Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Episode 435 (8-27-18): Virginia's Freshwater Mussels - Part 4: A Clinch River Release of Lab-raised Mussels


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:35)

This is the third episode in a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels. Previous episodes in the series are as follows:
Episode 432, 8/6/18 – Part 1: An Introduction to Mussel Biology and Population Status.
Episode 433, 8/13/18 – Part 2: Fish Hosts and Mussel Mimicry.
Episode 434, 8/20/18 – Part 3: Raising Mussels in a Lab for Life in a River.

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-24-18.
 

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of August 27, 2018.

SOUND/MUSIC – ~15 sec

This week, the sound of the Clinch River and the music of “Clinch Mountain Quickstep,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, open the fourth and final episode in a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels and efforts to restore the populations of these important, filter-feeding components of aquatic environments.  We focus this week on the river-release phase of mussel-restoration efforts.

Virginia’s rivers have given rise to a unique collection of freshwater mussel species, a resource in need of continued scientific study and conservation.  That was an assessment in 2105 by Jess Jones, a biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the director of Virginia Tech’s Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center.  Along with pollution reduction, habitat maintenance, population monitoring, and public education, release of lab-raised mussels is a key component of mussel conservation.  Three mussel hatcheries currently exist in Virginia: the Virginia Tech Center in Blacksburg, the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries’ Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Center in Smyth County, and the Fish and Wildlife Service’s Harrison Lake Fish Hatchery in Charles City County.  Since the 1990s, these three facilities collectively have raised and released into Virginia river thousands of mussels from over two dozen species.

For more details on releasing mussels, have a listen for about 90 seconds to some comments by Jess Jones during a July 2018 release into the Clinch River in Russell County.

SOUNDS AND VOICE - ~94 sec

Freshwater mussel restoration is a long process. Releasing mussels follows 12 to 18 months of work to raise the mussels, and that’s based on years of work to develop lab procedures, assess the outcome of releases, and monitor populations in natural habitats.  With over 20 years of experience, Virginia’s mussel-restoration efforts have notable successes and substantial work yet to do.

We close this four-episode series on freshwater mussels with about 25 seconds of some appropriately titled music: “Renewal,” composed in 2017 by students at World Community Education Center in Bedford, Va., and accompanied instrumentally by members of the group, Sweet Chalybeate.

MUSIC – ~24 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Clinch Mountain Quickstep,” from the 2002 album “Sycamore Rapids,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission. More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://timothyseaman.com/en/.

The freshwater mussel release sounds were recorded in the Clinch River near Bennett Island in Russell County, Va., on July 13, 2018.

“Renewal,” copyright 2017, was written and performed by high school students at World Community Education Center, an independent K-12 school in Bedford, Va., with instrumentals by Anne Elise Thomas and Dan Dunlap; used with permission.  More information about the school is available online at http://worldcommunityedu.org/.  More information about the group Sweet Chalybeate, which includes Anne Elise and Dan, is available online at http://www.sweetchalybeate.com/.

Click here if you’d like to listen to the full (18 min./43 sec.) presentation on freshwater mussels given by Jess Jones on January 13, 2017, to faculty, staff, and students of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. Thanks to Will Pfiel of that college for making a recording of that talk available to Virginia Water Radio.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES


Mussel life cycle. Image from Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.


Clinch River (looking upstream) at Bennett Island in Russell County, Va., July 13, 2018.


Mussels raised at the Virginia Tech Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, prior to release into the Clinch River on July 13, 2018.


Jess Jones, director of the Virginia Tech Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, spreading lab-raised mussels into the Clinch River in Russell County, Va., July 13, 2018.


Discovery of a previously stocked, tagged mussel in the Clinch River in Russell County, Va., July 13, 2018.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT FRESHWATER MUSSELS

Mussels, both those in freshwater and in marine environments, are classified in the phylum of mollusks.  That large taxonomic group also includes snails, cockles and other clams, oysters, scallops, squid, and other organisms.

The following information on freshwater mussels is from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

“What is a freshwater mussel?
Freshwater mussels are mollusks and are similar to their marine clam and oyster cousins. They have two shells connected by a hinge-like ligament. Around the world, mussels live in a variety of freshwater habitats but are most prevalent in stream and rivers. They vary in their adult sizes from those as small as a thumbnail to others as big as a pie plate. The wide variety of shapes and colors are reflected in species like purple wartyback, pink heelsplitter, and threeridge. On the stream bottom, mussels are sometimes only noticeable by two small siphons, which are used to draw and expel water. When quickly dislodged, a large muscular foot that is used to move amongst the stream bottom can be readily seen.”

“How are mussels distributed?
“The diversity of freshwater mussels in the United States is unmatched. Of the estimated 1,000 species worldwide, the United States historically contained 304, about one-thrid of the total world’s fauna. …The lion’s share of this diversity is found in the southeastern drainages of the Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mobile rivers. One of the most diverse drainages, the Tennessee contains 102 species, nearly one-third of the country’s fauna! Virginia becomes part of the equation because the Tennessee River headwaters are within the southwestern region of the state. Virginia’s portion of the Tennessee River drainage includes the Powell, Clinch, and Forks of the Holston (North, Middle, and South) rivers….”

“How do mussels function in the environment?
Freshwater mussels are an essential component of our rivers and streams. By their siphoning actions, mussels filter bacteria, algae, and other small particles, which make them one of the few animals that improve water quality. Mussels also serve as a food source to many species of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The outer shell of a live mussel is usually covered by aquatic insects, algae, and plants. Even when dead, the empty shell functions as a nesting site for small fish like madtoms and darters.”

