Monday, November 26, 2018

Episode 448 (11-26-18): Winter Preparedness, from Boots to Alarm Batteries


Click to listen to episode (5:04).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).

Except as otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-23-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 26, 2018.

SOUND – ~ 6 sec

This week, the sound of sleet falling in Blacksburg, Va., in February 2018, opens our annual episode on winter preparedness. We start with some music about children being prepared for the wet and cold of winter.  Here’s about 45 seconds of “New Boots,” by John McCutcheon, from the 1996 album “Four Seasons: Wintersongs,” on Rounder Records.

MUSIC – ~ 47 sec

In 2018, winter comes to Virginia on December 21 at 5:23 p.m.  That’s the Eastern Standard time of the Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, when that hemisphere is at its maximum annual tilt away from the sun.

To help you be prepared for winter’s cold temperatures, hazardous roads, power outages, and fire hazards, here are some tips from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

*Avoid traveling in winter-storm conditions if you can. If you must travel, get road conditions from the Virginia 511 telephone system, Web site, or mobile app.

*Have an emergency kit for your vehicle, including jumper cables, water, non-perishable food, blankets, a flashlight, and other items.

*Have a battery-powered or hand-cranked radio, especially one with a NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration] Weather Radio band.

*Get fireplaces, wood stoves, and chimneys inspected and cleaned.

*Install a smoke detector in every bedroom and on every floor level, test them monthly, and replace the batteries every six months.

*Install a carbon monoxide detector in your home and check or replace the battery twice a year.

*If you use space heaters, plug them into wall outlets, not into extension cords; keep heaters at least three feet from other objects; don’t leave heaters unattended; and check for cracked or damaged wires or plugs.

*Generators, camp stoves, and charcoal-burning devices should be used outdoors only.

*Use flashlights, not candles, during power outages.

*Learn how to shut off water valves in case a pipe bursts.

*Be careful of overexertion during snow shoveling.

*And make a family emergency plan that includes a meeting place if your family can’t return home; an out-of-town emergency contact; and at least a three-day emergency supply of food, water, and medications.

More information on preparing for severe winter weather, fires, and other emergencies is available online at the “Prepare and Recover” link of vaemergency.gov.  Next time you hear real sleet or other winter-weather sounds, here’s hoping that you can stay warm, dry, and safe.

Thanks to John McCutcheon for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “New Boots.”

MUSIC – ~ 17 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“New Boots,” from the 1996 album “Four Seasons: Wintersongs,” is copyright by John McCutcheon/Appalsongs and Si Kahn/Joe Hill Music, used with permission of Appalseed Productions.  More information about John McCutcheon is available from his Web site, http://www.folkmusic.com/.  Thanks to Mark Noonan of Appalseed Productions for his assistance.

The sleet sound was recorded by Virginia Water Radio in Blacksburg, Va., on February 4, 2018.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

National Weather Service poster on how to measure snow accurately. Accessed online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/winter-snow, 11/26/18.


Ice and snow on the Virginia Tech Duck Pond in Blacksburg, January 19, 2018.


White-throated Sparrows in snow White-throated in Blacksburg, Va., February 25, 2015

 
An early snow amidst fall leaf colors along Tuscarora Creek in Leesburg, Va., October 29, 2011.

EXTRA INFORMATION ON WINTER PREPAREDNESS AND SAFETY

Winter Weather Preparedness – from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Winter Weather,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/prepare-recover/threats/winter-weather/, accessed 11/21/18.

Overall Preparedness
*During a winter storm, stay off the roads as much as possible and only drive when absolutely necessary. Always give snow plows the right of way.
*Never use a generator, grill, camp stove, or device that burns fuels (gasoline, propane, natural gas, or charcoal) inside your home, garage, basement, crawlspace or any other partially enclosed area.
*Snow shoveling is a known trigger for heart attacks. Always avoid overexertion when shoveling.
*When severe weather occurs, plan to check on elderly or disabled neighbors and relatives.
*If you must travel, know road conditions before you leave home. Visit 511Virginia.org or call 511 for road-condition updates.
*Protect yourself from frostbite.   Hands, feet and face are the most commonly affected areas so wear a hat, mittens (which are warmer than gloves) and cover your mouth with a scarf to reduce heat loss.
*Keep dry. Change out of wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. Wear several layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than one layer or heavy clothing.
*Emergency kit: Download an emergency kit checklist online at www.vaemergency.gov.

Home Preparation
*Make sure your home is properly insulated;
*Check the weather stripping around your windows and doors;
*Learn how to shut off water valves in case a pipe bursts;
*Have additional heat sources on hand in case of a power outages;
*Keep a fire extinguisher accessible;
*Replace the batteries in your Carbon Monoxide detector annually.

Car Preparation
*Batteries lose power as temperatures drop, be sure to have yours tested;
*Check your car’s antifreeze level;
*Have your radiator system serviced;
*Replace your car’s windshield wiper fluid with a wintertime mix:
*Proactively replace your car’s worn tires and wiper blades:
*To help with visibility, clean off your car entirely - including your trunk, roof, windows and headlights.

