“Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshws.php.
“Subtropical Storm Alberto,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2018/ALBERTO.shtml?.
“Subtropical Depression Andrea,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/graphics_at1.shtml?start#contents.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA):
“NOAA predicts near-normal 2019 Atlantic hurricane season,” 5/23/19, online at https://www.noaa.gov/media-release/noaa-predicts-near-normal-2019-atlantic-hurricane-season.
“Tropical Cyclone Names,” online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutnames.shtml.
“What’s the difference between a hurricane and a typhoon?” online at https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/cyclone.html.

National Weather Service:
“Hurricane Safety Tips and Resources,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane.
“Tropical Cyclone Climatology,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/climo/.

For More Information on Tropical Cyclones and Emergency Preparedness

American Red Cross, “Hurricane Safety,” online at http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/hurricane.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), “Hurricanes,” online at http://www.ready.gov/hurricanes.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center, “Atlantic Hurricane Outlook and Summary Archive,” http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/outlooks/hurricane-archive.shtml.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management “Know Your Zone” Web site for evacuation planning, online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/hurricane-evacuation-zone-lookup/.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “VDOT and Emergency Response” (including hurricane evacuation information), online at http://www.virginiadot.org/about/emer_response.asp.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes on tropical cyclones.

Episode 134, 10/29/12 – Hurricane Sandy and storm surge.
Episode 163, 5/27/13 – annual season-preview episode.
Episode 215, 5/26/14 – annual season-preview episode, with storm names for 2014.
Episode 226, 8/11/14 – mid-season update.
Episode 266, 5/18/15 – annual season-preview episode, with storm names for 2015.
Episode 317, 5/27/16 – annual season-preview episode, with storm names for 2016.
Episode 330, 8/22/16 – mid-season update.
Episode 337, 10/10/16 – Hurricane Matthew and storm surge.
Episode 345, 12/5/16 – season-review episode.
Episode 369, 5/22/17 – annual season-preview episode, with storm names for 2017;
Episode 385, 9/11/17 – Hurricane Irma and storm surge.
Episode 423, 6/2/18 – annual season-preview episode, with storm names for 2018.
Episode 438, 9/17/18 – basic hurricane facts and history.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth/Space Interrelationships Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
5.6 – characteristics of the ocean environment.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Grades K-6 Matter Theme
6.6 – Properties of air (including pressure, temperature, and humidity) and structure/dynamics of earth’s atmosphere.

Life Science Course
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.11 – origin, evolution, and dynamics of the atmosphere, including human influences on climate.
ES.12 – energy, atmosphere, weather, and climate.

Biology Course
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Episode 473 (5-20-19): Water in Shenandoah National Park, Featuring "Big Run Thrives" by Timothy Seaman


Click to listen to episode (4:30).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-17-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 20, 2019.

MUSIC – ~7 sec

This week, that music opens an episode on water and other aspects of one of Virginia’s natural treasures.  Have a listen for about 20 more seconds.

SOUNDS - ~22 sec

You’ve been listening to part of “Big Run Thrives,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., from the 1997 album, “Here On This Ridge.”  The song refers to the Big Run watershed in Rockingham County, within Shenandoah National Park.  The album is Mr. Seaman’s celebration of Shenandoah National Park, which comprises over 197,000 acres in eight Virginia counties along the Blue Ridge.

According to Dennis Simmons, in a 1978 Ph.D. dissertation, the conception and establishment of the park between 1924 and 1936 was a story of conservation, cooperation among many private interests and government officials, and controversy over displacement of people who had lived for generations on land to be included in the park.  Today the park story includes tourism, scenery, history, geology, plants and animals, dark skies, air-quality issues, climate-change issues, and, not least, water.