“What are uses people have found for freshwater mussels?
People have a long history of benefiting from mussels. Native Americans used mussels as a ready food source, implements for tools, and as jewelry. Before the advent of plastics in the 1930’s, most buttons were made from freshwater mussels. Modern day buttons retain the luster of those found in earlier times. Today, freshwater mussels are a key ingredient in the pearl industry. Mussels are collected in several areas of the United States and their shells are sold to Asian markets. Their shells are used to make numerous round beads that are placed in oysters and serve as the nuclei for freshwater pearls.”

“How do mussels reproduce?
The life cycle of the freshwater mussel is one the most complex and interesting in the animal world. Unlike other animals that can actively search for a mate, the sedentary mussel depends on the river current to reproduce. The process begins with the male releasing sperm, and the female located downstream drawing it in through her incurrent siphon. Numbering in the 100’s to hundreds of thousands, the fertilized eggs develop into glochidia within her gills. Once mature, they are released into the water column to begin the second part of their lives-attaching to the gills, fins, or scales of freshwater fishes. At this point, the process is further complicated because not only do the glochidia have to find a fish, but it has to be one of a few specific fish species for the life cycle to continue. If a glochidium attaches to the correct fish species, it encysts into the fish’s tissue and undergoes a short life as a parasite. Over several weeks, it begins to develop gills, a foot, and other internal structures to become a juvenile mussel. The now fully transformed, but still microscopic, juvenile will drop off the fish and begin its life on the stream bottom.…”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO OR OFFERING MORE INFORMATION ABOUT MUSSELS OR OTHER MOLLUSKS

Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society, online at https://molluskconservation.org/.

Robbie Harris, “Growing Mussels,” WVTF FM-Roanoke, Va., 1/7/14, 3 min. video with transcript, online at http://wvtf.org/post/growing-mussels.

Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.

Jess W. Jones, “Freshwater Mussels of Virginia (Bivalvia: Unionidae): An Introduction to Their Life History, Status and Conservation,” Virginia Journal of Science, Vol. 66, No. 3, Fall 2015, pp. 309-331; archives available online at http://vacadsci.org/publications/va-journal-of-science/virginia-journal-of-science-archives/.

Jess W. Jones, et al., “Clinch River Freshwater Mussels Upstream of Norris Reservoir, Tennessee and Virginia: A Quantitative Assessment from 2004 to 2009,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 40, No. 4, August 2014; journal available online at https://www.awra.org (subscription required for back issues).

Kentucky Afield, “Fresh Water Endangered Mussels,” 8/13/13, 11 min./49 sec. video online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErYjjjqhX6I.  This includes a tour of the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources’ Center for Mollusk Conservation Research Lab in Frankfort.

Kentucky Educational Television, “Mussels of the Licking River,” 8/13/13, 7 min./3 sec. video, online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CneiYgGAcI.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, online at https://www.fws.gov/endangered/map/ESA_success_stories/VA/VA_story2/index.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Maryland Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, “Freshwater Mussels” (2/18/16), online at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/marylandfisheries/Fish%20Facts/Freshwater%20mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Midwest Region, “Endangered Species/America’s Mussels: Silent Sentinels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/clams/mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Program, online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/es/ec/nrda/index.html. S ee particularly “Protecting and Restoring the Powell River Watershed, Virginia,” December 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20LMPI%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf; and “Restoring the Clinch River Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia,” November 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20certus%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Northeast Ecological Services, “Giving Mussels a Boost in Tenn.’s Powell River,” 9/26/12, online at http://ne-ecological-services.blogspot.com/2012/09/giving-mussels-boost-in-tenns-powell.html.  This site includes a 2 min./32 sec. video on a mussel release and discussion by Jess Jones, online at https://youtu.be/ADy5BNkmRh4.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Southeast Region, “Southeastern Mussels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/southeast/wildlife/mussels/.  This site includes photos and descriptions of several mussel species found in Virginia and the southeastern United States.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF), “Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Center,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/awcc/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) videos: “Freshwater Mussels,” 7/6/09, 4 min./31 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URHTrAAkpr0; “Endangered Mussels Released into the Clinch River, Largest Release in Eastern US,” 9/30/10, 2 min./36 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uf0ZIoNnuiI [corresponds to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, above]; and “Stocking Freshwater Mussels in Virginia’s Clinch River,” 10/28/16, 3 min./35 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wapu6ABfFSU&t=1s.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  Mussel species in Virginia are listed at this link.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment, Mussels released into Tennessee’s Powell River, CNRE News, 2/10/17.

Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, online at https://www.fishwild.vt.edu/mussel/.

G. Thomas Watters et al., The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio, The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 2009.

WLUC TV6—Negaunee, Michigan, “906 Outdoors-Discovering/Freshwater Mussels,” 7/30/18, 22 min./32 min. video online at http://www.906outdoors.com/906outdoors/videos/S311.html; the mussels segment is the first of two topics in the video.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the following subject categories: “Invertebrates Other Than Insects”; and “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water.”

Following are links to some other episodes on the rivers in the Clinch River/Upper Tennessee River watershed.
Episode 420, 5/14/18 – Exploring Virginia’s Tennessee River Tributaries.
Episode 425, 6/18/18 – Introducing the South Fork Holston River.