What To During a Winter Storm – From the National Weather Service, online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/winter-during; accessed 11/21/18.
Outside
*Find Shelter: Try to stay dry and cover all exposed body parts.
*When there is no shelter nearby: Build a lean-to, windbreak or snow cave for protection from the wind. Build a fire for heat and to attract attention. Place rocks around the fire to absorb and reflect heat.
*Melt Snow for Drinking Water: Eating unmelted snow will lower your body temperature.
*Exercise: From time to time, move arms, legs, fingers and toes vigorously to keep blood circulating and to keep warm. Avoid overexertion such as shoveling heavy snow, pushing a car or walking in deep snow if you are not in good health. The strain from the cold and the hard labor may cause a heart attack. Sweating could lead to a chill and hypothermia.

In Vehicles
If you must drive during a storm, take the following precautions:
*Slow down! Even if the roads just look wet they could still be slick. More than 6,000 fatalities occur on the roadways each year due to weather conditions.
*Make sure your vehicle is completely clear of ice or snow before starting the trip. Flying snow from cars causes accidents.
*Let someone know where you are going and what route you will take. If something happens, this person will know where to start a search.
*Don't leave the house without the following: a fully charged mobile phone charger and an emergency supplies kit in your car. [Suggestions for a vehicle kit are online at https://www.ready.gov/build-a-kit.]
*If you are driving and begin to skid, remain calm, ease your foot off the gas and turn your wheels in the direction you want the front of the car to go. If you have an anti-lock braking system (ABS), apply steady pressure to the brake pedal. Never pump the brakes on an ABS equipped vehicle.
*If you are having trouble seeing due to weather conditions, pull over to the side of the road and stop your car until visibility improves. Turn off your lights and use your parking break when stopped so that another car won't mistakenly follow your tail/brake lights and end up hitting you.

If Your Car Gets Stuck During a Storm
*Stay in the vehicle! If you leave your vehicle, you will become disoriented quickly in wind-driven snow and cold.
*Run the motor about 10 minutes each hour for heat. While running the motor, open the window a little for fresh air to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning. Clear snow from the exhaust pipe to avoid gas poisoning.
*Be visible to rescuers. Turn on the dome light at night when running the engine. Tie a bright colored cloth, preferably red, to your antenna or door. After snow stops falling, raise the hood to indicate you need help.

Inside
*Stay Inside.
*When using heat from a fire place, wood stove, space heater, etc., use fire safeguards and properly ventilate.
*If you have a gas furnace, make sure it is not blocked by a snowdrift as soon as it's safe to go out. If you have an upstairs gas furnace which vents out the roof, you may need to turn off the upstairs unit until the snow melts off your roof.

If Your Heat Goes Out
*Close off unneeded rooms to avoid wasting heat.
*Stuff towels or rags in cracks under doors.
*Close blinds or curtains to keep in some heat.
*Eat and drink. Food provides the body with energy for producing its own heat. Drinks lots of water and other non-caffeinated, non-alcoholic drinks to prevent dehydration. Cold air is very dry.
*Wear layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing. Remove layers to avoid overheating, perspiration and subsequent chill.

On Fire Safety – from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Fires,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/fires/, accessed 11/21/18.
*Install smoke alarms on every level of your residence, outside bedrooms, at the top of open stairways, or at the bottom of enclosed stairs and near the kitchen.
*Test and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least twice a year. Replace smoke alarms every 10 years.
*Review escape routes with your family and practice escaping from each room.
*Make sure windows are not nailed or painted shut. Make sure security gratings on windows have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside.
*Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one level.
*Make sure anti-burglary devices installed on windows can be easily opened from the inside.
*Teach family members to stay low to the floor (where the air is safer in a fire) when evacuating.]

SOURCES

Used for Audio

National Weather Service/Cleveland, Ohio, Forecast Office, “The Seasons, the Equinox, and the Solstices,” online at https://www.weather.gov/cle/seasons.

TimeandDate.com, “Winter Solstice—Shortest Day of the Year,” online at https://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/winter-solstice.html.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/Frequently Asked Questions,” online at https://www.cdc.gov/co/faqs.htm.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, “Build a Kit,” online at https://www.ready.gov/build-a-kit; and “Car Safety,” online at https://www.ready.gov/car.

U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)/U.S. Fire Administration, “Fire Prevention and Public Education/Outreach Materials” online at https://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM), “Fires,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/fires/.

VDEM, “Make an Car Emergency Kit,” 1 min./31 sec. video, online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPgvWgtiWHI.

VDEM, “Prepare and Recover,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/. This is the Commonwealth of Virginia’s central source of information on preparedness for all types of emergencies and disasters.

VDEM, “Winter Weather,” online at http://www.vaemergency.gov/prepare-recover/threat/prepare-recover/threats/winter-weather/.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “Virginia Traffic Information,” online at http://www.511virginia.org/.

For More Information on Winter Weather and Preparedness

American Red Cross, “Winter Storm Safety,” online at https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/types-of-emergencies/winter-storm.html, or contact your local Red Cross chapter.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Snowstorms and Extreme Cold,” online at http://www.ready.gov/winter-weather.