The park has about 90 perennial streams, flowing from the Blue Ridge into the drainages of the James, Rappahannock, and Shenandoah Rivers.  The streams typically run down a steep elevation change, leading to riffles, pools, rapids, and waterfalls.  The mountainous elevation and tree shading of many of the streams result in cold water temperatures, making them suitable for native Brook Trout.  Other aquatic life in the park includes about 40 fish species, 24 amphibian species, aquatic and wetland plants, many stream-dwelling insects and other invertebrates, and water-related reptiles, birds, and mammals.  Despite their protection within a national park, Shenandoah’s waters have long been affected by air pollutants, particularly those that have led to acidification.  Accordingly, air quality and water-quality monitoring have been conducted since the 1970s, led now by the University of Virginia’s Shenandoah Watershed Survey and Trout Stream Sensitivity Survey.

High, fast-flowing, and ecologically important, Shenandoah National Park’s waters attract anglers, scientists, musicians, and—if you’re in that area—maybe you.

Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Big Run Thrives.”

MUSIC – ~20 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Big Run Thrives,” from the 1997 Album “Here on This Ridge,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  According to the composer, the piece was inspired by his observations of regrowth in the watershed about 10 years after a wildlife in the 1980s.  Information about the making of the album is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/timothys-blog/entry/the-making-of-our-album-here-on-this-ridge.  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

A pool in Big Run in Shenandoah National Park.  Photo by Hugh Crandall, from “The Nature of Shenandoah,” by Napier Shelton, National Park Service Natural History Series, 1975.  Photo accessed online at http://npshistory.com/centennial/1216/photos.htm, 5/20/19.


Thornton River, Shenandoah National Park, Rappahannock.County, Va., June 19, 2006.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Ronald L. Heinemann, “Shenandoah National Park,” Jan. 18, 2012, Virginia Humanities’ Encyclopedia Virginia, online at https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Shenandoah_National_Park#start_entry.

National Park Service:
“Annual Visitation Highlights,” online at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/annual-visitation-highlights.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/History,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/historyculture/index.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/Management,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/management/index.htm; “Shenandoah National Park/Nature,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/index.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/ “Nature/Animals,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/animals.htm [check lists are available here];
“Shenandoah National Park/ “Nature/Environmental Factors,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/environmentalfactors.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/ “Nature/Fish,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/fish.htm;
“Shenandoah National Park/Water,” online at https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/water.htm.

The Scientific Fisherman, “Temperature Classifications of Fish,” online at http://thescientificfisherman.com/temperature-classifications-of-fish/.

Timothy Seaman, “The making of our album ‘Here on this Ridge,’ 9/4/14, online at https://timothyseaman.com/en/timothys-blog/entry/the-making-of-our-album-here-on-this-ridge.

Dennis E. Simmons, “Conservation, Cooperation, and Controversy: The Establishment of Shenandoah National Park, 1924-1936,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 89, NO. 4 (Oct. 1981), pp. 387-404; accessed online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/4248512.  According to the author, this article is a distillation of his 1978 Ph.D. dissertation, “Creation of Shenandoah National Park and the Skyline Drive, 1924-1936,” done at the University of Virginia.

University of Virginia Department of Environmental Sciences, “Shenandoah Watershed Survey and Virginia Trout Stream Sensitivity Study,” online at http://people.virginia.edu/~alr8m/POST/scripts/overview.php; and “Mountain Stream Symposium II: Continuing Challenges for Critical Ecosystems,” online at http://people.virginia.edu/~alr8m/POST/scripts/mss2.php.

For More Information about Big Run and Other Areas in Shenandoah National Park

HikingUpward.com, “Big Run/Shenandoah National Park,” online at https://www.hikingupward.com/SNP/BigRun/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia Bird and Wildlife Trail/Mountain Region/Skyline Drive,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/vbwt/mountain-trail/MSD/.

Virginia Trail Guide, “Big Run Loop,” online at https://virginiatrailguide.com/2009/11/15/big-run-loop/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “River, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes with information on Shenandoah National Park.
Episode 229 - 9/1/14 – on Virginia and the National Park Service System.
Episode 230 – 9/8/14 – on air pollution and water.
Episode 231 – 9/15/14 – on climate change basics.
Episode 339 – 10/24/16 – on the Hazel River in Rappahannock and Culpeper counties.