Following are links to other episodes on mollusks.
Episode 262, 4/20/15 – Freshwater Snails.
Episode 279, 8/24/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 1.
Episode 280, 9/7/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 2.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, additional information, or information sources—may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme
2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – All include “Current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10 - impacts on survival of species.
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 - public policy decisions related to the environment.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 - basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 - life cycles.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.6 - ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, August 20, 2018

Episode 434 (8-20-18): Virginia's Freshwater Mussels - Part 3: Raising Mussels in a Lab for Life in a River


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:00)

This is the third episode in a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels. Previous episodes in the series are as follows:
Episode 432, 8/6/18 – Part 1: An Introduction to Mussel Biology and Population Status.
Episode 433, 8/13/18 – Part 2: Fish Hosts and Mussel Mimicry.

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-17-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of August 20, 2018.  This week’s episode is the third in a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels and efforts to restore the populations of these important, filter-feeding components of aquatic environments.

SOUND – ~ 12 sec

That’s Jess Jones, a biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the director of Virginia Tech’s Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, informally known as the Mussel Lab.  We’re focusing this week on the operations used at the Mussel Lab to raise, or propagate, freshwater mussels.

The Mussel Lab follows a complicated, 12-to-18-month process involving mussel larvae, or glochidia; several fish species that serve as hosts for the glochidia; precisely filtered water; a food source of algae and bacteria; and a series of containers to hold and nourish mussel juveniles as they grow from microscopic size to about 20 millimeters, or about three-quarters of an inch.  Those laboratory-raised mussels are then released into suitable habitats in Virginia rivers to help restore natural populations and help the recovery of species listed as endangered or threatened, either on the federal list or Virginia’s state list.

For a few more details on the Mussel Lab’s operations, have a listen for about 2 minutes to additional comments by Jess Jones, recorded at the lab in June 2018.

SOUND – ~2 min.

During the nearly 20 years since the Mussel Lab’s construction in 2000, innovation, experimentation, and practice have developed a successful operation for raising and releasing thousands of mussels annually into natural habitats.  The fourth and last episode in this freshwater mussel series will examine the release phase of Virginia Tech’s mussel-restoration efforts.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The comments by Jess Jones heard in this episode were recorded June 4, 2018, at the Virginia Tech Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center in Blacksburg.

Click here if you’d like to listen to the full (18 min./43 sec.) presentation on freshwater mussels given by Jess Jones on January 13, 2017, to faculty, staff, and students of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Will Pfiel of that college for making a recording of that talk available to Virginia Water Radio.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES




Mussel life cycle. Image from Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.

Following are views from the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center in Blacksburg, Va., operated by the Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation; all photos taken August 15, 2018.


Entrance to the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center.


Some of the containers for holding fish that serve as hosts for mussel larvae.


Fish-holding containers in left foreground and to the right, with juvenile mussel boxes in the left mid-ground.


Boxes where juvenile mussels are first placed; green hoses deliver oxygen, black hoses deliver water.


Pond that is the source of water for raising mussels at the Center.


View of the grow-out building, where juvenile mussels undergo their last phase of growth before being released into rivers.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT FRESHWATER MUSSELS

Mussels, both those in freshwater and in marine environments, are classified in the phylum of mollusks.  That large taxonomic group also includes snails, cockles and other clams, oysters, scallops, squid, and other organisms.

The following information on freshwater mussels is from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

“What is a freshwater mussel?
Freshwater mussels are mollusks and are similar to their marine clam and oyster cousins. They have two shells connected by a hinge-like ligament. Around the world, mussels live in a variety of freshwater habitats but are most prevalent in stream and rivers. They vary in their adult sizes from those as small as a thumbnail to others as big as a pie plate. The wide variety of shapes and colors are reflected in species like purple wartyback, pink heelsplitter, and threeridge. On the stream bottom, mussels are sometimes only noticeable by two small siphons, which are used to draw and expel water. When quickly dislodged, a large muscular foot that is used to move amongst the stream bottom can be readily seen.”

“How are mussels distributed?
“The diversity of freshwater mussels in the United States is unmatched. Of the estimated 1,000 species worldwide, the United States historically contained 304, about one-thrid of the total world’s fauna. …The lion’s share of this diversity is found in the southeastern drainages of the Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mobile rivers. One of the most diverse drainages, the Tennessee contains 102 species, nearly one-third of the country’s fauna! Virginia becomes part of the equation because the Tennessee River headwaters are within the southwestern region of the state. Virginia’s portion of the Tennessee River drainage includes the Powell, Clinch, and Forks of the Holston (North, Middle, and South) rivers….”

“How do mussels function in the environment?
Freshwater mussels are an essential component of our rivers and streams. By their siphoning actions, mussels filter bacteria, algae, and other small particles, which make them one of the few animals that improve water quality. Mussels also serve as a food source to many species of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The outer shell of a live mussel is usually covered by aquatic insects, algae, and plants. Even when dead, the empty shell functions as a nesting site for small fish like madtoms and darters.”

“What are uses people have found for freshwater mussels?
People have a long history of benefiting from mussels. Native Americans used mussels as a ready food source, implements for tools, and as jewelry. Before the advent of plastics in the 1930’s, most buttons were made from freshwater mussels. Modern day buttons retain the luster of those found in earlier times. Today, freshwater mussels are a key ingredient in the pearl industry. Mussels are collected in several areas of the United States and their shells are sold to Asian markets. Their shells are used to make numerous round beads that are placed in oysters and serve as the nuclei for freshwater pearls.”