John Muyskens et al., This map shows every inch of snow that fell on the lower 48 this year, Washington Post, 3/26/18.  This article has an animated map showing snowfall accumulations during the winter of 2017-18, along with satellite videos of four nor’easter storms that hit the eastern United States in March 2018.

National Weather Service, “Weather and Water Events Preparedness Calendar,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/events_calendar.  This page lists events, such as “Winter Weather Awareness Week,” by state.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “Weather Radio All Hazards” network, online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwr/.

U.S. Department of Energy, “Portable Heaters,” online at http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/portable-heaters.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).   See particularly the “Weather/Natural Disasters” subject category.

Following are links to previous annual episodes on winter-weather preparedness.
Episode 139, 12/3/12.
Episode 190, 12/2/13 (a repeat of Episode 139).
Episode 242, 12/1/14, featuring “Cold World” by Kat Mills.
Episode 292, 11/30/15, featuring “Winter is Coming” by The Steel Wheels.
Episode 344, 11/28/16, featuring “Drive the Cold Winter Away” by Timothy Seaman.
Episode 396, 11/27/17, featuring “Winter’s Fall” by No Strings Attached.

Following are links to previous episodes on topics relevant to winter.
Episode 258, 3/23/15 – on winter precipitation and water supplies.
Episode 300, 1/25/16 – on words for snow.
Episode 387, 9/25/17 – on frost.
Episode 403, 1/15/18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1/22/18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2/5/18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2/12/18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

This episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme

2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature, including daily, seasonal, and lunar changes.

Grades K-6 Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems Theme
2.6 – identification of common storms and other weather phenomena.
4.6 – weather conditions, phenomena, and measurements.
6.6 – properties of air and structure of Earth’s atmosphere; including weather topics.

Earth Science Course
ES.12 – weather and climate.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.6 – government at the national level.
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.8 – government at the local level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

World Geography Course
WG.2 – how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Government Course
GOVT.7 – national government organization and powers.
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, November 19, 2018

Episode 447 (11-19-18): Discovering Virginia's Covered Bridges for Thanksgiving Week 2018


Click to listen to episode (3:50).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

Except as otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-16-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 19, 2018.

MUSIC – ~12 sec

That’s an excerpt of “Shenandoah,” played by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, accompanied by Paulette Murphy.   As we approach Thanksgiving—a holiday that, for many people, means traveling home to connections and memories—“Shenandoah” sets the stage for learning about a type of historic structure for traveling over water, including over a fork of the Shenandoah River.  Have a listen for about 20 seconds to some guest voices and some mystery sounds, and see if you can guess that type of structure.  And here’s a hint: with a little thought, you’ll have this mystery covered.

SOUNDS and VOICES - ~18 sec

If you guessed covered bridges, you’re right!  You heard the names of three of the four publicly owned covered bridges in Virginia, along with the sounds of streams flowing under them: Sinking Creek Bridge, over Sinking Creek in Giles County; Jacks Creek Bridge, over the Smith River in Patrick County; and Humpback Bridge, over Dunlap Creek in Alleghany County.   The fourth public covered bridge still existing in the Commonwealth is Meems Bottom Bridge, over the North Fork Shenandoah River in Shenandoah County, the only Virginia covered bridge that’s still part of a public roadway.

These four bridges, plus three privately owned ones, are the only remaining examples of the hundreds of covered bridges built in Virginia from about the 1820s to about the 1920s.  In their time, the coverings offered a practical way to help preserve bridges, and their builders exhibited remarkable design and construction skill.  Today, as noted by Claire Foster in a March 2018 article for Lynchburg Living, “These captivating structures are more than just wood and nails—they serve as a glimpse into our country’s history and culture.”

Thanks to three Virginia Tech co-workers for lending their voices to this episode.  Thanks also to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week’s music, and we close with a few more seconds of “Shenandoah.”  Happy Thanksgiving!

MUSIC - ~ 21 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The sounds heard in this episode were recorded as follows:
Sinking Creek – near Newport in Giles County, Va., December 21, 2014;
Smith River – near Woolwine in Patrick County, Va., January 15, 2017;
Dunlap Creek – west of Covington in Alleghany County, Va., October 28, 2018.

The guest voices were recorded at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg on November 16, 2018.  Thanks to Michael Calfee, Susan Hypes, and Kevin McGuire for participating in this episode.

The “Shenandoah” excerpt, performed by Timothy Seaman and Paulette Murphy, was from the track “Hazel River” on the 1997 album “Here on this Ridge,” copyright Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  This music was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 130 (10/1/12).  More information about Timothy Seaman is available online at http://www.timothyseaman.com/.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

PHOTOS

Sinking Creek Bridge over Sinking Creek, Giles County, Va., December 21, 2014.


Jacks Creek Bridge over the Smith River, Patrick County, Va., January 15, 2017.


Humpback Bridge over Dunlap Creek, Alleghany County, Va., October 28, 2018.


