Monday, March 18, 2019

Episode 464 (3-18-19): Calling All Virginia Chorus Frogs


Click to listen to episode (4:14).

Sections below are the following:
Transcript of Audio
Audio Notes and Acknowledgments
Images
Extra Information
Sources
Related Water Radio Episodes
For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.).


Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 3-15-19.

TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO

From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of March 18, 2019.

SOUNDS – ~4 sec

This week, that raspy call opens an episode about several species of small frogs that share a common group name but differ in sound and distribution.  Have a listen for about 10 seconds to two species recorded simultaneously, and see if you know the name of this frog group.  And here’s a hint: to get the key word, gather a lot of harmonious singers, or skip over a song’s verses.

SOUNDS - ~11 sec

If you guessed chorus frogs, you’re right!  You heard the creaky call of Mountain Chorus Frogs along with the single notes of Spring Peepers, two of seven chorus frog species in Virginia.  The other five are the Little Grass Frog and four more species with “chorus frog” in their name: Brimley’s, New Jersey, Southern, and Upland chorus frogs.  As a group, they’re noted for their choruses of calling males advertising for mates in breeding season.  Those calls vary among the species in pitch, tone, and how quickly sounds are repeated.  The species also differ in their distribution in Virginia: Spring Peepers occur statewide, and Upland Chorus Frogs are found in much of the state, but the other five occupy narrower ranges in the Commonwealth.

The Mountain Chorus Frog, which in Virginia is found primarily in the southwestern corner, is getting special scientific attention in 2019.  Scientists Kevin Hamed, at Virginia Highlands Community College in Abingdon, and Wally Smith, at the University of Virginia’s College at Wise, are leading a project this year to learn more about that species’ distribution.  Collaborating with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, and funded by the Wildlife Foundation of Virginia, they’re inviting other Virginians, especially K-12 students, to look and listen for this species and to submit information on any encounters.  To learn more about the project, or to submit Mountain Chorus Frog observations, go online to vhcc.edu/mtchorusfrog.

Thanks to the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week’s sounds, from A Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Virginia.  We close with a medley of calls from the seven chorus frogs found in Virginia, in alphabetical order. Have a listen for about 20 seconds, and see if you can recall their names.

SOUNDS - ~ 22 sec – Short call segments of Brimley’s Chorus Frog, Little Grass Frog, Mountain Chorus Frog, New Jersey Chorus Frog, Southern Chorus Frog, Spring Peeper, and Upland Chorus Frog.

SHIP’S BELL

Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech’s College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close the show.  In Blacksburg, I’m Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water.

AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The frog sound in this episode were from “The Calls of Virginia Frogs and Toads” CD, copyright 2008 by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries and Lang Elliott/NatureSound Studio, used with permission.  For more information, see http://www.shopdgif.com/product.cfm?uid=1928838&context=&showInactive=N, or contact the Department at P.O. Box 90778, Henrico, VA 23228-0778; phone: (804) 367-1000 (VTDD); e-mail: dgifweb@dgif.virginia.gov.  Lang Elliott’s work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/.

Thanks to the following people for their help with this episode:
Carola Haas, Virginia Tech Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Blacksburg;
John Kleopfer, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond;
Kevin Hamed, Virginia Highlands Community College, Abingdon;
Wally Smith, University of Virginia’s College at Wise.

Click here if you’d like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com.

IMAGES

Poster being used for the Mountain Chorus Frog monitoring initiative being conducted in 2019 by Virginia Highlands Community College, University of Virginia’s College at Wise, and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Poster accessed at http://web.vhcc.edu/mtchorusfrog/index.html, 3/14/19.


A chorus frog (possibly Southern Chorus Frog) in Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge in Virginia. Photo made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov, accessed 3-14-19; specific URL for the photo is https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12030/rec/1.

EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT CHORUS FROGS IN VIRGINIA

Below are Virginia county occurrence maps for the seven chorus frog species found in Virginia, all except Upland Chorus map from the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF), “Wildlife Information,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/, accessed 3/12/19.  Map for Upland Chorus Frog accessed from VDGIF, “Virginia Fish and Wildlife Information Service/Upland Chorus Frog, online at https://vafwis.dgif.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?Menu=_.Occurrence&bova=020018&version=17967.  The maps show the scientific names for each species.















SOURCES

Used for Audio

AmphibiaWeb, https://amphibiaweb.org/index.html.