“How do mussels reproduce?
The life cycle of the freshwater mussel is one the most complex and interesting in the animal world. Unlike other animals that can actively search for a mate, the sedentary mussel depends on the river current to reproduce. The process begins with the male releasing sperm, and the female located downstream drawing it in through her incurrent siphon. Numbering in the 100’s to hundreds of thousands, the fertilized eggs develop into glochidia within her gills. Once mature, they are released into the water column to begin the second part of their lives-attaching to the gills, fins, or scales of freshwater fishes. At this point, the process is further complicated because not only do the glochidia have to find a fish, but it has to be one of a few specific fish species for the life cycle to continue. If a glochidium attaches to the correct fish species, it encysts into the fish’s tissue and undergoes a short life as a parasite. Over several weeks, it begins to develop gills, a foot, and other internal structures to become a juvenile mussel. The now fully transformed, but still microscopic, juvenile will drop off the fish and begin its life on the stream bottom.…”

SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO OR OFFERING MORE INFORMATION ABOUT MUSSELS OR OTHER MOLLUSKS

Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society, online at https://molluskconservation.org/.

Robbie Harris, “Growing Mussels,” WVTF FM-Roanoke, Va., 1/7/14, 3 min. video with transcript, online at http://wvtf.org/post/growing-mussels.

Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.

Jess W. Jones, “Freshwater Mussels of Virginia (Bivalvia: Unionidae): An Introduction to Their Life History, Status and Conservation,” Virginia Journal of Science, Vol. 66, No. 3, Fall 2015, pp. 309-331; archives available online at http://vacadsci.org/publications/va-journal-of-science/virginia-journal-of-science-archives/.

Jess W. Jones, et al., “Clinch River Freshwater Mussels Upstream of Norris Reservoir, Tennessee and Virginia: A Quantitative Assessment from 2004 to 2009,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 40, No. 4, August 2014; journal available online at https://www.awra.org (subscription required for back issues).

Kentucky Afield, “Fresh Water Endangered Mussels,” 8/13/13, 11 min./49 sec. video online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErYjjjqhX6I.  This includes a tour of the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources’ Center for Mollusk Conservation Research Lab in Frankfort.

Kentucky Educational Television, “Mussels of the Licking River,” 8/13/13, 7 min./3 sec. video, online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CneiYgGAcI.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, online at https://www.fws.gov/endangered/map/ESA_success_stories/VA/VA_story2/index.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Maryland Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, “Freshwater Mussels” (2/18/16), online at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/marylandfisheries/Fish%20Facts/Freshwater%20mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Midwest Region, “Endangered Species/America’s Mussels: Silent Sentinels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/clams/mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Program, online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/es/ec/nrda/index.html.  See particularly “Protecting and Restoring the Powell River Watershed, Virginia,” December 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20LMPI%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf; and “Restoring the Clinch River Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia,” November 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20certus%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Northeast Ecological Services, “Giving Mussels a Boost in Tenn.’s Powell River,” 9/26/12, online at http://ne-ecological-services.blogspot.com/2012/09/giving-mussels-boost-in-tenns-powell.html.  This site includes a 2 min./32 sec. video on a mussel release and discussion by Jess Jones, online at https://youtu.be/ADy5BNkmRh4.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Southeast Region, “Southeastern Mussels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/southeast/wildlife/mussels/.   This site includes photos and descriptions of several mussel species found in Virginia and the southeastern United States.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Center,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/awcc/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries videos: “Freshwater Mussels,” 7/6/09, 4 min./31 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URHTrAAkpr0; “Endangered Mussels Released into the Clinch River, Largest Release in Eastern US,” 9/30/10, 2 min./36 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uf0ZIoNnuiI [corresponds to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, above]; and “Stocking Freshwater Mussels in Virginia’s Clinch River,” 10/28/16, 3 min./35 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wapu6ABfFSU&t=1s.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.   Mussel species are listed at this link.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment, Mussels released into Tennessee’s Powell River, CNRE News, 2/10/17.

Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, online at https://www.fishwild.vt.edu/mussel/.

G. Thomas Watters et al., The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio, The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 2009.

WLUC TV6—Negaunee, Michigan, “906 Outdoors-Discovering/Freshwater Mussels,” 7/30/18, 22 min./32 min. video online at http://www.906outdoors.com/906outdoors/videos/S311.html (the mussels segment is the first of two topics in the video).

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the following subject categories: “Invertebrates Other Than Insects”; and “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water.”

Following are links to some other episodes on the rivers in the Clinch River/Upper Tennessee River watershed.
Episode 420, 5/14/18 – Exploring Virginia’s Tennessee River Tributaries.
Episode 425, 6/18/18 – Introducing the South Fork Holston River.

Following are links to other episodes on mollusks.
Episode 262, 4/20/15 – Freshwater Snails.
Episode 279, 8/24/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 1.
Episode 280, 9/7/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 2.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme
2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – All include “Current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10 - impacts on survival of species.
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 - public policy decisions related to the environment.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 - basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 - life cycles.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.6 - ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs:

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, August 13, 2018

Episode 433 (8-13-18): Virginia's Freshwater Mussels - Part 2: Fish Hosts and Mussel Mimicry


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:40)

This is the second episode in a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels. Previous episodes in the series are as follows:
Episode 432, 8/6/18 – Part 1: An Introduction to Mussel Biology and Population Status.

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-10-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of August 13, 2018.

SOUND – ~ 4 sec

This week, that sound of the North Fork Holston River in Smyth County, Virginia, opens the second episode in a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels and efforts to restore the populations of these important, filter-feeding components of aquatic environments.  We focus this week on the freshwater mussel life cycle, and particularly the use of a fish host during the larval stage of the cycle.  To begin, have a listen for about 30 seconds to these mystery sounds, and see if you can guess what kind of aquatic collecting is occurring.   And here’s a hint: mussel work can be shockingly complicated.