Meems Bottom Bridge over the North Fork Shenandoah River, Shenandoah County, October 13, 2012.


LOVEwork sculpture at Humpback Bridge (in background), Alleghany County, Va., October 28, 2018.  Following is information from a sign at the sculpture: “The Virginia Tourism Corporation has chosen Humpback Bridges across the state to build and promote a giant LOVEwork.  The LOVEwork structures are the focal point of a social media campaign to share the message that love is at the heart of every Virginia vacation.   The Humpback Bridge will join with other existing LOVEwork sculptures…as part of the Virginia is for Lovers tourism campaign.  [For the Humpback Bridge sculpture], each of the materials was chosen for its significance in the heritage of the Alleghany Highlands: the "L" was created with historic bricks from the area; the "O "is a gear from one of the retired paper machines at MeadWestvaco representing the history of manufacturing in the area; the "V" is the natural feature created by a tree in the creek bank; the "E" was created with railroad ties representing the history of the railroad to our community.”  More information about LOVEworks sculptures is available online at https://www.virginia.org/love.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT COVERED BRIDGES IN VIRGINIA

As noted in the audio, the four landmark covered bridges open to the public are the following:
Meem’s Bottom Bridge, built in 1894, over the North Fork of the Shenandoah River in Shenandoah County;
Jack’s Creek Bridge, built in 1914, over the Smith River in Patrick County;
Sinking Creek Bridges, built about 1916, over Sinking Creek in Giles County;
Humpback Bridge, built in 1857, over Dunlap Creek in Alleghany County.

Note that the Bob White Covered Bridge, built in 1921, also over the Smith River in Patrick County (upstream of the Jacks Creek Bridge), was destroyed by floodwaters on September 28, 2015.

The following is from the Virginia Department of Transportation, “Covered Bridges of Virginia” Web site, online at http://www.virginiadot.org/info/faq-covbridge.asp, information as of 9/26/18.

“In memory or imagination, covered bridges conjure up sights and sounds of days gone by. In Virginia, they began to dot the countryside nearly two centuries ago. Spanning rivers and streams, their number grew to the hundreds.

“Eventually they gave way to their vulnerability to flood and fire, and to the technology that replaced the wooden peg with the metal bolt and the broadtimbers with narrow steel. By 1900, the overhead steel truss bridge had become the engineers' design of choice.

“Relatively few covered bridges survived into the early years of the 20th century. Most of them reflected the evolution in design of three pioneers in the annals of bridge construction:
Theodore Burr, who patented the Burr arch bridge in 1817;
Ithiel Town, who patented the Town lattice design in 1835; and
William Howe, who in 1840 patented a design that combined iron uprights with wooden supports.

“Today in Virginia, only seven covered bridges still stand. Four have been preserved as landmarks and three are on private property. You are invited to visit these picturesque structures that span time as well as water.”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Paul Collins, Covered Bridge Festival returns to Woolwine this weekend, Martinsville Bulletin, 6/14/18.

Claire Molineaux Foster, “Virginia’s Covered Bridges,” Lynchburg Living, 3/1/18, online at http://www.lynchburgliving.com/virginias-covered-bridges/.

Katarina Kovacevic, “America’s Most Beautiful Covered Bridges,” Travel+Leisure, 9/11/13, online at https://www.travelandleisure.com/slideshows/americas-most-beautiful-covered-bridges.

Patrick County, Va., Tourism, “Jack’s Creek Covered Bridge,” online at https://www.visitpatrickcounty.org/venues/details/id/56/jack-s-creek-covered-bridge.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “Covered Bridges of Virginia,” 2008 video (28 min./4 sec.), online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=du7NucwgwnY.

Virginia Department of Transportation, “Covered Bridges of Virginia” Web site, online at http://www.virginiadot.org/info/faq-covbridge.asp, information as of 9/26/18.

James Walsh, “[Va.] Covered Bridge Map,” online at https://www.coveredbridgemap.com/va/.

Ben Williams, Bob White Covered Bridge washed away, Martinsville Bulletin, 9/29/15.

For More Information about Covered Bridges in Virginia and Elsewhere

National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges, Hillsboro, New Hampshire, online at http://www.coveredbridgesociety.org/default.htm. Publishes World Guide to Covered Bridges, Seventh Edition, 2009; ordering information online at http://www.coveredbridgesociety.org/wg.htm.

Thomas D. Perry, “In Memory and Imagination…”: Patrick County’s Covered Bridges, Tom Perry’s Laurel Hill Publishing LLC, Ararat, Va., 2016.

Leola B. Pierce, Covered Bridges in Virginia, Upstream Press, Glen Rose, Tex., 2002.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “History” and “Overall Importance of Water” subject categories.

Following are links to some previous episodes related to aspects of this week’s episode.
Alleghany Highlands (which includes Alleghany County) – Episode 379, 7/31/17.
Bridges – Episode 245, 12/22/14.
Giles County – Episode 222, 7/14/14.
Jackson River (Dunlap Creek is a tributary of the Jackson River) – Episode 428, 7/9/18.
Shenandoah River or Valley – Episode 130, 10/1/12; Episode 331, 8/29/16; Episode 355, 2/13/17.
Smith River – Episode 360, 3/20/17.