Following are links to some other episodes on the Blue Ridge area of Virginia.
Episode 192 – 12/16/13 – on the Rockfish River, with “Blue Ridge Girl” by Chamomile and Whiskey.
Episode 209 – 4/14/14 – on three major watersheds starting on the Blue Ridge.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decisions, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystems.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.6 – ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.2 – physical geography and native peoples of Virginia past and present.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.2 – major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.
WG.3 – how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.4 – types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources.
WG.18 – cooperation among political jurisdictions to solve problems and settle disputes.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.
GOVT.15 – role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Episode 472 (5-13-19): Mallards are Widespread, Well-known Waterfowl

Click to listen to episode (4:11).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-10-19.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 13, 2019.

SOUND – ~8 sec – Mallard quack

This week, that raucous sound opens an episode about the most abundant species of waterfowl in North America.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds to these mystery sounds, and see if you know this bird.  And here’s a hint: the green mineral malachite reveals both the first part of this bird’s name and the color of the males’ head.

SOUNDS - ~22 sec – various Mallard sounds

If you guessed the Mallard, you’re right!  This relatively large duck is found throughout North America and also breeds in Asia, Australia, and Europe; moreover, the species is the source of all domestic ducks, excluding the Muscovy Duck.  Male Mallards are notable for their green head, reddish breast, and white neck ring, while the females have a less conspicuous mottled brown coloration.  Both sexes, however, have a distinctive blue wing patch, or speculum.  While males have the brighter colors, the females make the loud, recognizable quacks.

Mallards inhabit a wide variety of habitats, including wetlands, ponds, lakes, estuaries, parks, meadows, and agricultural fields.  They nest in shallow depressions on the ground, concealed by tall grasses or other plants.  On the water, Mallards feed by dabbling, that is, tipping forward and dunking their head to grasp aquatic plants.  On land, they’ll graze on natural or cultivated vegetation and they’ll prey upon various insects, worms, and other invertebrates.

The species has become common and adapted to humans in many urban and suburban areas, accepting offers of food and at times stopping traffic as a mother and ducklings cross a street.  In the wild, though, fast-flying Mallards may adroitly avoid humans, as described in this passage from the 1800s by John James Audubon: “Look at that Mallard as he floats on the lake; see his elevated head glittering with emerald-green, his amber eyes glancing in the light!  Even at this distance, he has marked you, and suspects that you bear no good will towards him…. The wary bird draws his feet under his body, springs upon them, opens his wings, and…bids you farewell.”

And we say farewell for now to the bird that the Cornell Lab of Ornithology has called the “standard against which all other ducks are compared.”  If anyone ever asks you to name the most abundant duck in North America, here’s a whimsical way you might answer:

VOICE - ~2 sec – “Mallard!”

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Mallard sounds were recorded by Virginia Water Radio on December 10, 2015, at the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg.

The “Mallard” name call-out was voiced by a Blacksburg, Va., friend of Virginia Water Radio on November 10, 2012.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Mallard painting originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plate 221), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York.  Photo taken May 13, 2019, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance.  Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society, online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.


Female Mallard on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, May 8, 2019.


Male Mallards on Stroubles Creek on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, May 9, 2019.


Female Mallard at Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, April 2008.  Photo by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, made available for public use by the Service's National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/2513/rec/3, accessed 5-13-19.


Male Mallard, location unidentified, April 2008.  Photo by Erwin and Peggy Bauer, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/5184/rec/2, accessed 5-13-19.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT MALLARDS

The scientific name of the Mallard is Anas platyrhynchos.

Here are some points about Mallards, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Mallard,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040051&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18025.

Population

“This is the most abundant duck in North America.  In the northeast over the past 100 years, it has changed from a rare migrant to a major game bird due in part to the release of game-farm birds, and also to expansion east of the breeding range.”