SOUNDS - ~33 sec

If you guessed, fish collection by electrofishing, you might be a fisheries expert!  You heard Virginia Tech researchers collecting fish in the North Fork Holston on June 19, 2018.  The researchers were using a backpack electrofishing device and a seine, a standard method used by scientists to collect fish.  The objective on this day was to collect darters, a group of fish commonly used by freshwater mussels as hosts for the larval stage.  Fish collection is one part of the mussel-growing operations at Virginia Tech’s Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center.

Use by larvae of fish hosts is a distinguishing feature of freshwater mussels, and it involves complex mimicry by the mussels to attract fish.  For more on that mimicry, have a listen for about two minutes to Jess Jones, the director of Tech’s Mollusk Conservation Center, during a January 2017 talk.  In the segment, you’ll hear the words glochidium and glochidia, which are mussel larvae, and conglutinate, which is a collection of many glochidia.

VOICE - 115 sec

Freshwater mussels follow complicated life cycles in the complicated world of rivers, streams, and lakes.   That, in turn, complicates efforts to grow mussels for restoring natural populations.   Two more episodes in this series will examine the operations used at Virginia Tech to grow freshwater mussels and to release the lab-raised mussels into Virginia rivers.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Thanks to several fish-collection workers from Virginia Tech and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for allowing an audio recording of their work on June 19, 2018.

Click here if you’d like to listen to the full (18 min./43 sec.) presentation on freshwater mussels given by Jess Jones on January 13, 2017, to faculty, staff, and students of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Will Pfiel of that college for making a recording of that talk available to Virginia Water Radio.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES



Mussel life cycle. Image from Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html


Site on the North Fork Holston River in Saltville, Va. (Smyth County) of the June 19, 2018, fish collection work heard in this episode.


Jess Jones (left), director of Virginia Tech’s Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, examining the settings on a backpack electrofishing device, June 19, 2018.


Darter collected from the North Fork Holston River in Smyth County, Va., June 19, 2018.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT FRESHWATER MUSSELS

Mussels, both those in freshwater and in marine environments, are classified in the phylum of mollusks.  That large taxonomic group also includes snails, clams, oysters, scallops, squid, and other organisms.

The following information on freshwater mussels is from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

“What is a freshwater mussel?
Freshwater mussels are mollusks and are similar to their marine clam and oyster cousins.  They have two shells connected by a hinge-like ligament.  Around the world, mussels live in a variety of freshwater habitats but are most prevalent in stream and rivers.  They vary in their adult sizes from those as small as a thumbnail to others as big as a pie plate.  The wide variety of shapes and colors are reflected in species like purple wartyback, pink heelsplitter, and threeridge.  On the stream bottom, mussels are sometimes only noticeable by two small siphons, which are used to draw and expel water.  When quickly dislodged, a large muscular foot that is used to move amongst the stream bottom can be readily seen.”

“How are mussels distributed?
“The diversity of freshwater mussels in the United States is unmatched.   Of the estimated 1,000 species worldwide, the United States historically contained 304, about one-thrid of the total world’s fauna.  …The lion’s share of this diversity is found in the southeastern drainages of the Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mobile rivers.  One of the most diverse drainages, the Tennessee contains 102 species, nearly one-third of the country’s fauna! Virginia becomes part of the equation because the Tennessee River headwaters are within the southwestern region of the state.  Virginia’s portion of the Tennessee River drainage includes the Powell, Clinch, and Forks of the Holston (North, Middle, and South) rivers….”

“How do mussels function in the environment?
Freshwater mussels are an essential component of our rivers and streams.  By their siphoning actions, mussels filter bacteria, algae, and other small particles, which make them one of the few animals that improve water quality.  Mussels also serve as a food source to many species of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals.  The outer shell of a live mussel is usually covered by aquatic insects, algae, and plants.  Even when dead, the empty shell functions as a nesting site for small fish like madtoms and darters.”

“What are uses people have found for freshwater mussels?
People have a long history of benefiting from mussels. Native Americans used mussels as a ready food source, implements for tools, and as jewelry.  Before the advent of plastics in the 1930’s, most buttons were made from freshwater mussels.  Modern day buttons retain the luster of those found in earlier times.   Today, freshwater mussels are a key ingredient in the pearl industry. Mussels are collected in several areas of the United States and their shells are sold to Asian markets.  Their shells are used to make numerous round beads that are placed in oysters and serve as the nuclei for freshwater pearls.”

“How do mussels reproduce?
The life cycle of the freshwater mussel is one the most complex and interesting in the animal world.  Unlike other animals that can actively search for a mate, the sedentary mussel depends on the river current to reproduce.  The process begins with the male releasing sperm, and the female located downstream drawing it in through her incurrent siphon.  Numbering in the 100’s to hundreds of thousands, the fertilized eggs develop into glochidia within her gills.   Once mature, they are released into the water column to begin the second part of their lives-attaching to the gills, fins, or scales of freshwater fishes.  At this point, the process is further complicated because not only do the glochidia have to find a fish, but it has to be one of a few specific fish species for the life cycle to continue.  If a glochidium attaches to the correct fish species, it encysts into the fish’s tissue and undergoes a short life as a parasite.   Over several weeks, it begins to develop gills, a foot, and other internal structures to become a juvenile mussel.  The now fully transformed, but still microscopic, juvenile will drop off the fish and begin its life on the stream bottom.…”

SOURCES USED AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, “Electrofishing FAQ,” online at http://myfwc.com/research/freshwater/resources/techniques/electrofishing-faq/.

Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society, online at https://molluskconservation.org/.

Robbie Harris, “Growing Mussels,” WVTF FM-Roanoke, Va., 1/7/14, 3 min. video with transcript, online at http://wvtf.org/post/growing-mussels.

Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.

Jess W. Jones, “Freshwater Mussels of Virginia (Bivalvia: Unionidae): An Introduction to Their Life History, Status and Conservation,” Virginia Journal of Science, Vol. 66, No. 3, Fall 2015, pp. 309-331; archives available online at http://vacadsci.org/publications/va-journal-of-science/virginia-journal-of-science-archives/.

Jess W. Jones, et al., “Clinch River Freshwater Mussels Upstream of Norris Reservoir, Tennessee and Virginia: A Quantitative Assessment from 2004 to 2009,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 40, No. 4, August 2014; journal available online at https://www.awra.org (subscription required for back issues).

Lake and Wetland Management, “All About Electrofishing,” 1/28/16, online at http://www.lakeandwetland.com/all-about-electrofishing/.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, online at https://www.fws.gov/endangered/map/ESA_success_stories/VA/VA_story2/index.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Maryland Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, “Freshwater Mussels” (2/18/16), online at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/marylandfisheries/Fish%20Facts/Freshwater%20mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Midwest Region, “Endangered Species/America’s Mussels: Silent Sentinels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/clams/mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Program, online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/es/ec/nrda/index.html.  See particularly “Protecting and Restoring the Powell River Watershed, Virginia,” December 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20LMPI%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf.; and “Restoring the Clinch River Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia,” November 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20certus%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Northeast Ecological Services, “Giving Mussels a Boost in Tenn.’s Powell River,” 9/26/12, online at http://ne-ecological-services.blogspot.com/2012/09/giving-mussels-boost-in-tenns-powell.html.   This site includes a 2 min./32 sec. video on a mussel release and discussion by Jess Jones, online at https://youtu.be/ADy5BNkmRh4.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Southeast Region, “Southeastern Mussels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/southeast/wildlife/mussels/. This site includes photos and descriptions of several mussel species found in Virginia and the southeastern United States.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Center,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/awcc/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries videos: “Freshwater Mussels,” 7/6/09, 4 min./31 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URHTrAAkpr0 (on a release of fish hosts of the James River Spinymussel into the Cowpasture River); “Endangered Mussels Released into the Clinch River, Largest Release in Eastern US,” 9/30/10, 2 min./36 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uf0ZIoNnuiI (this corresponds to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, above); and “Stocking Freshwater Mussels in Virginia’s Clinch River,” 10/28/16, 3 min./35 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wapu6ABfFSU&t=1s.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment, Mussels released into Tennessee’s Powell River, CNRE News, 2/10/17.

Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, online at https://www.fishwild.vt.edu/mussel/.

G. Thomas Watters et al., The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio, The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 2009.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the following subject categories: “Invertebrates Other Than Insects”; and “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water.”

Following are links to some other episodes on the Holston River or other rivers in the Upper Tennessee River watershed.
Episode 420, 5/14/18 – Exploring Virginia’s Tennessee River Tributaries.
Episode 425, 6/18/18 – Introducing the South Fork Holston River.

Following are links to other episodes on mollusks.
Episode 262, 4/20/15 – Freshwater Snails.
Episode 279, 8/24/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 1.
Episode 280, 9/7/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 2.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode may help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme
2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – All include “Current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 - life cycles.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Episode 432 (8-6-18): Virginia's Freshwater Mussels - Part 1: An Introduction to Mussel Biology and Population Status


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (6:16)

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, images, and additional information follow below.

All Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-3-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of August 6, 2018.

MUSIC – ~10 sec

That music is an excerpt of “Cockles and Mussels,” a 19-Century Irish song also called “Molly Malone,” whose lyrics are about a fish seller on the streets of Dublin.  That fish merchant would have been selling saltwater mussels, the kind of mussels with which beachgoers or restaurant diners may be familiar. Less familiar to many people, however, are freshwater mussels.  This week, Virginia Water Radio begins a series on Virginia’s freshwater mussels and efforts to restore the populations of these important, filter-feeding components of aquatic environments.  To begin, have a listen for about 25 seconds to Virginia’s Clinch River and several guest voices calling out some mysterious, descriptive names.

SOUNDS - ~24 sec

You heard the common names of 13 species of freshwater mussels known from Virginia.  Some are known from the Clinch and other rivers in the watershed of the Upper Tennessee River in southwestern Virginia, while others are from the Commonwealth’s Atlantic Slope rivers, such as the James.  Ten of the species whose names you heard are listed as either federal or state endangered species.  In fact, of 77 total freshwater mussel species known from Virginia, three have become extinct and 39—or 51 percent—are currently listed as endangered or threatened at the federal or state level.  That gives freshwater mussels by far the highest percentage of threatened or endangered species of any group in Virginia.

Freshwater mussels are of interest not only because of this population status but also because of their unusual life cycle and their ecological roles in rivers and other waters.  To learn more about freshwater mussels and their biology, have a listen for about two minutes to Jess Jones, a mussel biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the director of the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center at Virginia Tech.

VOICE - ~1 min/55 sec

Since 1994, Virginia Tech scientists and students have conducted activities to study mussels, grow them in culture, and restore them to locations in rivers in Virginia and Tennessee.  That work has been done in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, and it’s been supported by grants from the Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and the states of Virginia and Tennessee.  The next episodes in this series will examine those mussel propagation and restoration activities.

Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music, and thanks to several Virginia Tech co-workers for lending their voices to this episode.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Cockles and Mussels,” performed by Timothy Seaman, is from the 2004 album “Virginia Wildlife,” on Pine Wind Music; used with permission.  Mr. Seaman’s Web site is http://www.timothyseaman.com/.

The freshwater mussel common names called out in this episode are as follows: Deertoe, Elktoe, Rabbitsfoot, Appalachian Monkeyface, Cumberland Monkeyface, Purple Wartyback, Spike, Golden Riffleshell, Slippershell, Tennessee Heelsplitter, Snuffbox, James Spinymussel, and Spectaclecase.  Thanks to Athan Anderson, Rebecca Belcher, Bill Henley, Kathie Hollandsworth, Jess Jones, and Andrew Phipps for participating in the names call-out.

The Clinch River was recorded on July 1, 2018, in Russell County, Virginia.

Comments made by Jess Jones in this episode’s audio were recorded August 3, 2018, in Blacksburg, Virginia.

Click here if you’d like to listen to an 18 min./43 sec. presentation on freshwater mussels given by Jess Jones on January 13, 2017, to faculty, staff, and students of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  Thanks to Will Pfiel of that college for making a recording of that talk available to Virginia Water Radio.

Click here
if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES
Generalized freshwater mussel life cycle.  Image from Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.

Mussels on the menu at a restaurant in Annapolis, Md., August 4, 2018.  These would not have been freshwater mussels, but rather their saltwater counterparts.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT FRESHWATER MUSSELS

Mussels, both those in freshwater and in marine environments, are classified in the phylum of mollusks.  That large taxonomic group also includes snails, cockles and other clams, oysters, scallops, squid, and other organisms.

The following information on freshwater mussels is from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

“What is a freshwater mussel?
Freshwater mussels are mollusks and are similar to their marine clam and oyster cousins.  They have two shells connected by a hinge-like ligament.  Around the world, mussels live in a variety of freshwater habitats but are most prevalent in stream and rivers. T hey vary in their adult sizes from those as small as a thumbnail to others as big as a pie plate.  The wide variety of shapes and colors are reflected in species like purple wartyback, pink heelsplitter, and threeridge.  On the stream bottom, mussels are sometimes only noticeable by two small siphons, which are used to draw and expel water.  When quickly dislodged, a large muscular foot that is used to move amongst the stream bottom can be readily seen.”

“How are mussels distributed?
The diversity of freshwater mussels in the United States is unmatched.  Of the estimated 1,000 species worldwide, the United States historically contained 304, about one-thrid of the total world’s fauna. …The lion’s share of this diversity is found in the southeastern drainages of the Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mobile rivers.  One of the most diverse drainages, the Tennessee contains 102 species, nearly one-third of the country’s fauna!  Virginia becomes part of the equation because the Tennessee River headwaters are within the southwestern region of the state. Virginia’s portion of the Tennessee River drainage includes the Powell, Clinch, and Forks of the Holston (North, Middle, and South) rivers….”

“How do mussels function in the environment?
Freshwater mussels are an essential component of our rivers and streams.   By their siphoning actions, mussels filter bacteria, algae, and other small particles, which make them one of the few animals that improve water quality.  Mussels also serve as a food source to many species of fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals.  The outer shell of a live mussel is usually covered by aquatic insects, algae, and plants.  Even when dead, the empty shell functions as a nesting site for small fish like madtoms and darters.”

“What are uses people have found for freshwater mussels?
People have a long history of benefiting from mussels.  Native Americans used mussels as a ready food source, implements for tools, and as jewelry.   Before the advent of plastics in the 1930’s, most buttons were made from freshwater mussels.  Modern day buttons retain the luster of those found in earlier times.   Today, freshwater mussels are a key ingredient in the pearl industry.  Mussels are collected in several areas of the United States and their shells are sold to Asian markets.  Their shells are used to make numerous round beads that are placed in oysters and serve as the nuclei for freshwater pearls.”

“How do mussels reproduce?
The life cycle of the freshwater mussel is one the most complex and interesting in the animal world.  Unlike other animals that can actively search for a mate, the sedentary mussel depends on the river current to reproduce.  The process begins with the male releasing sperm, and the female located downstream drawing it in through her incurrent siphon.   Numbering in the 100’s to hundreds of thousands, the fertilized eggs develop into glochidia within her gills.  Once mature, they are released into the water column to begin the second part of their lives-attaching to the gills, fins, or scales of freshwater fishes.  At this point, the process is further complicated because not only do the glochidia have to find a fish, but it has to be one of a few specific fish species for the life cycle to continue.  If a glochidium attaches to the correct fish species, it encysts into the fish’s tissue and undergoes a short life as a parasite.  Over several weeks, it begins to develop gills, a foot, and other internal structures to become a juvenile mussel.  The now fully transformed, but still microscopic, juvenile will drop off the fish and begin its life on the stream bottom.…”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Michael Davenport, “Freshwater vs. Marine Mussels,” Conserve Wildlife Blog, 8/27/12, online at http://www.conservewildlifenj.org/blog/2012/08/27/freshwater-vs-marine-mussels/.

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Cockle,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/cockle; “Mollusk,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/mollusk; and “Mussel,” online at https://www.britannica.com/animal/mussel#ref52271.

Robbie Harris, “Growing Mussels,” WVTF FM-Roanoke, Va., 1/7/14, 3 min. video with transcript, online at http://wvtf.org/post/growing-mussels.

Louis A. Helfrich, Richard J. Neves, and Hilary Chapman, “Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity—Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation,” Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-523, May 2009, online at https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-523/420-523.html.