Following are links to previous episodes for Thanksgiving.
Episode 189, 11/25/13 – Thanks for the Water – 2013 Edition.
Episode 291, 11/23/15 – Thanks for Musical Measures of Water.
Episode 343, 11/21/16 – Wild Turkey and Water.
Episode 395, 11/20/17 – Thanks for the Water – 2017 edition.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Physics Course
PH.4 – applications of physics to the real word, including roles of science and technology.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-6 History Theme
1.2 – Virginia history and life in present-day Virginia.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.10 – knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia.

United States History to 1865 Course
USI.5 – factors that shaped colonial America and conditions in the colonies, including how people interacted with the environment to produce goods and services.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-18) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Monday, November 12, 2018

Episode 446 (11-12-18): For Veterans Day 2018 – The U.S. Marine Corps’ 243 Years on Seas, on Lands, and in the Air


Click to listen to episode (4:35).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

Except as otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-9-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 12, 2018.

This week, in the latest of a series of annual episodes in honor of Veterans Day on November 11, we focus on the U.S. Marine Corps.  We start with audio excerpts from two Marine Corps videos: the first, from opening ceremonies for Marine Week in Detroit, Michigan, in September 2017; and the second, from an April 2012 interview in Quantico, Va., with Rosemary Woitowicz, whose son William was a Marine sergeant killed in Afghanistan in June 2011.

VOICES - ~50 sec – 1) excerpt from opening ceremony of Marine Week in Detroit, Michigan, September 6, 2017; 2) excerpt from an interview on April 28, 2012, with Rosemary Woitowicz, the mother of Sgt. William J. Woitowicz, during a ceremony in Quantico, Va., posthumously honoring Sgt. Woitowicz, who was killed in Afghanistan on June 7, 2011.

The Marine Corps began on November 10, 1775, formed by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress.  That Revolutionary War resolution called for raising two battalions of marines to accompany the first ships of the colonies’ navy, which the Continental Congress had established only a month earlier.  After the Revolutionary War, the new United States formally reestablished the U.S. Marine Corps in 1798.

Today over 180,000 active-duty Marines along with Reservists perform roles on land, in the air, and on the seas, ranging from combat to embassy security to humanitarian missions and disaster relief.  Marine facilities in Virginia include the Joint Marine and Army Base Myer-Henderson in Arlington; Marine Corps Base Quantico along the Potomac River and Quantico Creek in Prince William County; and the Marine Corps Air Facility at Quantico.

Thanks to Marine Corps veterans and current personnel everywhere for their service and sacrifices, past, present, and future.  We close with about 30 seconds of music, first from “The Marines Hymn,” and second from “Semper Fidelis,” the official march of the Marines, composed by John Phillip Sousa in 1888; both are played here by the U.S. Marine Band.

MUSIC - ~ 33 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The opening comments were excerpted from the following two videos available through the Defense Video and Imagery Distribution System—Marines, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/unit/DMA-M:
*“Marine Week Opening Ceremony—Detroit,” September 6, 2017 (32 min./29 sec.), online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/548611/marine-week-opening-ceremony-detroit; and
*“Silver Star—Sgt. William J. Woitowicz/Interview with mother Rosemary Woitowicz,” April 28, 2012, in Quantico, Va. (2 min./15 sec.), online at https://www.dvidshub.net/video/142843/silver-star-sgt-william-j-woitowicz-moms-interview.

“The Marines Hymn,” by the U.S. Marine Band, was accessed online at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/About/Library-and-Archives/The-Marines-Hymn/, 11/7/18.

“Semper Fidelis,” by the U.S. Marine Band, was accessed online at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/Audio-Resources/The-Complete-Marches-of-John-Philip-Sousa/Semper-Fidelis-March/, 11/9/18.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

PHOTOS

A U.S. Marine ramp marshal guiding a landing craft into USS Iwo Jima at Trondheim, Norway, on November 9, 2018, as part of NATO exercises. Public domain photo by Marine Lance Cpl. Margaret Gale, accessed online at https://www.marines.mil/Photos.aspx?igphoto=2002061903, 11/12/18.


A U.S. Marine during Water Survival Training on Camp Foster, Okinawa, Japan, November 7, 2018. Public domain photo by Marine Lance Cpl. Krysten Gomez, accessed online at https://www.marines.mil/Photos/igphoto/2002060951/, 11/12/18.


A U.S. Marine marksmanship instructor (center) during firearms training on Parris Island, S.C., June 6, 2018. Public domain photo by Marine Sgt. Dana Beesley, accessed online at https://www.marines.mil/Photos/igphoto/2001948140, 11/12/18.


A U.S. Marine aircraft mechanic performing maintenance on an F-35 Lightning II during exercises among the Marines, Air Force, and Navy at Camp Douglas in Wisconsin on August 13, 2018. Public domain photo by Marine Sgt. David Bickel, accessed online at https://www.marines.mil/Photos/igphoto/2001953986/, 11/12/18.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT U.S. MARINE BASE QUANTICO IN PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, VA.