John D. Kleopfer and Chris S. Hobson, A Guide to the Frogs and Toad of Virginia, Special Publication Number 3, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond, 2011; purchase information available online at https://www.shopdgif.com.

Bernard S. Martof, et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1980.

J.C. Mitchell and K.K. Reay, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Virginia, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries/Richmond (1999); available online (as a PDF) at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/atlases/mitchell-atlas.pdf, courtesy of the Virginia Herpetological Society.  (Herpetology refers to the study of amphibians and reptiles.)

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Wildlife Information,” online at https://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/.  This site has summaries of characteristics, distribution, and foods for a list of species.  The summary information for the seven chorus frogs found in Virginia is at the following links:
Brimley’s Chorus Frog;
Little Grass Frog;
Mountain Chorus Frog;
New Jersey Chorus Frog;
Southern Chorus Frog;
Spring Peeper;
Upland Chorus Frog.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at http://www.vafwis.org/fwis/?Menu=Home.Species+Information. This site has detailed information on life history, distribution, habitat, and other aspects of species. The detailed information for the seven chorus frogs found in Virginia is at the following links:
Brimley’s Chorus Frog;
Little Grass Frog;
Mountain Chorus Frog;
New Jersey Chorus Frog;
Spring Peeper;
Upland Chorus Frog.

Virginia Herpetological Society, “Frogs and Toads of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/frogs_and_toads_of_virginia.htm.

Virginia Highlands Community College and the University of Virginia’s College at Wise, “Mountain Chorus Frog,” online at http://web.vhcc.edu/mtchorusfrog/index.html.  This is the Web site for the Mountain Chorus Frog monitoring initiative being under taken by these two colleges and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.

For More Information about Frogs or Other Amphibians

Donna Morelli, Catch the spring action at a vernal pool near you, Bay Journal, 2/8/18.  This article on amphibian breeding in spring temporary pools, known as “vernal pools,” includes a list of local parks and other areas in the Bay watershed areas of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania that sponsor amphibian monitoring or viewing events.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative, online at https://armi.usgs.gov/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia Frog and Toad Calling Survey,” online at http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/frogsurvey/; part of the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program, online at https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/naamp/.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, “Virginia is for Frogs” Web site, online at http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/wildlife/virginia-is-for-frogs/.

RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES

All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Amphibians” subject category.

The Spring Peeper was featured in Episode 105, 4-2-12.

A monitoring initiative for the Eastern Spadefoot was featured in Episode 357, 2-27-17.

The Mountain Chorus Frog’s call was also part of Episode 408, 2-19-18.

FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION

The episode—the audio, extra information, or sources—may help with the following Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs).

2010 Science SOLs

Grades K-6 Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic Theme

1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 – Gathering and analyzing data. 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.1 all also include “Current applications to reinforce science concepts.”

Grades K-6 Earth Resources Theme
4.9 – Va. natural resources, including watersheds, water resources, and organisms.
6.9 – public policy decisions related to the environment (including resource management and conservation, land use decision, hazard mitigation, cost/benefit assessments).

Grades K-6 Life Processes Theme
1.5 – animals’ basic needs and distinguishing characteristics.
2.4 – life cycles.
3.4 – behavioral and physiological adaptations.

Grades K-6 Living Systems Theme
2.5 – living things as part of a system, including habitats.
3.6 – ecosystems, communities, populations, shared resources.
6.7 – natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems; Va. watersheds, water bodies, and wetlands; health and safety issues; and water monitoring.

Life Science Course
LS.1 – understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science, including current applications to reinforce science concepts.
LS.4 – organisms’ classification based on features.
LS.8 – community and population interactions, including food webs, niches, symbiotic relationships.

Biology Course
BIO.1 – current applications to reinforce science concepts.
BIO.6 – bases for modern classification systems, including structures, biochemistry, and developmental stages.
BIO.8 – dynamic equilibria and interactions within populations, communities, and ecosystems; including nutrient cycling, succession, effects of natural events and human activities, and analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

2015 Social Studies SOLs

Civics and Economics Course
CE.7 – government at the state level.
CE.10 – public policy at local, state, and national levels.

Government Course
GOVT.8 – state and local government organization and powers.
GOVT.9 – public policy process at local, state, and national levels.

Virginia’s SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/.

Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.
Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.
Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.
Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.
Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade.
Episode 403, 1-15-18 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.
Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade.
Episode 406, 2-5-18 – on ice on rivers, for middle school.
Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school.