Jess W. Jones, “Freshwater Mussels of Virginia (Bivalvia: Unionidae): An Introduction to Their Life History, Status and Conservation,” Virginia Journal of Science, Vol. 66, No. 3, Fall 2015, pp. 309-331; archives available online at http://vacadsci.org/publications/va-journal-of-science/virginia-journal-of-science-archives/.

Jess W. Jones, et al., “Clinch River Freshwater Mussels Upstream of Norris Reservoir, Tennessee and Virginia: A Quantitative Assessment from 2004 to 2009,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 40, No. 4, August 2014; journal available online at https://www.awra.org (subscription required for back issues).

Sean Murphy, “Molly Malone?” History Ireland, Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer 1993, online at https://www.historyireland.com/18th-19th-century-history/molly-malone-by-sean-murphy/.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, online at https://www.fws.gov/endangered/map/ESA_success_stories/VA/VA_story2/index.html [corresponds to Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries video listed below, “Endangered Mussels Released into the Clinch River, Largest Release in Eastern US,” 9/30/10, 2 min./36 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uf0ZIoNnuiI].

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Maryland Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office, “Freshwater Mussels” (2/18/16), online at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/marylandfisheries/Fish%20Facts/Freshwater%20mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Midwest Region, “Endangered Species/America’s Mussels: Silent Sentinels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/clams/mussels.html.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Program, online at https://www.fws.gov/midwest/es/ec/nrda/index.html. See particularly “Protecting and Restoring the Powell River Watershed, Virginia,” December 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20LMPI%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf; and “Restoring the Clinch River Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia,” November 2010 Fact Sheet, online (as PDF) at https://www.fws.gov/northeast/virginiafield/pdf/contaminants/20110120_final%20certus%20NRDAR%20fact%20sheet.pdf.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Northeast Ecological Services, “Giving Mussels a Boost in Tenn.’s Powell River,” 9/26/12, online at http://ne-ecological-services.blogspot.com/2012/09/giving-mussels-boost-in-tenns-powell.html.  This site includes a 2 min./32 sec. video on a mussel release and discussion by Jess Jones of Virginia Tech, online at https://youtu.be/ADy5BNkmRh4.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Southeast Region, “Southeastern Mussels,” online at https://www.fws.gov/southeast/wildlife/mussels/.  This site includes photos and descriptions of several mussel species found in Virginia and the southeastern United States.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF), “Aquatic Wildlife Conservation Center,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/awcc/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries videos: “Freshwater Mussels,” 7/6/09, 4 min./31 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URHTrAAkpr0; “Endangered Mussels Released into the Clinch River, Largest Release in Eastern US,” 9/30/10, 2 min./36 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uf0ZIoNnuiI [corresponds to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Program, “Protecting Our Waters: The Mussels of Virginia’s Clinch and Powell Rivers,” by Meagan Racey, 12/27/12, above]; and “Stocking Freshwater Mussels in Virginia’s Clinch River,” 10/28/16, 3 min./35 sec., online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wapu6ABfFSU&t=1s.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  Mussel species in Virginia are listed at this link.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Freshwater Mussels,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/freshwater-mussels/.

Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment, Mussels released into Tennessee’s Powell River, CNRE News, 2/10/17.

Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Center, online at https://www.fishwild.vt.edu/mussel/.

G. Thomas Watters et al., The Freshwater Mussels of Ohio, The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 2009.

For More Information about Mussels and Other Mollusks
Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society, online at https://molluskconservation.org/.

Kentucky Educational Television, “Mussels of the Licking River,” 8/13/13, 7 min./3 sec. video, online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CneiYgGAcI.

Kentucky Afield, “Fresh Water Endangered Mussels,” 8/13/13, 11 min./49 sec. video online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ErYjjjqhX6I.  This includes a tour of the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources’ Center for Mollusk Conservation Research Lab in Frankfort.

WLUC TV6—Negaunee, Michigan, “906 Outdoors-Discovering/Freshwater Mussels,” 7/30/18, 22 min./32 min. video online at http://www.906outdoors.com/906outdoors/videos/S311.html (the mussels segment is the first of two topics in the video).

Melinda Williams, Volunteers needed to save stranded mussels, Southwest Times, 11/6/15.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the following subject categories: “Invertebrates Other Than Insects”; and “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water.”

Following are links to some other episodes on the rivers in the Clinch River/Upper Tennessee River watershed.
Episode 420, 5/14/18 – Exploring Virginia’s Tennessee River Tributaries.
Episode 425, 6/18/18 – Introducing the South Fork Holston River.

Following are links to other episodes on mollusks.
Episode 262, 4/20/15 – Freshwater Snails.
Episode 279, 8/24/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 1.
Episode 280, 9/7/15 – Oysters, Nitrogen, and the Chesapeake Bay—Part 2.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode may help with Virginia 2013 Music SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

This episode may also help with the following Virginia 2010 Science SOLs.

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme
2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – All include “Current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
3.10- impacts on survival of species, including effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms.
4.9 - Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
K.7 – basic needs and processes of plants and animals.
1.5 - animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 - life cycles.
3.4 - behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 - living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 - food webs.
3.6 - ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 - ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.
5.5 - cell structures and functions, organism classification, and organism traits.
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.4 - organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.6 - ecosystem interactions, including the water cycle, other cycles, and energy flow.
LS.8 - community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 - adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 - changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 - relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 - influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 - dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

The episode may also help with the following Virginia 2015 Social Studies SOLs.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten;
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.