Excerpted from U.S. Marine Corps Base Quantico, “History,” online at https://www.quantico.marines.mil/About/History/.

“[During the Revolutionary War], American, British, and French armies used nearby roads to quickly move from one battlefield to another. During the Civil War, Confederate cannons blockaded Union traffic on the Potomac from the banks of the Quantico area.  By the 1880s, the land Quantico resides on had been acquired by speculators, who would sell it to the Corps in 1917.

“The Commandant of the Marine Corps established Marine Barracks Quantico on May 14, 1917. Thousands would be trained in Quantico during World War I…. In 1920, Marine Corps Schools was founded….

“Prospects of a Pacific war in the 1920s showed a need for revolutionary new tactics and hardware. The techniques of amphibious warfare were conceived, and perfected, in Quantico.  Marines of the predecessor to today’s Marine Corps Systems Command designed the equipment, which ensured successful future amphibious operations.  Quantico aviators also developed close-air support tactics to aid Marines on the ground. …

“The tactical units which would carry out the new amphibious operations became the Fleet Marine Force (FMF) in 1935. …When the headquarters of the FMF left in 1941, Quantico’s main task became the education of individual Marines, rather than the large unit training it had conducted in the past. …

“In 1947, Quantico Marines conceived of carrying troops from ship-to-shore by helicopter and formed a special squadron to test the idea: Marine Helicopter Squadron-1, commonly referred to now as HMX-1. …More recently, Quantico played a large part in the development of vertical and/or short take-off and landing (or V/STOL) aircraft and amphibious assault ships.   Quantico’s small, but vital, air facility and HMX-1 continue to aid in development, training, and education, as well as their most visible duty, support of the U.S. president.

“On Jan. 1, 1968, the base was re-designated the Marine Corps Development and Education Command (MCDEC). … On Nov. 10, 1987, the Marine Corps transitioned the Development and Education Command into the Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC), cementing Quantico’s central role in developing concepts, plans, doctrine, training and equipment for the 21st-century Marine Corps….

“Marine Corps University was also established in 1989 to provide the structure and policy for professional military education Corps-wide. …

“The 1990s were a time of great growth for Quantico.  The Marine Corps Research, Development and Acquisition Command, the precursor to today’s Marine Corps Systems Command, began moving to Quantico in 1990.   A decade later, MCSC moved to its current location on historic Hospital Point.

“In 1995, the base became home to…the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory.   The lab’s mission is to conduct experimentation in 21st-century warfare….

“…The Department of Defense established the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate in 1997 to provide the military with greater flexibility in dealing with the challenges of Military Operations Other Than War.

“…In 1998, Headquarters Marine Corps moved Manpower and Reserve Affairs (M&RA) and Marine Corps Recruiting Command to Quantico from the Navy Annex in Arlington, Va.  M&RA has administrative responsibility for all issues related to Marines, their families, and quality of life. …

“With so many diverse yet intricately-woven units, it is appropriate that Quantico is called the Crossroads of the Marine Corps. …On Oct. 1, 2015, Marine Corps Base (MCB) Quantico was designated Marine Corps Installations Command-National Capital Region - Marine Corps Base Quantico (MCINCR-MCB Quantico).

“As of 2016, Quantico is home to over 28,000 military, civilian, and contractor personnel.  MCB Quantico also has a large economic impact on the area, adding $4.9 billion to the local economy.  The base offers support to more than 30 federal agencies as well for training exercises year round. …”

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Collin Hoeferlin, “Marines in the Revolutionary War: Defending America Since Day One,” July 10, 2013, online at https://marineparents.com/marinecorps/revolutionary-war-marines.asp.

Council on Foreign Relations, “Demographics of the U.S. Military,” April 24, 2018, online at https://www.cfr.org/article/demographics-us-military.

Defense Visual Information Distribution System, “Media Advisory: MARSOC Marine receives Silver Star (posthumous),” 4/28/12, online at https://www.dvidshub.net/news/87675/media-advisory-marsoc-marine-receives-silver-star-posthumous.

Military.com, “Marine Corps History: The Early Years,” online at https://www.military.com/marine-corps-birthday/marine-corps-history-early-years.html.

Military Bases.com, “Military Bases in Virginia,” online at http://militarybases.com/virginia/.

U.S. Department of Defense, “Today’s Military/Marine Corps,” online at https://www.todaysmilitary.com/joining/marine-corps.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, “Veterans Day,” online at https://www.va.gov/opa/vetsday/.

U.S. Marine Band, main Web page at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/; “History of the Marines’ Hymn,” online at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/About/Library-and-Archives/The-Marines-Hymn/; and “Semper Fidelis,” online at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/Audio-Resources/The-Complete-Marches-of-John-Philip-Sousa/Semper-Fidelis-March/.

U.S. Marine Corps, main Web page at https://www.marines.mil/; “Marine Corps 101,” online (as PDF) at https://www.marines.mil/Portals/59/Docs/MarineCorps101_2.pdf; “Marine Corps Embassy Security Group,” online at https://www.mcesg.marines.mil/; and “Who We Are: Mission of the Marine Corps,” online at https://www.marines.com/who-we-are/our-purpose.html.