Physical Description

“This is a large surface-feeding duck, with a stocky build.  The adult male has a length of 24.7 inches average and a weight of 2.75 pounds average.  The adult female has an average length of 23.1 inches and an average weight of 2.44 pounds.  The adult male has an uncrested, glossy-green head, white neck ring, reddish brown breast, brownish back, white tail, and dark rump.  It has a yellowish bill, orange feet, violet-blue speculum, and recurved central tail feathers.  The adult female is mottled brown, with a whitish tail, a bill patched with orange, orange feet, and a violet-blue speculum.  In flight, a white bar on each side of speculum evident in both sexes.”

Nesting Habitat and Behavior

“In Virginia on the Coastal Plain, eggs [have been] observed as early as 10 April, with ducklings from 11 May to mid-August. In the Piedmont, young are seen from 27 April through late July.  In the western Mountains and Valleys, many broods are evident in June.  The clutch size is from 6 to 15, usually 7 to 10 with larger clutches laid earlier in the season.  There is usually 1 egg laid daily until the clutch is complete.  They have one brood per year, with re-nesting not uncommon if the first clutch is lost. Incubation is done by the female and lasts 26-30 days. …They begin establishing pair bonds as early as August, although September and October is the usual time.  As males assume nuptial plumages, courtship flights and displays reach a high level of activity continuing through winter and into spring. …Upon arrival at the breeding grounds, the flock breaks up as pairs head to small water areas. …The preferred nest site is upland and the distance to water varies greatly, depending on the availability of nesting cover, from a few feet up to 5 miles, but is usually within 100 yards.  It prefers placing the nest in high vegetation, from 10 to 50 inches tall.  It is not attracted to wooded habitats, but prefers nesting in typical grassland marsh habitat.  Other sites chosen include: marshes with nests built in marsh growth over water, under groupings of American yew and white cedar, on levees, along roadsides, and in hayfields in agricultural areas. …For the nest, the female forms a depression in plant debris or moist soil 7-8 inches across and 1-2 inches deep.  As each egg is laid, more vegetative material and some down is added.”

Food

“They are found grazing in grain fields, marshes, and meadows, dabbling in shallow water, and diving if necessary to obtain food. ...The mallard is fitting well into park situations in urban areas.  [In such areas,] often supplemental food is provided (corn, bread) and by [these areas] offering refuge during hunting season, large numbers [of birds] assemble, especially in the winter.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

John James Aububon, Birds of America, “Mallard Duck,” online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/mallard-duck.

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide/Birds/Mallard,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/mallard.

Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, “All About Birds, online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/.  The Mallard entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Mallard/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online, at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).  The Mallard entry (Introduction) is online at https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/mallar3/introduction.

Oxford University Press, “Oxford Living Dictionaries/malachite,” online at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/malachite; and “speculum,” online at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/speculum.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin’s Press, New York, N.Y., 2001.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Mallard,” online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040051&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=18025.

For More Information on Cormorants or Other Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere

BirdNote®, a daily broadcast/podcast on birds, online at http://birdnote.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “E-bird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  This program was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 440, 10-1-18.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID,” online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.

Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.

Following are links to other episodes using Mallard sounds.

Episode 118, 7/9/12 – A Summertime Virginia Sampler of Birds around Water.
Episode 294, 12/14/15 – A Holidays History of Counting Birds (about the annual Christmas Bird Count).
Episode 322, 6/27/16 – Fish, Wildlife, Habitats, and Human Interactions on the Agenda Since 1916 for the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.
Episode 327, 8/1/16 – A Wetland Walk on a Midsummer Morning.

Following are links to other episodes on ducks.

Episode 136, 11/12/12 – Ducks at the Dance (about ducks in Virginia generally).
Episode 197, 1/20/14 – Canvasback Ducks Dive While Others Dabble.
Episode 303, 2/15/16 – Common Goldeneye's Wings Whistle Over Virginia's Winter Waters.
Episode 398, 12/11/17 – The Green and Blue of Teal.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10 – impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.

Life Science Course
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.

Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, May 7, 2019

Episode 471 (5-6-19): Tuning in to Water Education at Iowa’s "Water Rocks!" Program


Click to listen to episode (5:10).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-3-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of May 6, 2019.

MUSIC – ~ 10 sec – Opening instrumental section of the song “Water Rocks”

This week, that music opens one of a series of occasional episodes on water-related programs outside of the Old Dominion of Virginia.  The focus this week is on the Iowa State University program called Water Rocks!  Water Rocks! is a water-education campaign for youth, using the STEM disciplines—that’s science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—combined with the arts to challenge and inspire Iowans towards a greater appreciation of water resources.  The program employs a variety of tools in support of that goal: teacher-development workshops; classroom visits; school assemblies; traveling conservation trailers; games and other activities; videos; and, not least, music.  Water Rocks! staff and collaborating musicians have written and recorded songs on a range of water-related topics, including watersheds, wetlands, trees, soil, and pollinators.  Let’s have a listen for about 2 minutes to three samples: here are parts of “All About That Bog,” “Hidden Water,” and “Dino Water.”

MUSIC – ~ 1 min/56 sec

“All About That Bog” excerpt lyrics:
“Because you know I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—go wetlands; I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—go wetlands; I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—go wetlands; I’m all about that bog, ‘bout that bog—bog, bog, bog.  Wetlands have many names like swamp, bog, marsh and slough, fen, and myre, the prairie pothole, too.  Wetlands slow down the water, cleansing and filtering—so many jobs they must do.  A swamp or bog or a marsh or a slough….”

“Hidden Water” excerpt lyrics:
“Water is abundant on our planet; from clouds to oceans it runs the gamut.  You find it in lakes, rivers, and streams; a whole lot of water goes unseen.  It’s hidden underground in soil or rocks, across the land, a buried treasure box.  Water fills cracks and open spaces, moves through the earth in porous places.   Hidden water, hidden water, groundwater, hidden water. Hidden, hidden, hidden water….”

“Dino Water” excerpt lyrics:
“It’s our water now; it was the dinosaurs’, too. Velociraptor, T. rex, Pterodactyl, and you.  Cycling its way through the clouds, dinosaurs back then, and me and you now.  Molecules rearrange themselves fast; they do the molecule change-up and the molecule mash.  Talkin’ ‘bout the water, dino water, dino water….”

“The Drinking Song” excerpt lyrics:
“Dig it, swig it, straight from the spigot – it’s H2O, H2O, H2O-O-O; H2O, H2O, H2O-O-O.”



From the Iowa State University campus in Ames, Water Rocks! is aiming to provide Iowa’s three million citizens with information, inspiration, and entertainment about water.  In the process, the Hawkeye State is providing a useful resource to the rest of the country, too.  More information about Water Rocks! is available online at www.waterrocks.org.

Thanks to Water Rocks! for permission to use this week’s music.  We close with one more sample of about 25 seconds, this time from “The Drinking Song.”

MUSIC - ~23 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Water Rocks! songs were provided courtesy of Jacqueline Comito, program executive director, used with permission.  More information about Water Rocks! is available at the program’s Web site, https://www.waterrocks.org/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES





Images above are as follows: Upper - The logo of Iowa State University’s Water Rocks! program; Middle - A photograph of one of the program’s traveling conservation trailers; Lower - The entry page of an online watershed game provided by the program.  All accessed at the program Web site, https://www.waterrocks.org/, and used with permission of Jacqueline Comito, program executive director.

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Iowa State University, “Water Rocks!” online at https://www.waterrocks.org/.

U.S. Census Bureau, “Quick Facts/Iowa,” online at https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/ia.  The July 1, 2018, estimate of Iowa’s population was 3,156,145.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs
SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

English SOLs
8.5, 9.4, 10.4, 11.4 – symbols, imagery, figurative language, and other literary devices.

2010 Science SOLs
Many of Virginia’s water-related Science SOL’s may be supported by the information and educational resources—on a wide range of water-related topics—available at Iowa State University’s “Water Rocks!” Web site, https://www.waterrocks.org/.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.