U.S. Marine Corps Base Quantico, online at https://www.quantico.marines.mil/.

U.S. Navy/Naval History and Heritage Command, “Origins of the U.S. Navy,” online at https://www.history.navy.mil/content/history/nhhc/browse-by-topic/heritage/origins-of-the-navy.html.

For More Information about Other U.S. Military Service Branches
U.S Air Force, online at https://www.airforce.com/.

U.S. Army, online at https://www.army.mil/.

U.S. Coast Guard, online at https://www.uscg.mil/.

U.S. Department of Defense/Historical Office, online at https://history.defense.gov/.

U.S. Navy, online at https://www.navy.mil/.

U.S. Navy, “Hampton Roads [Va.] Naval Museum,” online at http://www.history.navy.mil/museums/hrnm/index.html.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Community/Organizations” subject category.

Following are links to previous Veterans Day episodes on U.S. branches of military service.
All five branches – Episode 187, 11/11/13.
Air Force – Episode 341, 11/7/16.
Army – Episode 394, 11/13/17.
Coast Guard – Episode 239, 11/10/14.
Navy – Episode 289, 11/9/15.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

2013 Music SOLs

SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.”

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
6.7 - natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Earth Science Course
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Grades K-6 Civics Theme
2.5 – why U.S. citizens celebrate major holidays, including Veterans Day.

Virginia Studies Course
VS.1 – impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.
VS.9 – how national events affected Virginia and its citizens.

United States History: 1865-to-Present Course
USII.8 – economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world after World War II, , including role of U.S. military.

World Geography Course
WG.2 - how selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth’s surface, including how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.

Virginia and United States History Course
VUS.13 – U.S. foreign policy since World War II, including the role of the military.

Government Course
GOVT. 12 – role of the United States in a changing world, including responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.

Tuesday, November 6, 2018

Episode 445 (11-5-18): Loons Find Winter Harbor in the Chesapeake Region


Click to listen to episode (4:01).

Transcript of audio, notes on the audio, photos, and additional information follow below.

Except as otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 11-2-18.


TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO


From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of November 5, 2018.

SOUND – ~6 sec

This week, that mysterious sound opens a revision of a November 2011 episode about a bird known for its unmistakable wails and yodel-like calls.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds, and see if you can guess this bird. And here’s a hint: even though it doesn’t live on the moon, it’s still LOON-er.

SOUNDS - ~14 sec

If you guessed a Common Loon, you’re right!

The distinctive calls of loons are associated with lakes and other water bodies in Canada and the northern United States, where five species of loons breed.  Virginia’s coastal areas typically provide winter habitat for two species, the Common Loon and the Red-throated Loon.

According to the Chesapeake Bay Program, thousands of Common Loons coming from northern breeding areas arrive in the Chesapeake region by October or November.  As winter approaches, large flocks continue southward to North Carolina’s Outer Banks.  They’ll return in February and March on their migration back to their summer breeding areas.

Unfortunately for Chesapeake area humans hoping to hear loons, the birds aren’t as vocal in winter as they are in summer. But, according to Alice and Robert Lippson in their book, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, “occasionally on a quiet winter night one will hear [Common Loons’] primeval, tremulous yodel.”

Loons are known for their swimming and diving abilities, and they typically go on land only during breeding.   The Common Loon is seen by many as a symbol of wilderness, and the species has been widely studied for its response to water quality, including the effects of acidic precipitation, lead, mercury, and petroleum spills.

For an historic account of some of the Common Loon’s compelling characteristics, let’s turn to an excerpt from John James Audubon’s description of this bird—which he called the Great Northern Diver—in his early 19th Century work, Birds of America. Audubon wrote: “View it as it buoyantly swims over the heaving billows of the Atlantic, or as it glides along deeply immersed…on the placid lake…; calculate, if you can, the speed of its flight, as it shoots across the sky; mark the many plunges it performs in quest of its finny food, or in eluding its enemies; list to the loud and plaintive notes which it issues…and you will not count your labour lost….”

Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs.  And let’s give the last word to another cool sound from the Common Loon.

SOUND - ~ 6 sec

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This episode replaces Virginia Water Radio episode 88, 11-14-11, which has been archived.

The loon sounds were taken from the from “Common Loon” on the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.  The Common Loon sound was also used in Episode 294, 12-14-15.  Another loon recording is available from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/audio/id/57/rec/1, or at http://www.fws.gov/video/sound.htm.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.   More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com.

IMAGES
 
Great Northern Diver, or Loon [Common] (above, top), and Red-throated Loon (above, bottom).  Both images of paintings originally published between 1827 and 1838 by John James Audubon in Birds of America (plates 306 and 202, respectively), as reprinted in 1985 by Abbeville Press, New York.   Photos taken November 5, 2018, from the reprint copy (no. 6 of 350 copies printed in 1985) owned by Special Collections of Virginia Tech Libraries.  Virginia Water Radio thanks Special Collections for permission to photograph their copy and for their assistance.  Information about Birds of America is available from the National Audubon Society,
online at http://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america.

Common Loon on nest.  Photo from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/6145/rec/6.


Common Loon in non-breeding plumage. Image from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Digital Library, online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/28845/rec/19.

EXTRA FACTS ABOUT LOONS

The scientific names of two loon species found commonly around the Chesapeake Bay in winter are as follows:
Common Loon – Gavia immer;
Red-throated Loon – Gavia stellata.

Following is some information on reproduction and feeding by these two species, excerpted from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040001&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17836 (Common Loon) and http://vafwis.org/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040003&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=17836 (Red-throated Loon).

Common Loon

Reproduction: Breeding season is mid-May to early July, with one reproductive period per year and normally two young.  Nests usually on an island less than one hectare in size or on the mainland, near a lake, pond or marsh; the nest is generally within a few feet of water’s edge and with a direct underwater escape route.

Feeding: Dives to catch (not pierce) fish and other aquatic animals; feeds in deeper portions of lakes, ponds, marshes and ocean.

Red-throated Loon

Reproduction: Breeding season is mid-May to mid-July depending upon latitude, with one reproductive period per year and normally two young; however, if the first clutch is lost, there may be a replacement clutch.  Nests on lakes, ponds, marshes, and bogs, near the water’s edge, on sites typically of one to five hectares.   An important factor in nesting distribution is that the nest site have at least two square kilometers of shallow water coastline.  Generally only one nesting pair is found on a given water body unless the water body is large.

Feeding: Dives for prey in aquatic environments; during breeding season prefers to feed in shoreline zones, usually in water less than one meter deep; also feeds in the ocean.

SOURCES

Used for Audio

Audubon Guide to North American Birds, “Common Loon,” online at https://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/common-loon.

John James Audubon, “Great Northern Diver, or Loon [Common],” Plate 306, from Birds of America, accessed from The Audubon Society, online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/great-northern-diver-or-loon. The Red-throated Diver [Red-throated Loon] entry, Plate 202, is online at https://www.audubon.org/birds-of-america/red-throated-diver.

Mary Reid Barrow, “Crazy as a loon” isn't a fair saying for these winter visitors to the Chesapeake Bay, Virginian-Pilot, 1/26/18.

Chesapeake Bay Program, “Common Loon,” https://www.chesapeakebay.net/S=0/fieldguide/critter/common_loon.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. The Common Loon entry is at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Common_Loon/; the Red-throated Loon entry is at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-throated_Loon.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and American Ornithologists’ Union, “Birds of North America Online,” online at http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna (subscription required).

Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006.

Minneapolis [Minn.] Star-Tribune, Nature Notes: Loon is true symbol of Minnesota's lake wilderness, 4/2/15.

Kathy Reshetiloff, Listen for the haunting call of loons on Bay’s frigid winter waters, Bay Journal, 1/8/18.

Kathy Reshetiloff, Chesapeake’s winter visitors include a couple of loons, Bay Journal, 12/8/14.

Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, by St. Martin’s Press, New York, N.Y., 2001.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://vafwis.org/fwis/?Title=VaFWIS+Species+Information+By+Name&vUT=Visitor.  Species information for loons known in Virginia is available at this link.

For More Information about Loons or Other Birds

BirdNote®, a daily broadcast/podcast on birds, online at http://birdnote.org/.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “E-bird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  This program was featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 440, 10-1-18.

Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird.  Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/.

Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth.

Xeno-canto Foundation Web site, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  The site provides bird songs from around the world.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category.

Following are links to some previous episodes on birds found in Virginia in winter.
Episode 90, 11/28/11 – on Tundra Swans.
Episode 138, 11/26/12 – on Snow Geese.
Episode 150, 2/25/13 – on winter birds generally.
Episode 197, 1/20/14 – on Canvasback ducks.
Episode 294, 12/14/15 – on the Audubon Society’s Christmas Bird Count.
Episode 303, 2/15/16 – on Common Goldeneye ducks.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change Theme
2.7 – Weather and seasonal changes affecting plants and animals.
3.8 – Basic patterns and cycles in nature.

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
2.4 – life cycles.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.5 – food webs.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
4.5 – ecosystem interactions and human influences on ecosystem.

Life Science Course
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.
LS.9 – adaptations for particular ecosystems’ biotic and abiotic factors, including characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater environments.
LS.10 – changes over time in ecosystems, communities, and populations, and factors affecting those changes, including climate changes and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11 – relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Earth Science Course
ES.8 – influences by geologic processes and the activities of humans on freshwater resources, including identification of groundwater and major watershed systems in Virginia.
ES.10 – ocean processes, interactions, and policies affecting coastal zones, including Chesapeake Bay.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250 (1-26-15) – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255 (3-2-15) – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282 (9-21-15) – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309 (3-28-16) – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 332 (9-12-16) – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403 (1-15-18) – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404 (1-22-18) – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406 (2-5-18) – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407 (2-12-19) – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.